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T is the design of this work to 
open an honest page of the 
history of the church of Rome. 
It makes no attempt to con- 
ceal the deformity, or excuse 
the wrong which that history 
discloses. If Romanism is worth knowing 
at all, it is worth knowing as it is. If the 
voice of the past utters any lesson, it should 
be fully stated and fairly learned. The 
editor does not possess, and therefore has 
not practised upon, that false liberality 
which shrinks from calling things by their 
right names. Truth is good enough and 
kind enough for him ; and if the faithful 
recital of the deeds of Rome pain the ear 
and shock the heart, it can not be the fault 
of him who makes it, but of the system 
whose records constitute the revolting de- 
tails. We desire to create a salutary dread 
of popery, by showing how naturally and 
inevitably it leads to cruelty, intolerance, 
and superstition. Such has always been 
its history, and, from its very nature, al- 
ways will be. The assumptions and prin- 
ciples of the system render persecution 
unavoidable. The idea that the church is 
infallible, and that there can be no salva- 
tion out of her, almost sanctifies the perse- 
cution of what she esteems heresy, and 
turns the cruelties and bloodshed, which 
may be requisite to suppress it, to guard 
the church from supposed corruption, into 
positive virtue and benevolence. Thus the 
purest and most compassionate, under the 
influence of the system, are equally liable 
to practise upon the revolting principle, as 
the ambitious or the cruel. Our design is 
to illustrate this truth by showing that, } 


through all the periods of her history, per- 
secution has been the doctrine and prac- 
tice of the church, as well those of a mild 
as of an inhuman temper ; it is an unalter- 
able and essential feature of popery, which 
no change or modification can destroy, and 
no circumstances for a time suppress. We 
shall be happy if the sad and mournful tale 
we have to tell shall produce a conviction 
of this truth. 

The aspect of the times both favor and 
demand a general and thorough discussion 
of the character and claims of popery. It 
is no longer a question of speculation or 
theory. The encroachments which popery 
has made upon every department of society, 
and the position of influence, respectability, 
and force, which it is fast assuming, render 
it fearfully practical. It has become the 
great question of the age, and whatever 
may be our reluctance to enter upon it, it 
can no longer be avoided. At such a time, 
it is the belief of the editor, that a work, 
presenting the system in the form and as- I 
pect of impartial history, will be both ac- i 
ceptable and useful. i 

. The work is a diligent and laborious i 
compilation of Christian Martyrology, from 5 
the earliest period to the present time. / 
Access has been had to a great variety of \ 
materials, and the editor's aim has been to ? 
select and present, in a succinct and striking l 
form, the principal instances of persecution ' 
and cruelty practised by the Romish church. \ 
The work will contain many facts and il- j 
lustrations which have never appeared be- I 
fore, and will, when completed, form a \ 
complete and accurate portraiture of Rome < 
as it was and Rome as it it. Great ex- | 




pense and care have been incurred to em-^ and its encroachments, the editor will think 
hellish it with engravings, whicn will often > his toil well expended, 
be found to carry as striking a lesson, and | In the following pages, we have aimed 
as forcible an idea, as any des'^-iption could j to observe a spirit of candor, and have not 
do. It is the result of much labor and care, ; recorded a single word too highly colored 
and if it shall accomplish something tow- > for sober truth. We have aimed to give a 
ard making known the great mystery of '> faithful history of wicked acts — acts which 
iniquity, and of guarding against its wiles \ every honest papist in his heart condemns. 

Our work's begun ! we'll trace through each sad stage 

The bloody bigotry of every age ; 

And with truth's pencil paint to all mankind, 

How superstition clouds the human mind; 

While popish errors mount on reason's throne. 

And war with all opinions but their own ; 

Then common sense, and charity, and truth. 

Without regard to sex, to age, or youth, 

Are sacrificed at prejudice's shrine. 

While pampered priests on cruelties refine. 

What instruments by bigot zeal are used ! 

How grossly human nature is abused. 

The rack, exhausted patience to control. 

The ensanguined dagger, and the poisoned bowl; 

The bloody sword, bestained with pious gore ; 

The axe with martyrs' crimson covered o'er; 

The boiling caldron, where the just expired ; 

The flaming pile, by popish malice fired; 

The bending gibbet, innocence to bear; 

The red-hot pincers, harmless flesh to tear; 

The precipice, from whence the victim's thrown; 

The famined death, immured in walls of stone; 

Fierce bulls, to toss the object into air; 

Sharp dogs to worry, and wild beasts to tear; 

The dreadful pits, where dangerous serpents lurk. 

To finish inhumanity's great work; 

The melted draughts of lead, the thorny crown ; 

The stones to bruise, the rapid stream to drown; 

The slings to dislocate, the bloody knife. 

That by incision drains the sap of life; 

Slow_^res to broil, and dry pans to destroy; 

With other arts that popish fiends employ : 

All, all the Romish bigotry disclose. 

And bid you such a bloody faith oppose ; 

A faith vindictive, holding endless strife 

With Liberty, Compassion, Truth, and Life. 



^ Introduction page 5 

I Persecutions in the first Ages of the World 1 ] 

I Life of Jesus Christ, with his Sufferings and Martyrdom 13 

> Lives, Sufferings, and Martyrdom, of the Apostles 15 

] The First Primitive Persecutions, under Nero 19 

t The Second Primitive Persecutions, under Domitian 23 

I The Third Primitive Persecutions, under the Roman Emperors 25 

? The Fourth Primitive Persecutions, under the Roman Emperors 27 

> The Fifth Primitive Persecutions, under the Roman Emperors 34 

) The Sixth Primitive Persecutions, under the Roman Emperors 36 

I The Seventh Primitive Persecutions, under the Roman Emperors 39 

'• The Eighth Primitive Persecutions, under the Roman Emperors 42 

i The Ninth Primitive Persecutions, under the Roman Emperors 47 

', The Tenth Primitive Persecutions, under the Roman Emperors 50 

S The Persecutions against the Christians of Persia 63 

^ The Persecutions under the Arian Heretics ■ 65 

> The Persecutions under Julian the Apostate 68 

'/ The Persecutions of the Christians by the Goths, etc 74 

' The Persecutions under the Arian Vandals 77 

I Persecutions from the Sixth to the Tenth Centuries 80 

I Persecutions in the Eleventh Century 89 

'f Horrible Massacre in France, A. D. 1572 94 

i The Siege of Sancerre 102 

\ Persecutions of the Waldenses, in the Valleys of Piedmont 104 

\ Further Persecutions in the Valleys of Piedmont 113 

', More Persecutions in the Valleys of Piedmont 115 

I Persecutions in Germany 117 

Persecutions in Lithuania 120 

Persecutions in Poland — Destruction of the City of Lesna 124 

Rise and Progress of the Inquisition in Spain and Portugal t 127 

The Inquisition of Spain and Portugal 141 

The Lives of Doctor ^gidio, Doctor Constantine, Nicholas Burton, and William Gardener.. 147 

The Persecutions in Italy 153 

The first Persecutions under the Papacy in Italy 154 

The Persecutions in Calabria 156 

Individuals martyred in different parts of Italy 158 

The Persecutions ©f the Marquisate of Saluces 163 



The Persecutions in the Valtoline page 164 

A Protestant Minister torn in Pieces by Dojjs 165 

Persecutions in Bohemia 166 

Persecutions in Bohemia, after the High Court of Reformers .... 173 

General Persecutions in Germany 174 

Persecutions in England during the Reign of Henry IV 176 > 

Hugh Latimer, Bishop of Worcester 18] < 

Nicholas Ridley, Bishop of London 187 \ 

Thomas Cranmer, the first Protestant Archbishop of Canterbury 190 ^ 

Persecutions in England during the Reign of Queen Mary 199 ; 

Persecutions in Scotland during the Reign of Henry VHI 212 > 

The Life, Sufferings, and Martyrdom, of George Wishart 220 ] 

Persecutions of Prgtestants in Ireland — The Irish Massacre 229 ;; 

Popish Cruelties in Mexico and South America 242 ; 

Judgments of God on Persecutors 250 '/ 




MONG primitive persecu- 
tions of an individual na- 
ture, we may reckon that 
of Abel, who was per- 
secuted and slain by his 
brother Cain ; the perse- 
cution of the righteous Noah by the ac- 
cursed Ham, his son ; the persecution of 
Lot at Sodom, and that of Joseph by his 

In these early ages, the first general per- 
secutions may be deemed that of the chil- 
dren of Israel by Pharaoh. This tyrant 
not only afflicted both sexes of all ages, by 
means of the most cruel task-masters, but 
even ordered the new born infants of the 
Hebrew women to be muidered. He was, 
however, punished for his persecutions ; 
first by ten dreadful plagues, and afterward 
by being swallowed up in the Red sea, 
with all his host. 

The children of Israel, after being freed 
from bondage, were successively per- 
secuted by the Philistines, Ammonites, 
Egyptians, Ethiopians, Arabians, and As- 
syrians ; and many of the prophets and 
chosen of God were persecuted by several 
of the kings of Judah and Israel. 

The three righteous children were thrown 
into the fiery furnace by Nebuchadnezzar ; 
Daniel was cast into the lion's den by order 
of Darius ; and Mordecai was persecuted 
by the malicious Haman : but these were ; 

all respectively saved by the Almighty, 
and their persecutors punished for their 

The Jews were persecuted by the neigh- 
boring idolaters during the lime of their 
building and fortifying Jerusalem, till that 
great work was finished by the care of 
Nehemiah ; but after its completion they 
were frequently disturbed by the Persians, 
and the successors of Alexander the Great, , 
though that monarch himself had granted 
the most unlimited favors. 

But a little more than a century and a 
half before the birth of Christ, Antiochus 
seized upon and sacked the city of Jerusa- 
lem, plundered the temple, and murdered 
many of the Jews who refused to conform 
to his idolatry, by scourging, strangling, 
crucifying, and stifling them, and by closing 
up the mouths of the caves to which they 
fled for shelter. 

Antiochus and his idolatrous tormentors 
were, however, at length bravely opposed 
by Matthias, a priest, and his valiant sons, 
the principal of whom was Judas Macca- 
beus. This able commander, Judas, with 
his brave brothers, inspired the dispirited 
Jews with new courage, defeated the gene- 
rals of Ar nochus, freed their country from 
bondage, and afterward turned their arms 
against the Edomites and Ammonites, over 
whom they were equally successful. 

At l§ngtj;i ^ntioqhus died a terrible death. 



his flesh having been for some time before 
quite putrid, and producing maggots, so 
that he became loathsome to himself, and 
nauseous to all about him. His succes- 
sors, however, continued their enmity to 
the Jews ; but they were opposed, with 
various success, by the Maccabees. 

The Jews now entered into a treaty 
offensive and defensive with the Romans ; 
but soon after lost their worthy champion, 
Judas Maccabeus, who was slain in a bloody 
battle fought with the Greeks, under the 
command of their general, Bacchides. 

Antiochus Epiphanes, now reigning in 
Syria, and having some success against the 
Jews, went to Jerusalem, where he ordered 
Eleazer the priest to be put to death in the 
most cruel manner, for refusing to eat 
swine's flesh. Then seizing on a family 
of Maccabees, consisting of a matron named 
Salamona, and her seven sons, he carried 
them all to Antioch. Here he would fain 
have persuaded them to embrace his idol- 
atry, which they nobly and unanimously 
refusing, he ordered them all to be put to 

Maccabeus, the eldest, was accordingly 
stripped, stretched on the rack, and severely 
beaten. He was next fastened to a wheel, 
and weights hung to his feet till his sinews 
cracked. Afterward his tormenters threw 
him into a fire till he was dreadfully scorch- 
ed ; then they drew him out, cut out his 
tongue, and put him into a frying-pan, with 
a slow fire under it, till he died. As long 
as he had life, and power of expression, 
under these exquisite torments, he fervently 
called upon God, and exhorted his brothers 
to a similar perseverance. 

After the second son had his hands fast- 
ened with chains, with which he was hung 
up, his skin was flayed off from the crown 
of his head to his knees. He was then 

cast to a leopard, but the beast refusing to 
touch him, he was suffered to languish till 
he expired with the excruciating pain and 
loss of blood. 

Machir, the third son, was bound to a 
globe till his bones were all dislocated ; 
his head and face were then flayed, his 
tongue cut out, and being cast into a pan 
he was fried to death. 

Judas, the fourth son, after having his 
tongue cut out, was beat with ropes, and 
then racked upon a wheel. 

Achas, the fifth son, was pounded in a 
large brazen mortar. 

Aieth, the sixth son, was fastened to a 
pillar with his head downward, slowly 
roasted by a fire kindled at some distance ; 
his tongue was then cut out, and he was 
lastly fried in a pan. 

Jacob, the seventh and youngest son, 
had his arms cut off, his tongue plucked 
out, and was then fried to death. 

They all bore their fate with the same 
intrepidity as their elder brother, and called 
upon the Almighty to receive them into 

Salamona, the mother, after having in a 
manner died seven deaths in beholding the 
martyrdom of her children, was, by the 
tyrant's order, stripped naked, severely 
scourged, her breasts cut off, and her body 
fried till she expired. 

The tyrant who inflicted these cruelties 
was afterward struck with madness ; and 
then his flesh became corrupted, and his 
bowels mortified, which put an end to his 
wicked life. 

" Thus the afBictPfl innocent expire, 
Calm in their sufftTiiiRs, clieerfiil in the fire ; 
Kxpecting, for a momentary pain, 
Eternal joys, and everlasting gain. 
While the the tyrannic and the wicked find, 
A tortured body, and tormented mind ; 
And when their vile atrocious lives they close, 
A hell of horrors, and eternal woes." 




AVING briefly brought 
down accounts of the 
earliest persecutions, 
from the remotest pe- 
riods to the time of our 
Savior's birth, we shall 
now enter into the most important point of ; 
human and divine history. But it is neces- 
sary, ere we engage in delineating the 
birth, actions, sufferings and death of the 
Redeemer of the World, to mention 
some circumstances, which are either in- 
troductory to our subject, or should be pre- 
liminary to it, in order not to break in upon 
the uniformity of the narrative. 

Herod the Great being informed that a 
king of the Jews should be born in Bethle- 
hem, sent a number of troops to destroy all 
the children under two years of age, in 
that place, and throughout the neighboring 
coast. By this cruel order he hoped to 
have destroyed the child Jesus ; but in this 
he was not only disappointed, but punished 
with such a spirit of lunacy, that he slew 
his own wife, children, relations, friends, 
&c. He was afterward visited by the 
most grievous maladies, particularly an in- 
ward burning, slow, but unremitting ; an 
uncommon appetite, continually craving, 
but ever unsatisfied ; a cramp that racked 
him with pain ; a flux that reduced him to 
weakness ; worms that bred in him and 
gnawed him ; vermin that engendered 
about him and devoured him ; a general 
putrefaction that consumed him ; and in ; 
fine, all those complicated disorders which ; 
could possibly render him hateful to him- ; 
self, and odious to others. His torments ; 
at length became so intolerable, that not 
having either the comforts of religion or 
the support of a good conscience to sus- 
tain his sinking spirits, he attempted to lay 
violent hands upon himself. Being pre- 
vented in this attempt by those about him, 

he at last sunk under the oppression of his 
afflictions, and expired in the most miser- 
able manner. 

Herod the Less having mairied the 
daughter of the king of Arabia, repudiated 
her, and espoused Herodias, his brother 
Philip's wife ; for which marriage, full of 
incest and adultery, John the Baptist boldly 
and severely reproved him. This freedom 
greatly incensed Herodias, for Ave are in- 
formed by St. Matthew, in the xivth chap- 
ter of his gospel, that " When Herod's 
birthday teas kept, the daughter of Herodias 
danced before them, and pleased Herod : 
ivhereiipo7i he promised, with an oath, to give 
her whatsoever she would ask. And she, 
being before instructed of her mother, said, 
Git)e tne here John Baptist''s head in a char- 
ger. And the king was sorry ; nevertheless, 
for the oath^s sake, and them which sat with 
him at meat, he commanded it to be given, 
her. And he sent and beheaded John in the 
prison. And his head was brought in a, 
charger and given to the damsel : and she 
brought it to her mother." The authors of 
this cruelty were, however, all severely 
punished ; for the daughter of Herodias 
being afterv/ard dancing upon the ice, it 
broke, and she falling in, had her head sev- 
ered from her body by its again closing ; and 
Herod, and the incestuous adulteress He- 
rodiaSj falling under the displeasure of the 
Roman emperor, were banished, and died 
miserably in exile. This martyr's nativity 
happened on the 24th of June. 

But to proceed to the history of our 
blessed Redeemer. In the reign of Herod 
the Great already mentioned, the angel 
Gabriel was sent by the Almighty to a 
holy virgin, called Mary. This maiden 
was betrothed to a carpenter, named Jo- 
seph, who resided at Nazareth, a city of 
Galilee, but the consummation had not 
then taken place ; for it was the custom of 



J the eastern nations to contract persons of 

\ each sex from their childhood. 

I The angel informed Mary how highly 

< she was favored of God, and that she 
5 should conceive a son by the Holy Spirit, 
\ which happened accordingly ; for travel- 
\ ling to Bethlehem to pay the capitation-tax 
\ then levied, the town was so crowded that 
I they could only get lodgings in a stable, 
i where the holy virgin brought forth our 
j blessed Redeemer, which was announced 
1 to the world by a star and an angel : the 
j wise men of the east saw the first, and the 
> shepherds the latter. After Jesus had been 
' circumcised, he was presented in the tem- 
\ pie by the holy virgin ; upon which occa- 
i sion Simeon broke out into the celebrated 

< words : " Lord, nou) lettest thou thy servant 
depart in peace according to thy word, for 
mine eyes have seen thy salvation." — Luke 
ii. 29, 30. 

Jesus, in his youth, disputed with the 
most learned doctors in the temple, and 
\ soon after was baptized at the river Jordan 
I by John, when the Holy Ghost descended 
\ upon him in the form of a dove, and a 
] voice was heard audibly to pronounce these 

< words: " This is my beloved son, in whom 
\ I am well pleased." 

\ Christ afterward fasted forty days and 
{ nights in the wilderness, when he was 
I temi)ted by the devil, but resisted all his 
\ alluremer:ts. He then performed his first 
' miracle at Cana, in Galilee ; he likewise 
I convt-rscd v.itli the good Samaritan, and 
'< rosiond to life a nobleman's dead child. 
I Travelling tlirough Galilee he restored the 
I blind to sight, cured the lame, tht; lepers, 
j &,c 
i Among other benevolent actions, at the 

< pool of he cured a paralytic man 
; who had been lame thirty-eight years, bid- 
{ ding him take up his bed and walk; and he 
J al'ierwiird cured a nian whojsc right hand 
I was sliniiik up and withered. Having 
\ chosen his twelve apostles, he preached 
I the cclehraied sermon upon the Mount ; 
I after which he performed several miracles, 
/ particularly the feeding of the nmllitude, 

and the walking on the surface of the 

At the time of the passover Jesus sup- 
ped with his disciples ; informed them 
that one of them would betray him and 
another deny him, and preached his fare- 
well sermon. Soon after, a multitude of 
armed men surrounded him, and Judas 
kissed him, in order to point him out to 
the soldiers who did not know him person- 
ally. In the scuffle occasioned by the ap- 
prehending of Jesus, Peter cut off the ear 
of Malchus, the servant of the high-priest, 
for which Jesus reproved him, and healed 
the wound by touching it. Peter and John 
followed Jesus to the house of Annas, 
who, refusing to judge him, sent him bound 
to Caiaphas, where Peter denied Christ, as 
the latter had predicted ; but on Christ's 
reminding him of his perfidy, Peter went 
out and wept bitterly. 

When the council assembled in the 
morning, the Jews mocked Jesus, and the 
elders suborned false witnesses against 
him ; the principal accusatitm against him 
being, that he had said, " / will destroy 
this temple that is made with hands, and 
within three days I will build another, made 
without hands." — Mark xiv. 58. Caiaphas 
then asked him if he was Christ, the son 
of God, or no ; being answered in the af- 
firmative, he was accused of blasphemy, 
and condemned to death by Pontius Pilate, 
the Roman governor, who, though con- 
scious of his innocence, yielded to the so- 
licitation of the Jews, and condemned him 
to be crucified. 

Previous to the crucifixion, the Jews, 
by way of derision, clothed Christ in a 
regal robe, put a crown of thorns upon his 
head, and a reed, for a sceptre, in his 
hand ; they then mocked him, with ironi- 
cal compliments, spit in his face, slapped 
his cheeks, and taking llie reed out of his 
hand, they struck him with it upon the 
head. Pilate would fain have released 
him, but the general cry was " Crucify 
him! crucify Ami .'" which occasioned the 
'■ governor to call for a baain of water, and 



15 < 

having washed his hands, he declared him- 
self innocent of the blood of Christ, whom 
he justly termed a just person. The Jews, 
however said, " Let his blood be upon us 
and our children ;" which wish has mani- 
festly taken place, as they have never since 
been a collected people. 

In leading Christ to the place of cruci- 
fixion, they obliged him to bear the cross, 
which he being imable to sustain, they 
compelled one Simon, a native of Cyrenia, 
to carry the cross the rest of the way. 
Mount Calvary was the place of execution, 
where being arrived, the soldiers offered 
him a mixture of gall and vinegar to drink, 
which he refused. Having stripped him, 
they nailed him to the cross, and crucified 
him between two malefactors. After being 
fastened to the cross, he uttered this benev- 
olent prayer for his enemies, " Father, for- 
give them, for they know not what they 
do." The soldiers who crucified him 
being four in number, now cut his mantle 
to pieces, and divided it between them ; 
but his coat being without seam, they cast 
lots for it. While Christ remained in the 
agonies of death, the Jews mocked him 
and said, " If thou art the Son of God, 
come down from the cross." The chief 

\ priests and scribes also reviled him, and 
said, "He saved others, but can not save 
himself." Indeed, one of the malefactois 
who was crucified with him, cried out anJ 
said, " If you are the Messiah, save your- 
self and us ;" but the other malefactor, 
having the greatest reliance upon Jesus, 
exclaimed, " Lord, remember me when 
thou comest into thy kingdom." To which 
Christ replied, " This day thou shalt be 
with me in Paradise." 

While Christ was upon the cross, the 
earth was covered with darkness, and the 
stars appeared at noonday, which struck \ 
even the Jews with terror. In the midst 
of his tortures, Christ cried out, " My God, 
my God, why hast thou forsaken me !" and 
then expressed a desire to drink, when one 
of the soldiers gave him, upon the point 
of a reed, a sponge dipped in vinegar, 
which, however, Jesus refused. About 
three o'clock in the afternoon he gave up 
the ghost, and at the same time a violent 
earthquake happened, when the rocks were 
rent, the mountains trembled, and the 
graves gave up their dead. These were 
the signal prodigies that attended the death 
of Christ, and such was the mortal end of 
the Redeemer of mankind. 


AINT STEPHEN, the pro- 
to or first martyr, was elect- 
ed, with six others, as a dea- 
con, put of the Lord's sev- 
enty disciples. Stephen 
was an able and successful 
' preacher. The principal persons belong- 
( ing to five Jewish synagogues entered into 
\ many altercations with him ; but he, by 
{ the soundness of his doctrine, and the 
s strength of his arguments, overcame them 
'.^ all, which so much irritated them, that they 
I suborned fa^se witnesses to accuse him of : 

blaspheming God and Moses. Being car- 
ried before the council, he made a noble 
defence, but that so much exasperated his 
judges, that they resolved to condemn him. 
At this instant Stephen saw a vision from 
heaven, of Jesus, in his glorified state, sit- 
ting at the right hand of God. This vision 
so greatly rejoiced him, that he exclaimea 
in raptures, "Behold, I see the heavens 
opened, and the Son of man standing on 
the right hand of God." They then con- 
demned him, and having dragged him out < 
of the city, stoned hirii (o death. On the 




I spot where he was martyred, Eudocia, the 
l empress of the emperor Theodosius, erect- 
i ed a superb church. 

{ The death of Stephen was succeeded ■ 
s by a severe persecution in Jerusalem, in ; 
\ which 2,000 Christians, with Nicar the ; 
', deacon, were martyred ; and many others 
obliged to leave the place. 

lean, was the son of Zebedee, a fisherman, 
the elder brother of St. John, and a rela- 
tion to Christ himself ; for his mother Sa- 
lome was cousin-german to the "Virgin 
Mary. Being one day with his father, 
fishing in the sea of Galilee, he, and his 
brother John were called by our Savior to 
become his disciples. They cheerfully 
obeyed the mandate, and leaving their fa- 
ther, followed Jesus. It is to be observed, 
that Christ placed a greater confidence in 
them than in any other of the apostles, 
Peter excepted. 
I Christ called these brothers Boanerges, 
} or the sons of thunder, on account of their 
\ fiery spirits and impetuous tempers. 
' Herod Agrippa, being made governor of 
^ Judea by the emperor Caligula, raised a 

< persecution against the Christians, and 
} particularly singled out James as an object 
i of revenge. 

^ James, being condemned to death, show- 
ed such an intrepidity of spirit, and con- 

< stancy of mind, that his very accuser was 
'. struck with admiration, and became a con- 
I vert to Christianity. This transition so 
s enraged the people in power, that they 
I likewise condemned him to death; when 
5 James the apostle, and his penitent accu- 
\ ser, were both beheaded on the same day, 
\ and with the same sword. These events 

took place in the year of Christ 44 ; and 
the 25lh of July was fixed by the church for 
the commemoration of this saint's martyr- 

Much about the same period, Timon 
and Parmenas, two of the seven deacons, 
sufl^ered martyrdom ; the former at Cor- 
inth, and the latter at Philippi, in Mace- 

ST. PHILIP. This apostle and martyr 
was born at Bethsaida, in Galilee, and was 
the first called by the name of disciple. 
He was honored with several important 
commissions by Christ, and being deputed 
to preach in Upper Asia, labored very dil- 
igently in his apostleship. He then trav- 
elled into Phrygia, and arriving at Heli- 
opolis, was greatly grieved to find the in- 
habitants so sunk in idolatry as to worship 
a large serpent. St. Philip, however, con- 
verted many of them to Christianity, and 
even procured the death of the serpent. 
This so enraged the magistrates, that they 
committed him to prison, had him severely 
scourged, and afterward crucified. His 
friend, St. Bartholemew, found an oppor- \ 
tunity of taking down the body and bury- \ 
ing it ; for which, however, he was very < 
near suffering the same fate. His martyr- ? 
dom happened eight years after that of St. •, 
James the Great, A. D. 52 ; and his name, \ 
together with that of St. James the Less, I 
is commemorated on the 1st of May. < 

ST. MATTHEW. This evangelist, 
apostle, and martyr, was born at Nazareth 
in Galilee, but resided chiefly at Caper- 
naum, on account of his business, which 
was that of a toll-gatherer, to collect trib- 
ute of such as had occasion to pass the 
sea of Galilee. On being called a.s a dis- 
ciple, he immediately complied, and left 
everything to follow Christ. After the as- 
cension of his master, he continued preach- | 
ing the gospel in Judea about nine years. | 
Designing to leave Judea, in order to go 5 
and preach among the Gentiles, he wrote \ 
his gospel in Hebrew, for the use of the { 
Jewish converts, but it was afterward trans- > 
lated into Greek by St. James the Less, i 
Going to Ethiopia, he ordained preachers, | 
settled churches, and made many converts | 
He then proceeded to Parthia, where he 1 
had the same success ; but returning to 
Ethiopia, he was slain by a halberd in the 
city of Nadabar, about the year of Christ 
60 ; and his festival is kept by the church 
on the 21st day of September. He wa? 
remarkably inoffensive in hig conduct, and 



17 < 

I temperate in his mode of living. Hence 
; we may say, 

\ Well might this great apostle mend the age, 

> Whose life was but a comment on his page. 

i ST. MARK. This evangelist and mar- 
< tyr was born of Jewish parents, of the 
i tribe of Levi. It is imagined that he was 
{ converted to Christianity by St. Peter, 
I whom he served as an amanuensis, and 
I whom he attended in all his travels. Be- 
) mg entreated by the converts at Rome to 
i commit to writing the admirable discourses 
they had heard from St. Peter and him- 
self, this request he complied with, and 
composed his gospel accordingly, in the 
Greek language. He then went to Egypt, 
and constituted a bishopric at Alexandria ; 
afterward he proceeded to Lybia, where he 
made many converts. Returning to Alex- 
andria, some of the Egyptians, exasperated 
at his success, determined on his death. 
To accomplish this they tied his feet, 
dragged him through the streets, left him 
to remain, bruised as he was, in a dungeon 
all night, and the next day burnt his body. 
This happened on the 25th of April, on 
which day the church commemorates his 
martyrdom. His bones were carefully 
gathered up by the Christians, decently 
interred, and afterward removed to Venice, 
where he is considered as the titular saint, 
and patron of the state. 

ST. JAMES THE LESS. This apostle 
and martyr was called so to distinguish 
him from St. James the Great. He was 
the son, by a first wife, of Joseph, the re- 
puted father of Christ. He was, after the 
Lord's ascension, elected bishop of Jeru- 
salem. He wrote his general epistle to all 
Christians, and converts whatever, to sup- 
press a dangerous error then propagating, 
viz. : that " a faith in Christ was alone 
sufficient for salvation, without good 
works." The Jews being, at this time, 
greatly enraged that St. Paul had escaped 
their fury, by appealing to Rome, deter- 
mined to wreak their vengeance on James, 
who was now ninety-four years of age. 
They accordingly threw him down, beat, 

bruised, and stoned him , and then das.ied 
out his brains with a club, such as was used 
by fullers in dressing cloths. His festival, 
togeAer with that of St. Philip, is kept on 
the first of May. 

ST. MATTHIAS. This apostle and 
martyr was called to the apostleship after 
the death of Christ, to supply the vacant 
place of Judas, who had betrayed his mas- 
ter, and was likewise one of the seventy 
disciples. He was martyred at Jerusalem, 
being first stoned, and then beheaded ; and 
the 24th of February is observed for the 
celebration of his festival. 

ST. ANDREW. This apostle and mar- 
tyr was the brother of St. Peter, and 
preached the gospel to many Asiatic na- 
tions. Arriving at Edessa, the governor 
of the country, named Egeas, threatened 
him very hard for preaching against the l 
idols there worshipped. St. Andrew per- | 
sisting in the propagation of his doctrines, ; 
he was ordered to be crucified on a cross, I 
two ends of which were transversely fixed \ 
in the ground. He boldly told his accu- \ 
sers, that he would not have preached the \ 
glory of the cross, had he feared to die on \ 
it. And again, when they came to crucify | 
him, he said that he coveted the cross, and \ 
longed to embrace it. He was fastened , 
to the cross, not with nails but cords, that 
his death might be more lingering. In this \ 
situation he continued two days, preaching ■> 
the greatest part of the time to the people, \ 
and expired on the 30th of November, \ 
which is commemorated as his festival. > 

ST. PETER. This great apostle and | 
martyr was bom at Bethsaida in Galilee, \ 
being the son of Jonah, a fisherman, which \ 
employment St. Peter himself followed. | 
He was persuaded by his brother to turn i 
Christian, when Christ gave him the name 
of Cephas, implying, in the Syriac lan- 
guage, a rock. He was called, at the 
same time as his brother, to be an apostle ; 
gave uncommon proofs of his zeal for the 
service of Christ, and always appeared as 
the principal speaker among the apostles. 
He had, however, the weakness to deny | 




his master, after his apprehension, though 
he defended him at the time ; but the sin- 
cerity of his repentance made an atone- 
ment for the atrociousness of his crime. 

The Jews, after the death of Christ, still 
continued to persecute the Christians, and 
even went so far as to order several of the 
apostles, among whom waa Peter, to be 
scourged. This punishment they bore with 
the greatest fortitude, and rejoiced that 
they were thought worthy to suffer for the 
sake of Christ. 

Herod Agrippa having caused St. James 
the Great to be put to death, and finding 
that it pleased the Jews, resolved, in order 
to ingratiate himself farther with the peo- 
ple, that Peter should fall the next sacri- 
fice to his malice. He was accordingly 
apprehended, and thrown into prison ; but 
an angel of the Lord released him, which 
so enraged Herod, that he ordered the sen- 
tinels who guarded the dungeon in which he 
had been confined, to be put to death. St. 
Peter, after various other miracles, retired 
to Rome, where he defeated all the arti- 
fices, and confounded the magic of Simon, 
the magician, a great favorite of the empe- 
ror Nero. He likewise converted to Chris- 
tianity one of the concubines of that mon- 
arch, which so exasperated the tyrant, that 
he ordered both St. Peter and St. Paul to 
be apprehended. During the time of their 
confinement, they converted two of the cap- 
tains of the guard, and forty-seven other per- 
sons, to Christianity. Having been nine 
months in prison, Peter was brought out 
thence for execution, when, after being se- 
verely scourged, he was crucified with his 
head downward ; which position, however, 
was at his own request. His festival is ob- 
served on June 29, on which day he, as 
well as St. Paul, suffered. His body 
being taken down, embalmed, and buried 
in the Vatican, a church was afterward 
erected on the spot ; but this being de- 
stroyed by the emperor Heliogabalus, the 
body was removed, till the twentieth bishop 
of Rome, called Cornelius, conveyed it 
'again to the Vatican ; afterward Constan- 

tine the Great erected one of the most 
stately churches in the universe over the 
place. Before we quit this article, it is 
requisite to obser-ve, that previous to the 
death of St. Peter, his wife sufl'ered mar- 
tyrdom for the faith of Christ, and was ex- 
horted, when going to be put to death, to 
remember the Lord Jesus. 

ST. PAUL, the apostle and martyr, 
was a Jew of the tribe of Benjamin, born 
at Tarsus, in Cilicia. He was at first a 
great enemy to, and persecutor of the 
Christians ; but after his miraculous con- 
version, he became a strenuous preacher 
of Christ's gospel. At Iconium, St. Paul 
and St. Barnabas were near being stoned to 
death by the enraged Jews, wherefore they 
fled to Lyconia. At Lystra, St. Paill was 
stoned, dragged out of the city, and left for 
dead. He, however, happily revived, and 
escaped to Derbe. At Philippi, Paul and 
Silas were imprisoned and whipped ; and 
both were again persecuted at Thessalon- 
ica. Being afterward taken at Jerusalem, 
he was sent to Cesarea, but appealed to 
Caesar at Rome. Here he continued pris- 
oner at large for two years. Being re- 
leased, he visited the churches of Greece 
and Rome, and preached in France and 
Spain. Returning to Rome, he was again 
apprehended, and, by the order of Nero, 
martyred, by being beheaded. Two days 
are dedicated to the commemoration of this 
apostle ; the one for his conversion, the 
other for his martyrdom ; the first being 
on the 25th of January, and the latter on 
the 29th of June. 

ST. JUDE, the apostle and martyr, the 
brother of James, was commonly called 
Thaddaeus. Being sent to Edessa, he 
wrought many miracles, and made many 
converts, which stirring up the resentment 
of people in power, he was crucified, A. D. 
72 ; and the 28lh of October is, by the 
church, dedicated to his memory. 

ST. BARTHOLOMEW preached in 
several countries, performed many mira- 
cles, and healed various diseases. He 
translated St. Matthew's gospel into the 





Indian language, and propagated it in that 
country ; but at length, the idolaters grow- 
ing impatient with his doctrines, severely 
beat, crucified, and flayed him, and then 
cut off" his head. The anniversary of his 
martyrdom is on the 24th of August. 

ST. THOMAS, as he was called in 
Syriac, but Didymus in Greek, was an 
apostle and martyr. He preached in Par- 
thia and India, where, displeasing the pa- 
gan priests, he was martyred by being 
thrust through with a spear. His death is 
commemorated on the 2 1st of December. 

ST. LUKE, the evangelist and martyr, 
was the author of a most excellent gospel. 
He travelled with St. Paul to Rome, and 
preached to divers barbarous nations, till 
the priests in Greece hanged him on an 
olive-tree. The anniversary of his mar- 
tyrdom is on the 18th of October. 

ST. SIMON, the apostle and martyr, 
was distinguished by the name of Zelotes, 
from his zeal. He preached with great 
success in Mauritania, and other parts of 
Africa, and even in Britain, where, though 
he made many converts, he was crucified 
by the then barbarous inhabitants of that 
island, A. D. 74 ; and the church, joining 
him with St. Jude, commemorates his fes- 
tival on the 28th day of October. 

ST. JOHN. This saint was, at once, a 
prophet, apostle, divine, evangelist, and 
martyr. He is called the beloved disciple, 
and was brother to James the Great. He 

was previously a disciple of John the Bap- | 
list, and afterward not only one of the \ 
twelve apostles, but one of the three to j 
whom Christ communicated the most se- ^ 
cret passages of his life. The churches * 
in Asia founded by St. John were, Smyrna, 
Pergamus, Sardis, Philadelphia, Laodicea, 
and Thyatyra, to whom he directs his book 
of Revelations. Being at Ephesus, he was 
ordered by the emperor Domitian to be 
sent bound to Rome, where he was con- 
demned to be cast into a caldron of boiling 
oil. But here a miracle appeared in his 
favor ; the oil did him no injury, and 
Domitian therefore not being able to put 
him to death, banished him to Patmos to 
work at the mines. He was, however, re- 
called by Nerva, who succeeded Domitian 
after his decease, but was deemed a martyr 
on account of having undergone the mode 
of an execution, though it did not take ef- \ 
feet. He wrote his epistles, gospel, and > 
revelations, all in a difl^erent style, but they > 
are all equally admired. He w'as the only | 
apostle who escaped a violent death ; lived 5 
the longest of any of them, being near 100 ) 
years of age at the time of his death ; and > 
the church commemorates the 27th day of 
December to his memory. 

ST. BARNABAS was a native of Cy- 
prus, but of Jewish parents : the time of 
his death is uncertain, but supposed to be 
about the year of Christ 73 ; and his festi- 
val is kept on the 11th of June. 


HE first persecution, in 5 space of five years, with tolerable credit to 
the primitive ages of | himself, but then gave way to the greatest 
the church, was begun | extravagance of temper, and to the most < 
by that cruel tyrant Nero \ atrocious barbarities. Among other dia- ? 
Domitius, the sixth em- ,^ bolical outrages, he ordered that the city < 
peror of Rome, and A. < of Rome should be set on fire, which was \ 
This monarch reigned, for the 1 done by his cfiicers, guards, and servants, j 



While the city was in flames, he went up 
to the tower of Maecenas, played upon his 
harp, sung the song of the burning of Troy, 
and declared that " he wished the ruin of 
all things before his death." Among the 
noble buildings burnt was the circus, or 
place appropriated to horse-races. It was 
half a mile in length, of an oval form, with 
rows of seats rising above each other, and 
capable of receiving, with ease, upward of 
100,000 spectators. Many other palaces 
and houses were consumed ; and several 
thousands of the people perished in the 
flames, were smothered or buried beneath 
the ruins. 

This dreadM conflagration continued 
nine days ; when Nero, finding that his 
conduct was greatly blamed, and a severe 
odium cast upon him, determined to lay the 
whole upon the Christians, at once to ex- 
cuse himself, and have an opportunity of 
witnessing new cruelties. The barbarities 
exercised upon the Christians, during the 
first persecution, were such as even excited 
the commiseration of the Romans them- 
selves. Nero even refined upon cruelty, 
and contrived all manner of punishments 
for the Christians. In particular, he had 
some sewed up in the skins of wild beasts, 
and then worried by dogs till they expired ; 
and others dressed in shirts made stifl" with 
wax, fixed to axletrees, and set on fire in 
his gardens. This persecution was gene- 
ral throughout the whole Roman empire ; 
but it rather increased than diminished the 
spirit of Christianity. Besides Paul and 
Peter, many others, whose names have not 
been transmitted to posterity, and who were 
some of their converts and followers, suf- 
fered ; the facts concerning the principal 
of whom we shall proceed to describe. 

Erastus, the chamberlain of Corinth, 
was converted by Paul, and determined to 
follow the fortune of that apostle. For this 
reason he resigned his office, and accom- 
panied Paul in his voyages and travels, till 
the latter left him at Macedonia, where he 
was first made bishop of that province by the 
Christians ; and afterward suflTered raartyr- 

, dom, being tortured to death by the pagans 
at Philippi. 

Aristarchus, the Macedonian, was born 
in Thessalonica, and being converted by 
Paul, became his constant companion. He 
was with that apostle at Ephesus, during 
a commotion raised in that city by De- 
metrius, the silversmith. They both re- 
ceived several insults upon the occasion 
from the populace, which they bore with 
Christian patience, giving good advice in 
return for ill-usage, and not in the least re- 
senting any indignity. Aristarchus accom- 
panied Paul from Ephesus into Greece, 
where they were very successful in prop- 
agating the gospel, and bringing over many 
to Christianity. Having left Greece, they 
traversed a great part of Asia, and made a 
considerable stay in Judea, where they 
were very successful in making converts. 
After this, Aristarchus went, with Paul to 
Rome, where he suff'ered the same fate as 
the apostle ; for, being seized as a Christian, 
he was beheaded by the command of Nero. 
Trophimus, an Ephesian by birth, and a 
') Gentile by religion, was converted by Paul 
? to the Christian faith, and accompanied his 

[master in his travels. Upon his account 
the Jews raised a great disturbance in the 
temple at Jerusalem, the last time Paul was 

\ in that city. They even attempted to mur- 
der the apostle, for having introduced him, 
being a Greek, into the temple. Lysias, 
the captain of the guard, however, inter- 
posed, and rescued Paul by force from their 
hands. On quitting Jerusalem, Trophinms 
attended his master first to Rome, and then 
to Spain ; passing through Gaul, the apos- 
tle made him bishop of that province, and 
left him in the city of Aries. About a 
twelvemonth after, he paid a visit to Paul 
in Asia, and went with him, for the last 
time, to Rome, where he was witness to 
his martyrdom, which was but the forerun- 
ner of his own ; for, being soon after seized 

[ on account of his faith, he was beheaded 

< by order of Nero. 

\ Joseph, commonly called Barsabas, was 

i a primitive disciple, and is usually deemed 





23 ) 

* one of the seventy. He was, in some^le- 
l gree, related to the Redeemer ; and he be- 
I came a candidate, together with Matthias, 
I to fill the office of Judas Iscariot. The 
I ecclesiastical writings make very little other 
\ mention of him ; but Papias informs us, 
'( that he was once compelled to drink poison, 
I which did not do him the least injury, 
( agreeably to the promise of the Lord, to 
> those who believe in him. He was, during 
I his life, a zealous preacher of the gospel ; 
and having received many insults from the 

.Tews, at length obtained martyrdom, being 
murdered by the pagans in .ludea. 

Ananias, bishop of Damascus, is cele- 
brated in the sacred writings for being the 
person who cured Paul of the blindness 
with which he was struck by the amazing 
brightness which happened at his conver- 
sion. He was one of the seventy, and was 
martyred in the city of Damascus. After 
his death, a Christian church was built 
over the place of his burial, which is now 
converted into a Turkish mosque. 



HE emperor Domitian was 
naturally of a cruel dispo- 
sition : he first slew his 
brother, and then raised 
the second persecution 
against the Christians. 
His rage was such, that he even put to 
death some of the Roman senators ; some 
through malice, and others to confiscate 
their estates ; and he then commanded 
all the lineage of David to be extirpa- 
ted. Two Christians were brought be- 
fore him, accused of being of the tribe 
of Judah, and line of David ; but from their 
answers, he despised them as idiots, and 
dismissed them accordingly. He, howev- 
er, was determined to be more secure upon 
other occasions ; for he took away^e 
property of many Christians, put severaTto 
death, and banished others. 

Among the numerous martyrs that suf- 
fered during this persecution, was Simeon, 
bishop of Jerusalem, who was crucified ; 
and John, who was boiled in oil, and after- 
ward banished to Patmos. Flavia, the 
daughter of a Roman senator, was likewise 
banished to Pontus ; and a law was made, 
that " no Christian, once brought before 
their tribunal, should be exempted from 
punishment without renouncing his reli- 

During this reign, there were a vaiiety 
of tales composed, in order to injure the 
Christians. Among other falsehoods, they 
were accused of indecent nightly meetings : 
of a rebellious, turbulent spirit ; of being 
inimical to the Roman empire ; of mur- 
dering their children, and even of being 
cannibals ; and at this time, such was the 
infatuation of the pagans, that if famine, 
pestilence, or earthquakes, afflicted any of 
the Roman provinces, these calamities were 
said to be manifestations of the Divine 
wrath occasioned by their impieties. These 
persecutions increased the number of in- 
formers ; and many, for the sake of gain, 
swore away the lives of the innocent. 
When any Christians were brought before 
the magistrates, a test oath was proposed, 
when, if they refused it, death was pro- 
nounced against them ; and if they con- 
fessed themselves Christians, the sentence 
I was the same. The various kinds of pun- 
? ishments and inflicted cruelties, were, im- 
\ prisonment, racking, searing, broiling, bum- 
I ing, scourging, stoning, hanging, and wor- 
( rying. Many were torn piecemeal with 
' red-hot pincers, and others were thrown 
I upon the horns of wild bulls. After hav- 
' ing suffered these cruelties, the friends of 
j the deceased were refused the privilege of 
' burying their remains. 





The following were the most remarka- } tyred at Milan ; but the particular circum- < 
Me among the numerous martyrs who suf- i stances of their deaths are not recorded. < 
fered during this persecution : — | Timothy, the celebrated disciple of St. 

DioxvsiuSjthe Areopagite, was an Athe- \ Paul, and bishop of Ephesus, was born at 
nian by birth, and educated in all the use- ^ Lysfra, in the province of Lycaonia, his 
fill and ornamental literature of Greece. | fatlier being a Gentile, and his mother a [ 
lie then travelled to Egypt to study as- Jf^vess. But both his parents and his \ 
tronomy, and made very particular obser- 1 grandmother embraced Christianity, by 
rations on the great and supernatural \ which means young Timothy was taught 
eclipse which happened at the time of our I the precepts of the gospel from his infancy. 
Savior's crucifixion. i St. Paul coming to Lycaonia, ordained 

On his return to Athens he was highly \ Timothy, and then made him the compan- 
honored by the people, and at length pro- 1 i"" of his pious labors. It appears, that | 
meted to the dignity of senator of that eel- J while he attended the apostle, his zeal < 
(^hrated city. Becoming a c<mvert to the \ could be only equalled by his fidelity; for \ 

His words wpro homl? , /iiso;iths u'or--> oncles ; 
His love sincere ; hi* l)ioughts hpiK'Volent ; 
His tears pure rnessentrers sent from his heart ; 
His heart as far from fraud as heaven from earth. 

gospel, he changed from the worthy pagan ; St- P^i"' mentions liim with peculiar re- | 
I magistrate to the pious Christian pastor ; ^ sp«^N and declares that he could find none | 
j for even while involved in the darkness of ^ s" tndy united to him, both in heart and | 
\ idolatry, he was as just ns the gross errors i m>f"'i as Timothy. Indeed the apostle, 
of paganism would per fut. \ "P"" various occasions, speaks of him in 

the most afTectionate terms,- which is a suf- 
ficient proof of his great merit, and evinces 
that he was a disinterested and diligent 
servant of Christ. 
It is easy to be ima<.nnod, that a soul | Timothy attended St. Paul to Macedo- 
which could appear with some lustre while ? nia, and there, with the apostle and Silas, 
loaded with original sin, and tainted with | he lal)ored with assiduity in the propa- 
superstition, must, wlien illuminated with > gation of the gospel. When St. Paul 
^ the light of the gospel, shine with the / went to Achaia, Timothy was left behind 
■' most splendid brilliancy. ? to strengthen the faith of those already 

The sanctity of his conversation, and I converted, or to induce others to quit the 
j purity of his manners, recommended him \ darkness of ignorance for the light of gos- 
i RO strongly to the Christians in general, that j pel knowledge. 

he was appointed bishop of Athens. He ^ At length St. Paul sent for Timothy to 
'ischarged his duty with the utmost dili- ] Athens, and then despatched him to Thes- 
nee till the second year of this persecu- s^^ica, to strengthen the suffering Chris 
a I i»n, viz. A. D. 96, when he was appre- plans there against the terrors of the perse 
^ iiended, and reiteiverl the crown of mar- ^ cution which then raged. 
/. lyrdom, by being beheaded. I When Timothy arrived at the place of 

i N1C0.MKDES, a Christian of some dis- 1 his destination, he did all that a zealous 
< finction at Rome, during the rage of Domi- I Christian could for the service of his 
1 tian's persecution, did all he could to s<^rve Redeemer. Having performed his mis- 
j the afHicled, comforting ihe jxmr, visiting 5 sion, he returned to Athens, and there 
^ those confined, exhorting the wavering, ^ assisted St. Paul and Silas in composing the 
3 and confirming the faitliful. For those and < two epistles to the Thessalonians. He 
: other pious actions he was seized as a < then accompanied St. Paul to Corinth, Je- 
', (.christian, and being sentenced, was | rusalem, and Ephesus. 
j scourged to death. ] After performing several other conimis 

\ pROTASU'S and Gi;rvasius were mar- ' sions for St. Paul, and attending him upoi 




I various other journeys, the apostle consli- 
\ tuted him bishop of Ephesus, though he 
I was only thirty years of age ; and in two 
\ admirable epistles gave him proper instruc- 
I tions for his conduct in so important a ; 
J charge. '^ 

I Timothy was so very temperate in his 

living, that St. Paul blames him for being ; 
I too abstemious, and recommends to him 
> the moderate use of wine to recruit his 

strength and spirits. 
\ St. Paul sent to Timothy while he was 
I in his last confinement at Rome, to come 
j to him ; and after that great apostle's mar- 

tyrdom, he returned to Ephesus, where he ' 
zealously governed the church till A. D. t 
97. At this period the pagans were about j 
to celebrate a feast called Catagogion, the < 
principal ceremonies of which were, that 
the people should carry battoons in their 
hands, go masked, and bear about the i 
streets the images of their gods. | 

Timothy, meeting the procession, se- \ 
verely reproved them for their ridiculous \ 
idolatry, which so exasperated the people I 
that they fell upon him with their clubs, ] 
and beat him in so dreadful a manner, that \ 
he expired of the bruises two days after. ? 


^"ERVA succeeding Do-^of which, all that could be found of that 
mitian, gave a respite j race" were put to death, 
to the Christians ; but i Symphorosa, a widow, and her seven 
reigning only thirteen > sons, were commanded by the emperor to 
months, his successor < sacrifice to the heathen deities. Unani- 
Trajan, in the lOthjmously refusing to comply with such an 
year of his reign, and in A. D. 108, began | impious request, the emperor, in a rage, 
the third persecution against the Christians, s told her, that for her obstinacy, herself I 
While the persecution raged, Plinius Se- 1 and her sons should be slain, to appease i 
cundus, a heathen philosopher, wrote to s the wrath of his offended deities ; to which \ 
the emperor in favor of the Christians, to \ she answered, that if he murdered her and ] 
whose epistle Trajan returned this indeci- s her children, the idols he adored would > 
sive answer, "The Christians ought not s only be held in the greater detestation. | 

to be sought after, but when brought before I The emperor, being greatly exasperated | 
the magistracy, they should be punished." \ at this, ordered her to be carried to the i 
This absurd reply made Tertullian ex- 5 temple of Hercules, where she was scourg- | 
claim, in the following words," 0, con- ] ed, and hungup, for some time, by the hair j 
fused sentence ; he would not have them * of her head ; then being taken down, a 
sought for as innocent, and yet would have I large stone was fastened to her neck, and 
them punished as guilty." The emperor's s she was thrown into the river, where she 
incoherent answer, however, occasioned s expired. With respect to the sons, they 
the persecution in some measure to abate, s were fastened to seven posts, and being 
as his officers were uncertain, if they car- s drawn up by pulleys, their limbs were dis- ] 
Tied it on with severity, how ho might s located. These tortures, not affecting their > 
choose to wrest his own meaning. Trajan, \ resolution, they w«re thus martyred : Cres- > 
however, soon after wrote to Jerusalem, | centius, the eldest, was stabbed in the ; 
and gave orders to his officers to extermi-5 throat ; Julian, the second, in the breast ; > 
nate the stock of David; in consequence) Nemesius, the third, in the heart ; Primi- 

Primi- } 

I 26 


Tius, the fourth, in the navel ; Justice, the ^ sacrifice to Neptune, was, by the imme- 
fifth, in the back ; Stacteus, the sixth, in | diate order of Trajan, cast first into a hot j 
the side; and Eugenitjs, the youngest, |lime-kiln, and being drawn from thence, 
was sawed asunder. > was thrown into a scalding bath till he 1 

Phocas, bishop of Pontus, refusing to ^expired. I 

Trajan likewise commanded the martyr- 
dom of Ignatius, bishop of Antioch. This 
holy man was the person whom, when an 
infant, Christ took into his arms, and 
showed to his disciples, as one that would 
be a pattern of humility and innocence. 
He received the gospel afterward from St. 
John the Evangelist, and was exceedingly 
zealous in his mission. He boldly vindi- 
cated the faith of Christ before the emperor, 
for which, being cast into prison, he was 
tormented in a most cruel manner ; for after 
being dreadfully scourged, he was com- 
pelled to hold fire in his hands, and at the 
same time, papers dipped in oil were put 
to his sides, and set on light. His flesh 
was then torn with red hot pincers, and at 
last he was despatched, by being torn to 
pieces by wild beasts. 

Trajan being succeeded by Adrian, the 
latter continued this third persecution with 
as much severity as his predecessor. 
About this time Alexander, bishop of Rome, < 

in the year 111). j 

with his two deacons were martyred ; as j 
were Quirinus and Hermes, with their fam- | 
ilies, Zenon, a Roman nobleman, and ! 
about ten thousand other Christians. I 

In Mount Ararat many were crucified, \ 
crowned with thorns, and spears ran into i 
their sides, in imitation of Christ's passion. \ 
Eustachius, a brave and successful Roman 
commander, was by the emperor ordered 
to join in an idolatrous sacrifice to cele- 
brate some of his own victories ; but his 
faith (being a Christian in his heart) was 
so much greater than his vanity, that he j 
nobly refused it. Enraged at the denial, 
the ungrateful emperor forgot the services 
of this skilful commander, and ordered him 
and his whole family to be martyred. 

At the martyrdom of Faustinus and 
Jovita, brothers and citizens of Bressia, 
their torments were so many, and their pa- 
tience so great, that Calocerius, a pagan, J 
beholding them, was struck with admira- 
tion, and exclaimed in a kind of ecstasy, 



" Great is the God of the Christians ;" for 
which he was apprehended, and suffered 
a similar fate. 

Many other similar cruelties and rigors 
were exercised against the Christians, till 
QuadratuSjbishop of Athens, made a learned 
apology in their favor before the emperor, 
who happened to be there ; and Aristides, 
a philosopher of the same city, wrote an 
elegant epistle, which caused Adrian to 
relax in his severities, and relent in their 
favor. He indeed went so far as to com- 
mand that no Christian should be punished 
on the score of religion or opinion only ; 
but this gave other handles against them to 
the Jews and pagans, for then they began 
to employ and suborn false witnesses, to 
accuse them of crimes against the state or 
civil authority. 

Adrian dying in the year A. D. 138, was 
succeeded by Antoninus Pius, one of the 
most amiable monarchs that ever reigned ; 
for his people gave him a title which he 
justly deserved, viz : " The Father of Vir- 
tues." Immediately upon his accession to 
the imperial throne, he published an edict, 
forbidding any further persecutions against 
the C?iristians, and concluded it in these 
words : " If any hereafter shall vex or 
trouble the Christians, having no other 
< cause but that they are such, let the ac- 
I cused be released, and the accusers be 
•> punished." This stopped the persecution, 
I and the Christians enjoyed a respite from 

> their sufferings during this emperor's reign, 

> though their enemies took every occasion 
'/ to do them what injuries they could in an 

> underhand manner. 


succeeded by Marcus 
AuRELius Antoninus 
Verus, a. D. 162, who, 
being a strong pagan, be- 
gan the fourth persecu- 
tion, in which m&ny Christians were mar- 
tyred, particularly in several parts of Asia, 
and in France. 

The cruelties used 'n this persecution 
were such, that many of tlie spectators 
shuddered with horror at the sight, and 
were astonished at the intrepidity of the 
sufferers. Some of the martyrs were 
obliged to pass, with their already wounded 
feet, over thorns, nails, sharp shells, &c., 
with their points ; others were scourged 
till their sinews and veins lay bare ; and 
after suffering the most excruciating tor- 
tures that could be devised, they were 
destroyed by the most terrible deaths. 

Germanicus, a young man, but true 
Christian, being delivered to the wild beasts 

on account of his faith, behaved with such 
astonishing courage, that several pagans be- 
came converts to a faith which inspired such 
fortitude. This enraged others so much, 
that they cried out, he merited death ; and 
many of the multitude, wondering at this 
beloved martyr for his constancy and vir- 
tue, began suddenly to cry out with a loud 
voice, saying, •' Destroy the wicked men ; 
let Polycarpus be sought for." And while 
a great uproar and tumult began to be 
raised upon those cries, a certain Phrygian, 
named Quintus, lately arrived from his 
country, was so afflicted at the sight of 
the wild beasts, that he rushed to the judg- 
ment-seat and upbraided the judges, for 
which he was put to death. 

Polycarpus, hearing that he was sought 
after, escaped, but was discovered by a 
child. From this circumstance, and hav- 
ing dreamed that his bed suddenly became 
on fire, and was consumed in a moment, he 
concluded that it was God's will that he 



< should seal his faith with martyrdom. He 5 were amazed at his serene countenance 
( therefore would not attempt to make a sec- > and comely gravity. After feasting them, 
i ond escape when he had an opportunity of>he desired an hour in prayer, which being 
I so doing. Those who apprehended him ^ allowed, he pi ayed with such fervency, that » 
^ I 

POLYCARPUS (died in the year 170). 

^ his guards repented they had been instru- ^ was admonished not to deliver his body 
' mental in taking him. He was, however, / 'est the people should leave Christ, and 
j carried before the pro-consul, condemned, begin to worship him. Twelve other 
> and conducted to the market-place. Wood | Christians, who had been intimate with 

being provided, the holy man earnestly \ Polycarpus, were soon after martyred. 
I prayed to Heaven, after being bound to the 1 Mktrodorus, a minister, who preached 
^ stake; and as the flames grew vehement, | boldly, and Pionius, who made some es- 
\ the executioners gave way on both sides, I cellent apologies for the Christian faith, 
• the heat now becoming intolerable. In the were likewise burned. 
I meantime the bishop sung praises to God Felicitatas, an illustrious Roman lady 
I in the midst of the flames, but remained ) of a considerable family, and great virtues, 
I unconsumed therein, and the burning of the I was a devout Christian. She had seven 
' wood spreading a fragrance around, the I sons, whom she had educated with the 
\ guards were much surprised. Determined, I most exemplary piety. The empire having 
^ however, to put an end to his life, they / been about this time grievously troubled 
I struck spears into his body, when the | with earlh(]uakes, famine, inundations, &c., 

quantity of blood that issued from the I the Christians were accused as the cause, 
■ wounds extinguished the flames. After) and Felicitatas was included in the accu- 
'. considerable attempts, however, they put'sation. The lady and her family being 
\ him to death, and burned his body when > seized, the emperor gave orders to Publius, 
I dead, not being able to consume it while ^ the Roman governor, to proceed against 
<i alive. This extraordinary event had such ^ her. Upon this, Publius began with the 
i an effect upon the people, that they began > mother, thinking that if he could prevail 
j to adore the martyr; and the pro-consuH with her to change her religion, the exam- 




pie would have great influence with her f were ordered for execution. Januarius, th<? 
sons. Finding her inflexible, he turned J eldest, was scourged and pressed to death 
his entreaties to menaces, and threatened s with weights ; Felix and Philip, the two 
her with destruction to herself and family, s next, had their hrains dashed out willi 
She despised his threats as she had done \ clubs ; Sylvanus, the fourth, was murdered 
his promises ; he then caused sons to I by being thrown from a precipice ; and the 
be brought before him, whom he examined j three younger sons, viz : Alexander, Vi-ta- 
separately. They all, however, remained \ lis, and Martial, were all beheaded. The 
steadfast in their faith, and unanimous in | mother was beheaded with the same sword 
their opinions, on which the whole family ^ as the three latter. 

Justin Martyr, the celebrated philoso- 
\ pher, fell a martyr in this persecution. He 
^ was a native of Neapolis, in Samaria, and 
i was born A. D. 103. He had the best 
\ education those times would afford, and 
I travelled into Egypt, the country where the 
\ polite tour of that age was made for im- 
! provement. At Alexandria he was inform- 
! ed of everything relative to the seventy 
\ interpreters of the sacred writings, and 
I shown the rooms, or rather cells, in which 
? their work was performed. Justin was 
s d great lover of truth, and a universal 
; scholar; he investigated the stoic and peri- 
patetic philosophy, and attempted the Pytha- 
gorean system ; but the behavior of one of 
its professors disgusting him, he applied 
> himself to the Platonic, in which he took 

JUSTIN MARTYR (died in the year 139). 

great delight. About the year 133, when 

} he was thirty years of age, he became a < 

I convert to Christianity, and then, for the ■; 

\ first time, perceived the real nature of truth. * 

> He wrote an elegant epistle to the Gen- < 
? tiles, to convert them to the faith he had < 

> newly acquired, and hved in so pure and ; 
I innocent a manner, that he well deserved ; 
f the title of a Christian philosopher. He i 
' likewise employed his talents in convincing \ 
I the Jews of the truth of the Christian rites, \ 
/ and spent much time in travelling, till he i 
} took up his abode in Rome, and fixed his J 
<' habitation upon the Viminal mount. } 
i He kept a public school, taught many | 

> who afterward became great men, and '■ 
', wrote a treatise to confute heresies of all \ 
i kinds. As the pagans began about this ; 



J time to treat the Christians with great se- 5 Monarchy ; A Dialogue with Trypho the 

. verily, Justin wrote his first apology in | Jew, and an Epistle to Diagnetus. 

I their favor, and addressed it to the empe- \ Several were beheaded for refusing to 

I TOT, to two princes whom he had adopted \ sacrifice to the image of Jupiter ; in par- 

1 as his sons, and to the senate and people ; ticular Concordus, a deacon of the city o/ 

of Rome in general. This piece displays I Spoleto, being carried before the image, 

great learning and genius, is written with | and ordered to worship it, not only refused, 

a manly elegance, and occasioned the em- 1 but spit in its face ; for which he was se- 

peror to publish an edict in favor of the I verely tormented, and afterward had his 


Soon after he entered into frequent con- 

i head cut off with a sword. 

Some of the northern nations beinor in 

tests with Crescens, a person of a vicious | arms against Rome, the emperor marched to 
life and conversation, but a celebrated cynic \ encounter them. He was, however, drawn 
philosopher ; and his arguments appeared \ into an ambuscade, and dreaded the loss 
so powerful, yet disgusting to the cynic, that of his whole army. Enveloped with moun- 
he resolved on, and in the sequel accom- '. tains, surrounded by enemies, and perish- 

plished, his destruction. 

ing with thirst, the troops were driven to 

Justin's second apology was occasioned I the last extremities. All the pagan deities 
I by the following circumstanc3s : A man \ were invoked in vain ; when the men be- 
j and his wife, who were both bad livers, I longing to the niilitine, or thundering le- 
V resided at Rome. The woman, however, > gion, who were all Christians, were coin- 
> becoming a convert to Christianity, at- ^ manded to call upon their God for succor : 
j tempted to reclaim her husband : but not \ they immediately withdrew from the rest, 
I succeeding, she sued for a divorce, which l prostrated themselves upon the earth, and 
; so exasperated him, that he accused her prayed fervently. A miraculous deliver- 
; of being a Christian. Upon her petition, / ance immediately ensued ; a prodigious I 
however, he dropped the prosecution, and | quantity of rain fell, which being caught < 
I levelled his malice at Ptolemeus, who had by the men, and filling the dikes, afforded I 
\ converted her. Ptolemeus was condemned \ a sudden and astonishing relief. The em- ^ 
! to die ; and one Lucius, with another per- 1 peror, in his epistle to the Roman senate, ) 
I son, met with the same fate, for expressing | wherein the expedition is described, after J 
\ themselves too freely upon the occasion. \ mentioning the difiicullies to which he had | 
I The apology of Justin, upon these se- been driven, thus speaks of the Christians : } 
I verities, gave Crescens the cynic an op- \ " When I saw myself not able to en- } 
', portunity of prejudicing the emperor against I counter with the enemies, I craved aid of | 
; the writer of it; upon which Justin, and ^ our country gods; but at their lipnds find- | 
, six of his companion.s, were apprehended, ting no relief, and being cooped up by the 5 
^ Being commanded as usual to deny their enemy, I caused those men, which we call | 
faith, and sacrifice to the pagan idols, they \ Christians, to be sent for ; who being mus- | 
absolutely refused to do either. On their i tered, I found a considerable number of 
refusal, ihey were condemned to be first | them, against whom 1 was more incensed | 
scourged and then beheaded; which sen- ^ than I had just cause, as I found afterward : \ 
lence was executed with all imaginable | for by a marvellous power, they forthwith j 

I used their endeavors, not with ammunition, | 

I severity. 

Of the writings of this celebrated martyr | drums, and trumpets, abhorring such prep- 

I and great philosopher, only seven pieces ^ arations and furniti-ve, but only praying 
are now extant, viz : The two Apologies ; i unto, and trusting in their God, whom tliey 
An Exhortation to the Gentiles ; An Ora- carry about with them in their consciences. 

I tion to the Greeks ; A Treatise on Divine \ It is therefore to be believed, although we 




call them wicked men, that they worship ^ 
God in their hearts ; for they, falling pros- 1 
trate on the ground, prayed, not only for 
me, but for the army also which was with 
me, beseeching God to help me in that owr 
extreme want of victuals and fresh water 
(for we had been five days without water, | 
and in our enemy's land, even in the midst I 
of Germany); I say, falling upon their ^ 
faces, they prayed to God unknown to me, < 
and immediately thereupon fell from heaven ] 
a most pleasant and cold shower ; but j 
among our enemies great store of hail, '. 
mixed with thunder and lightning : so that ; 
we soon perceived the invincible aid of the 
most mighty God to be with us ; therefore 
we give these men leave to profess Chris- 
tianity, lest, by their prayers, we be pun- 
ished by the like ; and I thereby make my- 
self the author of all the evil that shall ac- 
crue by the persecution of the Christian 

It appears that the storm which so mi- 
raculously flashed in the faces of the enemy 
so intimidated them, that part deserted to 
the Roman army ; the rest were with ease 
defeated, and the revolted provinces were 
entirely recovered. 

This affair occasioned the persecution 
to subside for some time, at least in those 
parts, immediately under the inspection of 
the emperor ; for we find that it soon after 
raged in France, particularly at Lyons, 
where the tortures to which many of the 
Christians were put almost exceed the 
powers of description. The aspersions, 
false accusations, taunts, threats, revilings, 
menacings, which were but forerunners to 
all manner of punishments, torments, and 
painful deaths ; such as being banished, 
plundered, beaten, imprisoned, stoned, as- 
sassinated, hanged, burnt, &c., and even 
the servants and slaves of opulent Chris- 
tians were racked and tortured, to make 
them accuse their masters and employers. 
The principal of these martyrs were the 
following : — 

Vetius Agathus, a young man, who 
having boldly pleaded the Christian cause, \ 

was asked if he was a Christian ? To 
which, answering in the affirmative, he 
was condemned to death, and suffered the 
crown of martyrdom accordingly. Many, 
animated by this young man's intrepidity, 
boldly owned their faith, and suffered as 
he had done. 

Blandinia, a Christian, but of a weak 
constitution, being seized and tortured upon 
the account of her religion, received so 
much strength from heaven, that her tor- 
turers became tired frequently, and were 
surprised at her being able to bear her tor- 
ments with such resolution, and for so great 
a length of time. 

Sanctus, a deacon of Vienna, was put 
to the torture, which he bore with great 
fortitude, and only cried, " I am a Chris- 
tian." Red-hot plates of brass were placed 
upon those parts of the body that were 
tenderest, which contracted the sinews , 
but he remaining inflexible, was reconduct- 
ed to prison. Being brought out from his 
place of confinement a few days afterward, 
his tormenters were astonished to find his 
wounds healed, and his person as perfect 
as before they tormented him : they, how- 
ever, again proceeded to torture him ; but 
not being able, at that time, to take away a 
life which was miraculously preserved, 
they only remanded him to prison, where 
he remained for some time after ; and hav- 
ing had this resj ite, received the crown of 
martyrdom by being beheaded. 

BiBLiAS, a weak woman, had been an 
apostate, but having returned to the faith 
was martyred, and bore her sufferings with 
great patience. Attains of Pergamus, was 
another sufferer; and Pothinus, the venera- 
ble bishop of Lyons, who was ninety years 
of age, was so unmercifully treated by the 
enraged pagan mob, that he expired two 
days after in prison. 

When the Christians, upon these occa- 
sions received martyrdom, they were orna- 
mented, and crowned with garlands of 
flowers ; for which they in heaven received 
eternal crowns of glory. 

The torments were various ; and, exclu- 




J sive of those already mentioned, the mar- When the persecution began first to rago 
tyrs of Lyons were compelled to sit in red- ] at Lyons, they were in the prime of life, 

and to avoid the effects of its severities, 
they thought proper to withdraw to a neigh- 

hot iron chairs till their flesh broiled. This 
was inflicted with peculiar severity on 
Sanctus already mentioned, and some oth- 
ers. Some were sewed up in nets, and 
thrown on the horns of wild bulls ; and the 

boring village. Here they were for some 
time concealed by a Christian widow, 
whose piety protected while her obscurity 

carcases of those who died in prison pre- ', gave a sanction to their retreat, 
vious to the appointed time of execution,. As they were eminent persons, the malice 
were thrown to dogs. Indeed, so far did \ of their persecutors sought after them with 
the malice of the pagans proceed, that they | indefatigable industry, and pursued them 
set guards over the bodies while the beasts 't to their place of concealment with unre- 
were devouring them, lest the friends of > mitting assiduity. Dragged from their re- 

I the deceased should get them away by S tirement, they were committed to prison 

< stealth ; and the ofl'als left by the dogs > without examination : but their misfortunes 

I were ordered to be burned. \ did not oppress their spirits ; for, shielded 

\ The martyrs of Lyons, according to the { by the gospel, they were secure against the 

i best accounts we could obtain, who suf- ; woes incident to this life 

) fercd for the gospel, were forty-eight in 

l number, and their executions happened in 

I the year of Christ 177. They all died 

s with great fortitude and serenity of mind, ; 

i evidently evincing that they preferred the j 

\ everlasting pleasures of an immortal and | 

I hnppy life, to the transitory scenes of one \ 

, that was precarious, dashed with afflictions, ^ 

i and at best but short and fleeting. < 

) " Like to the fallinsf of a star, < 

Or as the flights of eagles are ; 
Or like tlie fresh spring's gaudy hue, 
Or silver drop^ of iiiorning dew ; 
Or like a wind that chafes the flood, 
Or bubbles which on water stood ; 
I'.ven such is man, whose borrowed light 
Is straight called in, and paid to night. 
The wind blows out ; the bubble dies j 
The spring entombed in aulunin lies ; 
The dew dries up ; the star is shot ; 
The light is past, and man forgot." , 

" The gospel 'tis which streaks the morning bright, 
'Tis this which gilds the honors of the night. 
When wealth forsakes us, or whcli friends arc few ; 
When friends are faithless, or when foes pursue ; 
'Tis this V- hich wards the blow, or stills the smart, 
Disarms afliiciion, or repels its dart ; 
Within the breast bids purest raptures rise, 
Bids awful conscience spread her cloudless skies. 
When the storm thickens, and the thunders roll, 
When ihe earth trembles to the atiVighled pok, 
The virtuous mind, nor doubts nor fcurs assail, 
For storms are zephyrs, or a gentler gale ; 
But when disease obstructs the laboring breath, 
When the pulse thickens, and each gasp is death, 
Even then religion shall sustiin the just, 
Grace their last moments, nor desert their dust." 

'■ Being at the expiration of three days 
I brought before the governor, they were ex- 
,- amined in the presence of a crowd of pa- 
\ gans. They confessed the divinity of 
^ Christ, when the governor, being enraged 
\ at what he termed their insolence, absurdly 
> Besides the above martyrs of Lyons, \ said, " What signifies all the former execu- 
i who are usually enumerated together, some ; tions, if some yet remain who dare ac- 
' others suflTered in that cily, and in the dif- / knowledge Christ!" 
ferent parts of the empire soon after. Of \ Having separated them, that they should 
these the principal were : — ' i not console with, or fortify each other, he 

\ Ei'ii'onius and Alexander, celebrated / began to tamper with Epipodius, the young- 
l for their great friendship, and their Chris- ^ est of the two. With a dissemi)led kind- 
\ tian union with each otlier. The first was ^ ness, he pretended to pity his condition, } 
{ born at Lyons, the latter in Greece; they ^ and entreated him not to ruin himself by i 
\ were of mutual assistance to -each other, | obstinacy. "Our deities," continued he, | 
I and prepared themselves for receiving a \ " are worshipped by the greater part of the I 
{ crown of martyrdom in this world, and a ? people in the universe, and their rulers; t 
' crown of glory in the next, by the continual j we adore them with feasting and mirth, I 
I practice of all manner of Christian virtues. ( while you adore a crucified man ; we, to 


33 \ 

> honor them, launch into pleasures ; you, by 
\ your faith, are debarred from all that in- 
I dulges the senses. Our religion enjoins 
I feasting, yours fasting ; ours the joys of 
\ licentious blandishments, yours the barren 
^ virtue of chastity. Can you expect pro- 
tection from one who could not secure 

I himself from the persecutions of a con-. 
I temptible people ? Then quit a profession 

> of such austerity, and enjoy those gratifica- 
\ tions which the world affords, and which 
I your youthful years demand." 

j To this illusive harangue Epipodius re- 
\ plied ; he contemned his compassion, as a 
heart full of faith could not want it. 
; " Your pretended tenderness," said he, " is 
actual cruelty ; and the agreeable life you 
describe, is replete with everlasting death. 
Christ suffered for us, that our pleasures 
should be immortal, and hath prepared for 
his followers an eternity of bliss. The 
frame of man being composed of two parts, 
body and soul ; the first, as mean and per- 
ishable, should be rendered subservient to 
the interests of the last. Your idolatrous 
feasts may gratify the mortal, but they in- 
jure the immortal part : that can not there- 
fore be enjoying life which destroys the 
most valuable moiety of your frame. Your 
pleasures lead to eternal death, and our 
pains to perpetual happiness." 

For this manly and rational speech, 
Epipodius was severely beaten, and then 
put to the rack, upon which being stretched, 

> his flesh was torn with iron hooks. Hav- 
ing borne his torments with incredible pa- 
tience, and unshaken fortitude, he was taken 
from the rack and beheaded. 

Alexander, the companion of Epipodi- 
us, was brought before the judge two days 
\ after the execution of that excellent young 
I man. On his absolute refusal to renounce 
\ Christianity, he was placed upon the rack 
j and beat by three executioners, who re- 
^ lieved each other alternately. He bore 
' his sufferings with as much fortitude as 
his friend had done, and at length received 
the conclusion of his glorious martyrdom 
by being crucified. These martyrs suf- 

fered A. D. 179; the first on the 22d of 
April, and the other on the 24th of the 
same month. 

Valerian and Marcellus, who were 
nearly related to each other, were impris- 
oned at Lyons in the year 177 for being 
Christians. By some means, however, of 
which we are not informed, they made 
their escape, and travelled different ways. 

Marcellus made several converts in the 
territories of Bezancon and Chalons, but 
being apprehended, was carried before 
Priscus, the governor of those parts. 

That magistrate, knowing Marcellus to 
be a Christian, ordered him to be fastened 
to some branches of a tree, which were 
drawn down for that purpose. When he 
was tied to different branches, they were 
let go, with the design that the suddenness 
of the jerks might tear him to pieces. 

This invention failing in its proposed 
end, he was conducted to Chalons, to be 
present at some idolatrous sacrifices, at 
which, refusing to assist, he was put to the 
torture, and afterward fixed up to the waist 
in the ground ; in which position, after re- 
maining three days, he expired, A. D. 179. 

Valerian was soon after apprehended, 
and by the order of Priscus was first put 
to the rack, and then beheaded, in the same 
year as his friend and relation. 

Much about the same time the following 
martyrs suffered, but we have not any cir- 
cumstantial or particular accounts of their 
deaths :' — 

Benignus, at 




and others, - 










} . 











Cecilia, the 

virgin, - 

- Sicily. 

Thraseus, bishop of Phrygia, Smyrna. 

The emperor Antoninus dying, was suc- 
ceeded A. D. 180, by his son, Commodus, 
who did not seem to copy his father in any 



particular. He had neither his virtues nor ' 
his vices : he was without his learning and 
morality, and at the same time without his 
prejudices against Christianity. His prin- 
cipal foible was pride, and to this we 
chiefly ascribe the errors of his reign ; for, 
having taken it into his head to fancy him- 
self Hercules, he sacrificed those to his 
vanity who refused to subscribe to his ab- 

Apollonius, a Roman senator, became 
a martyr in his reign. This eminent per- 
son was at once skilled in all the polite 
literature of those times, and in all the 
purest precepts taught by our blessed Re- 
deemer. He was, indeed, an accomplished 
gentleman, and a sincere Christian. 

This worthy person was accused by his 
own slave Severus, upon an unjust and 
contradictory, but unrepealed edict, of the 
emperor Trajan's. This inconsistent law 
condemned the accused to die, unless he 
recanted his opinion ; and at the same time 
ordered the execution of the accuser for 

Upon this ridiculous statute was Apollo- 
nius accused ; for though his slave Seve- 
rus knew he must die for the accusation, 
yet such was his diabolical malice and de- 
sire of revenge, that he courted death, in 
order to involve his master in ruin. 

The accused Apollonius refusing to re- 
cant his opinions, was, by order of his 

peers, the Roman senators, to whom he j 
had appealed, condemned to be beheaded. 
The sentence was executed on the 18th 
day of April, A. D. 186, his accuser hav- 
ing previously had his legs broken, and 
been put to death. 


and Peregrinus, were all martyred for re- 
fusing to worship Commodus as Hercules. 
Julius, a Roman senator, becoming a 
convert to Christianity, was ordered by the 
emperor to sacrifice to him as Hercules. 
This Julius absolutely refused, and publicly 
professed himself a Christian. On this 
account, after remaining in prison a con- 
siderable time, he was, in the year 190, 
pursuant to his sentence, beat to death 
with cudgels. Virtue, whose essence is 
religion, supported him, however, to the 
last, and he died a glorious martyr to the 

" Thine, virtue ! thine is each persuasive charm, 
Thine every soul with heavenly raptures warm j 
Thine all the bliss that innocence bestows. 
And thine the heart that feels another's woes. 
What though thy train neglected, or unknown, 
Have sought the silent vale, and sighed alone ? 
Though torrents streamed from every melting eye ? 
Though from each bosom burst the unpitied >igh ? 
Though oft with life's distracting cures oppressed, 
They long to sleep in everlasting rest i 
O, envied misery ! what soft delight 
Breathed on the mind, and smoothed the gloom 

of night, 
When nobler prospects, an eternal train. 
Made rapture glow in every beating vein ; 
When heaven's bright domes the smiling eye 

And joys that bloomed more sweetly from the 



(HE emperor Commodus^ Severus having been recovered from a 
dying in the year 191,? severe fit of sickness by a Christian, be- 
was succeeded by the I came a great favorer of Christians in gene- 
short-reigned Perti- \ ral ; and even permitted his son Caracalla 
NAX ; and he again was s to be nursed by a female Christian, 
succeeded by the still i Hence, during the reigns of the two em- 
^ shorter-reigned Julianus. On the death I perors already mentioned, who successive- 
\ of the last, in the year 192, Severus be- 5 ly succeeded Commodus, and some years 
came emperor. > of the latter's reign, the Christians were 



not persecuted ; for we find that they had 
a respite of several years. 

At length, however, the prejudice and 
fury of the ignorant multitude prevailed, and 
obsolete laws were revived and put in ex- 
ecution against the Christians. 

The progress of Christianity alarmed the 
pagans, and they revived the stale calumny 
of placing accidental misfortunes to the ac- 
count of its professors. Fire, sword, 
scourges, wild beasts, and cruel imprison- 
ments, were now used ; and even the dead 
bodies of Christians were torn from their 
graves with pagan prejudice, to be mangled 
by popular fury. 

But though persecuting malice raged, yet 
the gospel shone with resplendent bright- 
ness, and, firm as an impregnable rock, 
withstood the attacks of its boisterous ene- 
mies with success. Tertullian, who 
lived in this age, informs us, that if the 
Christians had collectively withdrawn them- 
selves from the Roman territories, the em- 
pire would have been greatly depopulated. 

Victor, bishop of Rome, suffered mar- 
tyrdom in the first year of the third cen- 
tury, viz: A, D. 201, though the circum- 
stances are not particularized. 

Leonidas, the father of the celebrated 
Origen, was beheaded for being a Chris- 
tian. Previous to the execution, the son, 
in order to encourage him, wrote to him in 
these remarkable words : " Beware, sir, 
that your care for us does not make you 
change your resolution." Many of Ori- 
gen's hearers likewise sufl'ered martyrdom ; 
particularly two brothers named Plutar- 
CHus and Serenus : another Serenus, 
Heron, and Heraclides, were beheaded; 
Rhais had boiling pitch poured upon her 
head, and was then burnt, as was Marcella, 
her mother. 

Potamiena, the sister of Rhais, was 
executed in the same manner as Rhais had 
been ; but Basilides, an officer belonging 
to the army, and one ordered to attend her 
execution, became her convert. 

Basilides being, as an ofl^cer, required 

to take a certain oath, refused, saving that 
he could not swear by the Roman idols, as 
he was a Christian. Struck with surprise, 
the people could not at first believe what 
they heard ; but he had no sooner con- 
firmed the same, than he was dragged be- 
fore the judge, committed to prison, and 
speedily afterward beheaded. 

IrenjEus, bishop of Lyons, was born in 
Greece, and received both a polite and a 
Christian education. It is generally sup- 
posed that the account of the persecutions 
at Lyons was written by himself. He suc- 
ceeded the martyr Pothinus as bishop of 
Lyons, and ruled his diocese with great 
propriety: he was a zealous opposer of 
heresies in general, and about A. D. 187, 
wrote a celebrated tract against heresy ; 
and in A. D. 202, he was beheaded. 

Agapetus, a boy of Praeneste, in Italy, 
who was only fifteen years of age, abso- 
lutely refusing to sacrifice to the idols, was 
severely scourged, and then hanged up by 
the feet, and boiling water poured over 
him. He was afterward worried by wild 
beasts, and at last beheaded. The officer 
named Anliochus, who superintended this 
execution, while it was performing fell 
suddenly from his judicial seat, cried out 
that his bowels bnrnt him, and expired ; 
while the martyr patiently suffered, in hopes 
of a glorious resurrection, when the follow- 
ing picture shall be realized : — 

" Roused from their sleep unnumbered myriads come. 
All waked at once, and burst the yielding tomb; 
O'er the broad deep the loosened members swim j 
Each sweeping whirlwind bore the flying Umb j 
The living atoms, with peculiar care, 
Drawn from their cells, came speeding thro' the air ; 
Whether they lurl<ed through ages undecayed, 
Deep in the roclc, or clothed some smiling mead ; 
Or in the lily's snowy bosom grew ; 
Or tinged tlie sappliire with its lovely blue ; 
Or m some purling stream refreshed the plains j 
Or formed tlie mountain's adamantine veins ; 
Or, gayly sporting in the breathing spring, 
Perfumed the whispering zephyr's balmy wing: 
All heard ; and now, in fairer prospect shown, 
Limb clunsf to limb, and bone rejoined its bone ; 
Here stood, improved in strength, the graceful 

frame ; 
There flowed the circling blood, a purer stream ; 
The beaming eye its dazzling light resumes, 
Soft on the lip the tinctured ruby blooms ; 
The beating pulse a keener ardor warms. 
And beauty triumphs in immortal charms." 


') 36 



Patience in want and poverty of mind, 
These marks the church of Christ designed, 
And living taught, and dying left hehind. 
The crown he wore was of the pointed thorn, 
In purple he was crucified, not born : 
They who contend for place and high degree, 
Are not his sons but those of Zebedee." 

N A. D. 235, Maximinus being 
emperor, he raised a persecu- 
tion against the Christians. 
In Cappadocia, the president, 
Sereniianus, did all he could 

to exterminate the Christians \ Martina, a noble and beautiful virgin, 
from that province. \ likewise suffered martyrdom for the sake 

A Roman soldier, refusing to wear a \ of Christ, being variously tortured, and af- 
laurel crown bestowed on him by the em- '> terward beheaded. 

peror, and confessing himself a Christian, Hippolitus, a Christian prelate, was 
was scourged, imprisoned, and afterward tied to a wild horse, and dragged through 
put to death. \ fields, stony places, bushes, &c., till he 

PoxTiANUs, bishop of Rome, for preach- 1 expired, 
ing against idolatry, was banished to Sar- | During this persecution, raised by Max- 
dinia, and there slain. iminus, numberless Christians were slain 

Anteros, a Grecian, who succeeded without trial, and buried indiscriminately 
the last-mentioned bishop in the see of i" ^^^P« 5 sometimes fifty or sixty being 
Rome, gave so much offence to the gov-^^^^^ "'^^ ^ P" together, without the least 

ernment, by collecting the acts of the mar-? ^^^"^^' 

.1.1 zr J .1 t,™ If \ The tyrant Maxiininus dying, A. D. 238, 

tyrs, that he suffered martyrdom himseli, \ ■> . • ^ . 

c, 1 • 1, 11 r,- J- ;.,„!, r^„» ' vv^as succeeded by Gordian, during whose 
alter having held his dignity only forty ^ . •'. ' ''. 


reign, and that of his successor, Philip, the 
church was free from persecution for the 
space of more than ten years; but A. D. 
249, a vio-lent persecution broke out in 
Alexandria. It is to be observed, however, 
that this was done at the instigation of a 

Pammachius, a Roman senator, with his 
family, and other Christians to the number 
of forty-two, were, on account of their re- 
ligion, all beheaded in one day, and their 
heads set up on the city gates. 

SiMPLicius, another senator, met ^uh j P^g'^" Pn««t, without the knowledge of the 
exactly the same fate. pmperor. , , . , , 

r^ r^y ,■ • •, f. 5 The popular fury being let loose against 

Calepodius, a Christian minister, after , , ■ '. , , , , , ■ 

, . . , , , 111 1 ) the Christians, the mob broke open their 

being inhumanly treated, and barbarously s ' r i, ■ 

dragged about the streets, had a millstone 

houses, stole away the best of their prop- 

^ . 1 , . , ■ , 1 ., erty, destroyed the rest, and murdered the 

lastened about his neck, and was thrown i •' •' . , , ■ r, 

■ . ., ,,,-, ,o \ $ owners: the universal cry being, ^^ Burn 

into tlie river liber. (.See engraving.) \ , ,, , , „ . « n-,, 

^ n II -.u I,- >em, burn em: kill e7n, kill em. 1 he 

QuiRiTus, a Roman nobleman, with his ^ ' ' , is , 

-..,,, . r names of the martyrs (tiiree excepted) and 

lamily and domestics, were, on account oi 5 ', ■ \,- ■ \ \ 

I the particulars of this aliair, however, have 

not been transmitted to posterity. 

The three martyrs alluded to were the 

following : — 

all being Christians, put to the most ex- 
cruciating tortures, and then to the most 
painful deaths. Thus this nobleman suf- 
fered the confiscation of his effects, pov- 
erty, revilings, imprisonment, scourgings, ^ 
tortures, and loss of his life, for the sake of 
his blessed Redeemer ; well knowing, that 

" Our Savior came not with a gaudy show, 
Nor was his kingdom of the world below: 

Mktrus, an aged and venerable Chris- 
tian, refusing to blaspheme his Savior, was 
beaten with clubs, pricked with sharp 
reeds, and at length stoned to death. 

QuiNTA, a Christian woman, being car- 


-T^^r — ^^JJ 



39 \ 

ried to the temple, and refusing to worship ^ meant to recant, when, to their great sur- 
the idols there, was dragged by her feet j prise, she immediately threw herself into 
over sharp flint-stones, scourged with i the flames and was there consumed ; which 
whips,, and at last despatched in the same ; plainly evinced that she contemned the 
manner as Metrus. \ fears of death, and trusted to a lasting fu- 

Apollonia, an ancient maiden lady, con- j tare reward, for a temporary punishment 
fessing herself a Christian, the mob dashed > in this life, 
out her teeth with their fists, and threatened 
to burn her alive. A fire was accordingly 
prepared for the purpose, an^ she fastened 
to a slake ; but requesting to be unloosed, 
it was granted, on a supposition that she 

irx h,^rn ^lo^oli.r^ \ <^ „, ,, 11'' " Submit thv fatc to Heaveii's iiidulffeiit caTc, 

to burn her alive. A fire was accordingly ^, though all seem lost, lis imp.ous to des,.air: 

The tracks of Providence, like rivers, wind, 
, , . 1 1 1 < Here run before us, there retreat behind : 

to a Slake ; but requesting to be unloosed, < And thougli immerged in earth from human eyes, 

Again break forth, and more conspicuous rise." 


ECIUS being now emperor ^ first person of eminence who felt the se- 
of Rome, began a dread- ^ verity of this persecution. The deceased 
ful persecution against ( emperor Philip had, on account of his in- 
the Christians, A. D. 249. j tegrity, committed his treasures to the care 
This was occasioned, i of this good man. But Decius, not finding 
partly by the hatred he < as much as his avarice made him expect, 
bore to his predecessor, Philip, who was < determined to wreak his vengeance on the 
deemed a Christian, and pariV to his \ good prelate. He was accordingly seized, 
jealousy concerning the amazino increase ^ and on the 20th of January, A. D. 250, 
of Christianity ; for the heathen temples I suffered martyrdom, by being beheaded, 
began to be forsaken, and the Christian < Abdon and Skmen, two Persians, were 
churches thronged. I seized on as strangers ; but being found 

These reasons stimulated Decius to at- < Christians, were put to death, on account 

j tempt the very extirpation of the name of j of their faith; and Moyses, a priest was 

I Christian ; and it was unfortunate for the ) beheaded for the same reason. 

s cause of the gospel, that many errors had I Julian, a native of Celicia, as we are 

I about this time crept into the church : the ;; informed by St. Chrysostom, was seized 

s Christians were at variance with each ' upon for being a Christian. He was fre- 

other ; self-interest divided those whom ^ quently tortured, but still remained inflexi- 

social love ought to have united ; and the < ble ; and though often brought from prisoi. 

virulence of pride occasioned a variety of j for execution, was again remanded to be 

factions. ] the object of greater cruelties. He at 

The heathens, in general, were ambi- j length was obliged to travel for twelve 

tious to enforce the imperial decrees upon ; months together, from town to town, in 

this occasion, and looked upon the murder ' order to be exposed to the insults of the 

of a Christian as a merit in themselves, j ignorant populace. 

The martyrs, upon this occasion, were iti'-s Finding the endeavors to make him re- 
numerable; but of the principal we shall > cant his religion ineffectual, he was brought 
give some account in their order. I before his judge, stripped, and whipped in 

Fabian, the bishop of Rome, was the I a most dreadful manner. He was then 




I put into a leathern bag, together with a ^ to gratify his revenge, as he could not his | 
< number of serpents and scorpions, and in ^passion. 

( that condition thrown into the sea. ' Pursuant to his orders she was scourged, | 

$ Agatha, a Sicilian ladj% was not more | burnt with red-hot irons, and lorn with I 
f remarkable for her personal and acquired '> sharp hooks. Having borne these tor- \ 
i endowments, than her piety : her beauty \ ments with admirable fortitude, she was 
\ was such, that Quintain, governor of Sicily, next laid naked upon live coals intermin- \ 
\ became enamored of her, and made many < gled with glass, and then being carried I 

attempts upon her chastity. 

back to prison, she there expired on the 

As the governor was reputed to be a ^ 5th of February, 251. 
' great libertine, and a bigoted pagan, the I Alexander, bishop of Jerusalem, about 
I lady very discreetly thought proper to ' this time was cast into prison on account 
\ withdraw from two such dangerous enemies ] of his religion, where he died, by the se- 
'i as lust and superstition. She accordingly \ verily of his confinement. 
\ retired from the town, but being discovered I Serapian, being apprehended at Alexan- 
l in her retreat, she was seized, and brought ', dria, had all his bones broken, and was 
I to Catana. \ then thrown from a high loft, when he was 

^ Finding herself thus in the power of an killed by the fall. 

'< enemy, both to her soul and body, she ', Julianus, an old man, lame with the 
\ recommended herself to the protection of gout, and Cronion, another Christian, were 
\ the Almighty, and prayed for death, as a i bound on the backs of camels, severely 
i relief from her miseries. | scourged, and then thrown into a fire and 

I The governor, in order to gratify his consumed. A person who stood by, and 
I passions with the greater conveniency, put | seemed to commiserate them, was ordered 
{ the virtuous lady into the hands of Aphrod- to be beheaded, as a punishment for enter- 
^ ica, a very infamous and licentious wo- 1 taining sentiments of too tender a nature. 
\ man. This wretch tried every artifice to Macar, a Lybian Christian, was burnt; 
■; win her to the desired prostitution, but ^ Heron-Ater and Isidorus, Egyptians, 
\ found all her efTorls were vain; for herewith Dioschorus, a boy of fifteen, after 
j chastity was impr'egnable, and she well ; suffering many other torments, met with a 

knew that virtue alone could procure true 


" Know then this truth (enough for man to know), 
Virtue alone is happiness below ! 
That only jjoint where human bliss stands still, 
And ta>tes the good, without the fall to ill ; 
Where only merit constant pay receives, 
Is blessed in what it takes, and what it gives ; 
The joy unequalled, if its end it gain, 
And if it lose, attended with no pain : 
Without satiety, though e'er so blessed, 
And but more relished, as the more distressed : 
The broadest mirth unfeeling folly wears 
Less pleasing far than virtue's very tears 

similar fate ; and Nemesion, another Egyp- 
tian, was first tried as a thief; but being 
acquitted, was accused of Christianity, 
which confessing, he was scourged, tor- 
tured, and burnt. 

IsEHVRiAN, the Christian servant of an 
Egyptian nobleman and magistrate, was 
run through with a pike by his own mas- 
ter, for refusing to sacrifice to idols; Ve- 

\ NANTius, a youth of fifteen, was martyred 
Oood'from each object, from each' place acquired, | j^ j^^j ^^^^ j;^^, yiroins at Antiocl), after 
For ever exercised, yet never tired ; / •' ' ■ i 

Never "lated, while one man's oppressed ; > being imprisoned and scourged, were burnt. 

Never dejected, while another's blessed 
And where no wants, no wishes can nmain, 
Since but to wish more virtue, is to gain." 


Secundianus having been accused as a 
Christian, was conveyed to prison by some 

Aphrodica acquainted Quintain with the ^ soldiers. On the way, Verianus and 
inefficacy of her endeavors, who, enraged ^ Marcellinus said, " Where are ye carry- 
to be foiled in his designs, changed his ing the innocent?" This interrogatory 
lust into resentment. On her confessing ' occasioned them to be seized, and all 
> that she was a Christian, he determined \ three, after having been tortured, were 





hanged ; and when dead their heads were 
cut off. 

Cyril, bishop of Gortyna, was seized 
by order of Lucius, the governor of that 
place, who, nevertheless, exhorted him to I 
obey the imperial mandate, perform the < 
sacrifices, and save his venerable person 
from destruction, for he was now eighty- 
four years of age. The good prelate re- 
plied that he could not agre# to any such 
requisitions. , 

The governor then pronounced sentence 
against the venerable Christian in these re- 
markable words : — 

" / order and appoint, that Cyril, ivho has 
lost his senses, and is a declared enemy of 
our gods, shall be burnt alive." 

The worthy prelate heard this sentence 
without emotion, walked cheerfully to the 
place of execution, and underwent his mar- 
tyrdom with great fortitude. 

Origen, the celebrated presbyter and 
catechist of Alexandria, at the age of 
sixty-four, was seized, thrown into a loath- 
some prison, laden with heavy fetters, his 
feet placed in the stocks, and his legs ex- > 
tended to the utmost for several successive 
days. He was threatened with fire, and 
tormented by every means that the most 
infernal imaginations could suggest. But 
unappalled with dangers, and unshaken by 
sufferings, his Christian fortitude bore him 
through all. Indeed, such was the rigor 
of his judge, that his tortures were ordered 
to be lingering, that death might not too 
soon put a period to his miseries. During 
this cruel temporizing, the emperor Decius 
died, and Gallus, who succeeded him, en- 
gaging in a war with the Goths, the Chris- 
tians met with a respite. In this interim 
Origen obtained his enlargement, and re- 
tiring to Tyre, he there remained till his 
death, which happened when he was in 
the sixty-ninth year of his age. 

Gallus, the emperor, having concluded 
his wars, a plague broke out in the empire : 
sacrifices to the pagan deities were ordered 
by the emperor, and superstition immedi- 
ately bowed the knee to idols. 

The Christians, refusing to comply with 
these rites, were charged with being au- 
thors of the calamity. Hence the storm 
of persecution spread from the interior to 
the extreme parts of the empire, and many 
fell martyrs to the impetuosity of the rab- 
ble, as well as the prejudice of the magis- 

Cornelius, the Christian bishop of 
Rome, was among others seized upon this 
occasion. He was first banished to Cen- 
tum-Cellae, or Civita-Vecchia, as it is now 
called ; and after having been cruelly 
scourged, was, on the 14th of September, 
252, beheaded, after having been bishop 
fifteen months and ten days. 

Lucius, who succeeded Cornelius as 
bishop of Rome, was the son of Porphyrins, 
and a Roman by birth. His vigilance, as 
a pastor, rendered him obnoxious to the 
foes of Christianity, which occasioned him 
to be banished ; but in a short time he was 
permitted to return from exile. 

Not long after, however, he was appre- 
hended, after having been bishop about six 
months, and beheaded March 4, A. D. 253. 
This bishop was succeeded by Stephanus, 
a man of a fiery temper, who held the dig- 
nity a few years, and might probably have 
fallen a martyr, had not the emperor been 
murdered by his general ^milian, when a 
profound peace succeeded throughout the 
whole empire, and the persecution of course 

Most of the errors which crept into the 
church at this time arose from placing hu- 
man reason in competition with revelation ; 
but the fallacy of such arguments being 
proved by the most able divines, the opin- 
ions they had created vanished away like 
stars before the sun. 

" Dim as the borrowed beams of moon and stars. 
To lonely, weary, w^indering travellers, 
Is reason to the soul ; and as on high, 
Those rolling fires discover but the sky, 
Nor light us here ; so reasoji's glimmering ray 
Was lent, not to assure our doubtful way, 
But guide us upward to a better day. 
And as those ni^fhtly tapers disappear, 
When day's briglit lord ascends our hemisphere, 
So pale grows reason at religion's siglit ; 
So dies, and so dissolves in supernatural light." 


' 42 




/^ffip FTER the death of Gallus, j tians. were brought before Junius Donatus, 
iEmilian, the general, not I governor of Rome. 

being properly supported Being inflexible to all remonstrances, 

by the army, was slain, ? and having passed through several tortures, 

and Valerian elected to they, A. D..,.257, sealed their martyrdom 

the empire. \ ^^^^ their blood, by being beheaded. 

\ For the space of four years this emperor Stephen, bishop of Rome, was behead- 

l governed with moderation, and treated the ed in the same year ; and about that time 

riiristianswithpeculiar lenity and respect. Saturninus, bishop of Thoulouse, was, A. D. 257, an Egyptian magician, set upon and seized by the rabble of that 

S nism'ed Macrianu's, gained a great ascen- p'ace, for preventing, as they alleged, their 

I d.ncy over him, and persuaded him to per- oracles from speaking. On refusing to 

I secute the Christians. sacrifice to the idols, he was treated with 

1 Edicts being published, the ungovern- all the barbarous indignities imaginable, 

1 able rage of ignorance and superstition was and then fastened by the feet to the tail of 

1.1 loose against the Christians. The per- \ a bull. Upon a signal given, the enraged 

, sccution began in the month of April, and | animal was driven down the steps of the 

continued for three years and six months. temple, by which . the worthy martyr's 

' The martyrs that fell in this persecution brains were dashed out. The small num- 

were innumerable, and their tortures and ; ber of Christians in Thoulouse had not 

(Laths as various and painful. The most ? courage sufficient to carry off the dUd 

(uiinent martyrs were the following, though 'body, till two women conveyed it away, 

ii-ither rank, sex, or age, was regarded :— and deposited it in a deep ditch. 

RuFiNA and Secunda, were two beau- This martyr was a most orthodox and 
tiful and accomplished ladies, daughters of ^worthy primitive Christian, and his doc- 
A^terius, a gentleman of eminence in Rome. 5 trines are to be firmly depended upon. (See 
Rufina, the elder, was designed in marriage | engraving.) 

for Armentarius, a young nobleman ; and Sextus succeeded Stephen as bishop 

Sc-cunda, the younger, for Verinus, a per- of Rome. He is supposed to have been a 

son of rank and opulence. Greek by birth, or by extraction, and had 

The suitors, at the time of the persecu- \ for some time served in the capacity of a 

lion's commencing, were both Christians ; j deacon under Stephen. His great fidelity 

but when danger appeared, to save their singular wisdom, and uncommon courage, 

fortunes, they renounced their faith. They dibtinguished him upon many occasions ; 

look great pains to p«^uadc the ladies to and the happy conclusion of a controversy 

do the same, but failed in their purpose, with some heretics, is generally ascribed 

lUifina and Secunda, though too just to to his piety and prudence. 

change their religious sentiments, were too In the year 258, Marcianus, who had 

diffident of their own strength to remain the management of the Roman government, 

\ungv.T the objects of such solicitations ; on procured an order from the emperor Valeri- 

wuich account they left the city. an, to put to death all the Christian clergy 

D.s^ppointed in their purpose, the lovers I in Rome. 

i wore base enough to inform against the The senate testifying their obedience to 

' ladies, who being apprehended as Chris- 1 the imperial mandate, Skxtus was one of 





" This side enough is toasted, 

Then turn me, tyrant, and eat ; 
And see, whether raw or roasted 
I seem the better meat." 

The executioner turned him accordingly, 

5 the first who felt the severity of the rescript, i spectators so exalted an idea of the dignity 
I Cyprian tells us that he was beheaded 5 and truth of the Christian religion, that 
' August 6, 258. We are likewise inform- > many became converts upon the occasion. 
1 ed that six of his deacons suffered with | After lying for some time upon this 
I him. I burning bed, the martyr called out to the 

[ Laurentius, generally called St. Lau- > emperor, who was present, in a kind of 
^ rence, the principal of the deacons, who jocose distich, made extempore, which may 
{ taught and pr>3ached under Sextus, follow- > be thus translated : — 
[ ed him to the place of execution ; when 
, Sextus predicted, that he should, three 
I days after, meet him in heaven. 
! Laurentius looking upon this as a cer- 
> tain indication of his own approaching 

\ martyrdom, at his return gathered together { and after having laid a considerable time 

) all the Christian poor, and distributed the | longer, he had still strength and spirits suf- 

\ treasures of the church, which had been | ficient left to triumph over the tyrant, by 

^ committed to his care among them, think- 1 telling him, with great serenity, that he 

\ ing the money could not be better disposed < was dressed enough, and only wanted 

\ of, or less liable to fall into the hands of < serving up. He then cheerfully lifted up 

\ the pagans. < his eyes to heaven, and with calmness 

This liberality alarmed the persecutors, < yielded his spirit to the Almighty, on 

who seized on him to make a discovery i August 10, A. D. 258. 

whence it arose, and commanded him to < Romanus, a soldier who attended the 

give an immediate account to the emperor ^ martyrdom of Laurentius, was one of the 

of the church treasures. converts to his sufferings and fortitude ; for 

He promised he would do this, but beg- \ he could not help feeling the greatest vene- 

ged a short respite to put things in proper | ration for a God who inspired his votaries 

order ; when three days being granted | with such courage, and rendered his mar- 

him, he was suffered to depart ; where- < tyrs superior to all the cruelties of their 

upon, with great diligence, he collected to- s persecutors. 

getlier a great number of aged, helpless, < The brave Romanus, when the martyr 

and impotent poor ; he repaired to the J Laurentius was remanded to prison, took 

magistrate, and presenting them to him < that opportunity of fully inquiring into the 

said, " These are the true treasures of the nature of the Christian faith ; and being 

church." I entirely satisfied by Laurentius, became 

Incensed at the disappointment, and fan- \ firmly a Christian, received his baptism 

I eying the matter meant in ridicule, the from the captive, and seemed to have his 

\ governor ordered him to be immediately \ mind impressed with a lively idea of the 

scourged. He was then beaten with iron | kingdom of Christ ; a kingdom replete with 

rods, set upon a wooden horse, and had j eternal joys and everlasting happiness. 

i his limbs dislocated. . In Africa the persecution raged with pe- 

I These tortures he endured with fortitude I culiar violence ; many thousands received 

: and perseverance ; when he was ordered I the crown of martyrdom, among whom the 

} to be fastened to a large gridiron, with a I following were the most distinguished 

\ slow fire under it, that his death might be j characters : — 

the more lingering. | Cyprian, bishop of Carthage, was an 

i His astonishing constancy during these I eminent prelate, and a pious ornament of 
; trials, and serenity of countenance while I the church. The brightness of his genius 
I under such excruciating torments, gave the 1 was temjjcred by the solidity of his judg- 

{ 46 



ment; and with all the accomplishments 
of the gentleman he blended the virtues of 
the Christian. His doctrines were ortho- 
dox and pure ; his language easy and ele- 
gant; and his manners graceful and win- 
ning : in fine, he was both the pious and 
polite preacher. Indeed, an easy delivery. 

; and polished manner, are requisite in every 
I preacher who would make an impression 
! on the hearts of his audience. This was 
?the practice of St. Paul, and this was the 
: accomplishment of Cyprian. 

The latter, it is said, was so perfectly a 
master of the rules of rhetoric, and the 

CYPRIAN (died 

j precepts of logic, and so complete in the | 

j practice of elocution, and the principles 

; of philosophy, that he was made professor 

I of those sciences in his native city of Car- 

l thage, where he became so popular, and 

\ taught with such success, that many of his 

I students afterward became shining orna- 

< ments of polite learning. 

I In his youth he was educated in the 

< principles of gentilism, and having a con- 
^ siderable fortune, he lived in the very ex- 
l travagance of splendor, and all the dignity 
^ of pomp. Gorgeous in attire, luxurious in 
, feasting, vain of a numerous retinue, and 
', fond of every kind of fashionable parade, 
s he seemed to fancy that man was born to 
I gratify all his appetites, and created for 
I pleasure alone. 

">. ' Pleasure but cheats us with an nmpty name, 
) StiJl snems to vary, yot is still the smnc ; 

Annusements all its utmost skill can boMst, 
By use it lessens, and in thought is lost." J 

in the year 259) I 

About the yeai 246, Coelius, a Christian '■ 
minister of Carthage, became the happy I 
instrument of Cyprian's conversion ; on | 
which account, and for the great love that > 
he always afterward bore for the author of \ 
his conversion, he was termed C(ecilius ^ 

Previous to his baptism he studied the 
Scriptures with care, and being struck 
with the beauties of the truths they contain- 
ed, he determined to practise the virtues \ 
therein recommended. Subsequent to his \ 
baptism he sold his estate, distributed the | 
money among the poor, dressed himself in < 
plain attire, and commenced a life of aus- <, 

lie was soon after made a presbyter ; '( 
and being greatly admired for his virtues, | 
and his works, on the death of Donatus, in \ 
A. D. 248, he was almost unanimoi'*'-'' ' 
elected bishop of Carthage. 





A. D. 250, Cyprian was publicly pro- 
scribed by the emperor Decius, under the 
appellation of Cmcilius Cyprian, bishop of 
the Christians; and the universal cry of 
the pagans was, " Cyprian to the lions ! 
Cyprian to the beasts !" 

The bishop, however, withdrew himself 
from the rage of the populace, and his ef- 
fects were immediately confiscated. 

During his retirement he wrote thirty 
pious and elegant letters to his flock ; but 
several schisms that then crept into the 
church gave him great uneasiness. The 
rigor of the persecution abating, he returned 
to Carthage, and did everything in his 
pawer to expunge erroneous opinions. 

A terrible plague breaking out at Car- 
thage, it was, as usual, laid to the charge 
of the Christians ; and the magistrates be- 

> gan to persecute accordingly, which oc- 
casioned an epistle from them to Cyprian, 
in answer to which he vindicates the cause 
of Christianity. 

A. D. 257, Cyprian was brought before 
the pro-consul Aspasius Paternus, when 
being commanded to conform to the reli- 
gion of the empire, he boldly made a con- 
fession of his faith, and owned himself a 
Christian. This confession, however, did 
not occasion his death, but an order for his 
banishment, which exiled him to a little 
city on the Lybian sea. On the death of 

\ the pro-consul who banished him, he re- 
turned to Carthage, bnt was soon after 
seized and carried before the new gover- 
nor, who condemned him to be beheaded, 
which sentence was executed on the 14th 
of September, A. D. 258. 



|HE emperor Aurelian, A. D. ^merian, succeeded him; and during all J 

274, commenced a perse- \ these reigns the church had peace. ; 

cution against the Chris- >■ Dioclesian mounting the imperial throne, ) 

tians ; the principal suf- \ A. D. 284, at first showed great favor to the | 

ferers being \ Christians. In the year 286 he associated j 

Felix, bishop of Rome. ^ Maximian with him in the empire; and \ 

This prelate was advanced to the Roman s some Christians were put to death before \ 

see in 274. He was the first martyr to \ any general persecution broke out. Among | 

Aurelian's petulancy, being beheaded on \ these were { 

the 22d of September, in the same year. ^ Fklician and Primus, two brothers. | 

Agapetus, a young gentleman who sold ] These Christians were seized by an order | 

his estate and gave the money to the poor, >' from the imperial court : they owned them- ^ 

was seized as a Christian, tortured, and ? selves Christians, and were accordingly | 

then beheaded at Praeneste, a city within ! scourged, toitured, and at length beheaded. \ 

a day's journey of Rome. > Tiburtius, a native of Rome, was de- 

\ These are the only martyrs left upon \ scended from a considerable family ; not 

I record during this reign, as it was soon ] that any merit was due to him on that ac- 

!put a stop to by the emperor's being mur- '> count, for 
dered by his own domestics at Byzantium. 5 «< Those who on glorious ancestry enlarge, 
Aurelian was succeeded by Tacitus, who Produce their debt instead of their discharge." 

I was followed by Probus, as the latter was \ Being accused as a Christian, he was '> 
' by Carus : this emperor being killed by a > commanded either to sacrifice tp idols, or | 
■ thunder-storm, his sons, Carnius and Nu- \ to walk upon burning coals. He chose \ 


the latter, and passed over them without 
damage, when Fabian passed sentence 
upon him that he should be beheaded ; 
which sentence was performed in the 
month of August, A. D. 286, and his body 
was afterward buried by some Christians. 
In the year of Christ 286, a most re- 
markable affair occurred : a legion of sol- 
diers, consisting of 6,666 men, contained 

ways be ready to obey, as we have been 
hitherto ; but when the orders of our prince 
and those of the Almighty differ, we must 
always obey the latter. Our arms are de- 
voted to the emperor's use, and shall be } 
directed against his enemies ; but we can ' 
not submit to stain our hands with effusion '. 
of Christian blood ; and how, indeed, could I 
you, O emperor ! be secure of our allegi- 

none but Christians. This legion was ? ance and fidelity, should we violate our 
called the Theban legion, because the men i obligation to our God, in whose service we 
had been raised in Thebaus : they were \ were solemnly engaged before we entered 
quartered in the east till the emperor Max- ^ in the army ? You coiumand us to search 
imian ordered them to march to Gaul, to ; out and to destroy the Christians : it is not 
assist him against the rebels of Burgundy. < necessary to look any farther for persons 
They passed the Alps into Gaul, under of that denomination ; we ourselves are 
the command of Mauritius, Candidus, and such, and we glory in the name. We saw 
Exupernis, their worthy commanders, and our companions fall without the least op 

at length joined the emperor. 

position or murnuiring, and thought them 

Maximian, about this time, ordered a happy in dying for the sake of Christ. 
l general sacrifice, at which the whole army Nothing shall make us lift up our hands 
\ were to assist; and likewise he command- 1 against our sovereign ; we had rather die 
\ ed that they should take oaths of allegiance, wrongfully, and by that means preserve 

and swear at the same time to assist him in 
the extirpation of Christianity in Gaul. • 

Alarmed at these orders, each individual 
of the Theban legion absolutely refused 
either to sacrifice, or take the oaths pre- 
sf^- Ibed. This so greatly enraged Max- 

our innocence, than live under a load of 
guilt ; whatever you command, we are 
ready to suffer ; we confess ourselves to 
be Christians, and therefore can not perse- 
cute Christians, nor sacrifice to idols." 
A declaration like this, it might be pre- 

.ian, that he ordered the legion to be sumed, would have softened the emperor, 

ecimated, that is, every tenth man to be 

selected from the rest, and put to the sword. 

. This bloody order having been put into 

< execution, those who remained alive were 
t still inflexible, when a second decimation 
\ took place, and every tenth man of those 

< living were again put to death. 

i This second severity made no more im- 
J pression than the first had done ; the sol- 

but it had the contrary effect : for, enraged 
at their perseverance and unanimity, he 
commanded that the whole legion should 
be put to death, which was accordingly 
executed by the other troops, who cut them 
to pieces with their swords. 

This affair happened on the 22d Sep- 
tember, A. D. 286 ; and such was the in- 
veterate malice of Maximian, that he sent 

\ diers preserved their fortitude and their to destroy every man of a few detachments 

J principles, but by the advice of their of- 
\ ficers, drew up a remonstrance to the em- 
I peror, in which they told him, that they 
I were his subjects and his soldiers, but 
'i could not at the same time forget the Al- 
'. mighty ; that they received their pay from 

that had been draughted from the Theban 
legion, and despatched to Italy. 

Alb AN, from whom St. Alban's, in Heit 
fordshire, received its name, was the first 
British martyr. This island had received 
the gospel of Christ from Lucius, the first 

\ him, and their existence from God. •' While ] Christian king, but did not suffer by the 
I your commands are not contradictory to '/ rage of persecution for many years after. | 
J those of our common Master, we shall al- \ Alban was originally a pagan, but being \ 



naturally of a very humane and tender dis- 
position, he sheltered a Christian ecclesi- 
astic named Amphibalus, when some of- 
ficers were in pursuit of him on account of 
his religion. 

The pious example and edifying dis- ; 
courses of the refugee, made a great im- 
pression on the mind of Alban ; he longed ; 
to become a member of a religion which : 
charmed him, and to imitate what he ad- : 
mired. The fugitive minister, happy in : 
the opportunity, took great pains to instruct : 
him ; and before his discovery, perfected : 
Alban's conversion. 

Alban now took the firm resolution to 
preserve the sentiments of a Christian, or : 
die the death of a martyr. The enemies 
of Amphibalus having intelligence of the 
place where he was secreted, came to the 
house of Alban in order to apprehend him. 

Alban, desirous of protecting his guest 
and instructor, changed clothes with him in 
order to facilitate his escape ; and when 
the soldiers came, offered himself up as the | 
person they were seeking for. | 

Being, carried before the governor, the | 
deceit was immediately discovered ; and ' 
Amphibalus being absent, that officer de- '• 
termined to wreak all his vengeance upon ; 

The prisoner was accordingly command- 
ed to advance to the altar, and to sacrifice 
to the pagan deities ; or threatened, in 
case of refusal, with the vengeance intend- 
ed to be exercised against the person who 
had escaped by his contrivance. 

Unterrified by these menaces, he de- 
clared that he would not comply with such ; 
idolatrous injunctions, but freely professed 
himself to be a Christian ; and breathed 
out such sentiments as these : — 

" The Christian beam 


Illuminates my faith, and bids me trust 
All that may happen to the will of Heaven 

* • » « • 

New force inspires me, and my strengthened soul 
Feels energy divine : the fair example 
Of steadfast martyrs, and of dying saints, 
Has warmed me to better thoughts : I now 
Can with a smile behold misfortune's face, 
And think the weight of miseries a trial. 
The heavenly precepts brighten to my mind : 

No useful part of dutj' left behind : \ 

Here the consenting priiicipies unite, I 

A beam divine directs our steps aright, | 

And shows the moral in the Christian light.' ] 


Thegovernor ordered him to be scourged, j 

which he bore with great fortitude, and | 

seemed to acquire new resolution from his | 

sufferings : he then was sentenced to be > 

beheaded. t 

The venerable Bede assures us that, / 

upon this occasion, the executioner sud- | 

denly became a convert to Christianity, / 

and entreated permission either to die for ^ 

Alban, or with him. Obtaining the latter > 

request, they were beheaded by a soldier, > 

who voluntarily undertook the task of exe- i 

cutioner. This happened on the 22d of ^ 

June, A. D. 287, at Verulam, now St. Al- / 

ban's, in Hertfordshire, where a magnifi- j 

cent church was erected to his memory | 

about the time of Constantine the Great. > 

This edifice being destroyed in the Saxon - 

wars, was rebuilt by Offa, king of Mercia, | 

and a monastery erected adjoining to it, / 

some remains of which are still visible, ^ 

and the church is a noble Gothic structure. > 

QuiNTiN was a Christian, and a native j 

of Rome, but determined to attempt the > 

propagation of the gospel in Gaul. He • 

accordingly went to Picardy, attended by ; 

one Lucian : they preached together at ^ 

Amiens ; after which Lucian went to > 

Beawaris, where he was martyred. i 

Quintin remained in Picardy, and was / 

very zealous in his ministry. His con- ( 

tinual prayers to the Almighty were, to in- | 

crease his faith, and strengthen his facul- | 

ties to propagate the gospel. The breath- ' 

ings of his soul might be well expressed i 

in the following lines : — 

" Awful heaven ! 
Great ruler of the various hearts of man ! 
Since thou hast raised me to conduct thy church 
Without the base cabal too often practised, 
Beyond my wish, my thought, give me the lights, 
The virtues, which that sacred trust requires : 
A loving, loved, unterrifying power, 
Such as becomes a father ; humble wisdom ; 
Plain, primitive sincerity ; kind zeal 
For truth and virtue rattier than opinions ; 
And, above all, the charitable soul 
Of healing peace and Christian moderation." 

Being seized upon as a Christian, he- 
was stretched with pulleys till his joints 



were dislocated : his body was then torn J Varus, the governor, being obliged to re- 
with wire scourges, and boiling oil and < pair to Vermandois, ordered Quintin to be 
pitch poured on his naked flesh : lighted < conducted thither under a strong guard, 
torches were applied to his sides and arm- < where he died of the barbarities he had 
pits ; and after he had been thus tortured, < suffered, on the 31st of October, A. D. 287 ; 
he was remanded back to prison. ' and his body was sunk in the Somme. 



E VERAL reasons have been 
assigned for the occasion 
of this persecution, par- 
ticularly the great increase 
of the Christians, whose 
numbers rendered them 
< formidable ; many of them having lost their 
; humility, and given themselves up to vanity, 
I by dressing gay, living sumptuously, build- 
5 ing stately edifices for churches, &c., 
I which created envy ; and the hatred of 

> Galerius, the adopted son of Dioclesian, 

> who being stimulated by his mother, a 
' bigoted pagan, never ceased persuading 
) the emperor to enter upon the persecution 
I till he had accomplished his purpose. 

I The fatal day fixed upon to commence 
I the bloody work, was the 23d of February, 
I A. D. 303, that being the day in which the 

> Terminalia were celebrated, and on which, 

> as the pagans boasted, they hoped to put 
j a termination to Christianity. 

I On the day appointed, the persecution 
i began in Nicomedia, on the morning of 
j which the praefect of that city repaired, 
with a great number of ofiicers and assist- 
ants, to the church of the Christians, where, 
having forced open the doors, they seized 
upon all the sacred books, and committed 
I them to the flames. 

1 The whole of this transaction was in the 

I presence of Dioclesian and Galerius, who, 

not content with burning the books, had 

the church levelled with the ground. This 

was followed by a severe edict command- < 

ing the destruction of all other Christian \ 
churches and books ; and an order soon 
succeeded to render Christians of all de- 
nominations outlaws, and consequently to 
make them incapable of holding any place 
of trust, profit, or dignity, or of receiving 
any protection from the legal institutions 
of the realm. 

The publication of this edict occasioned 
an immediate martyrdom ; for a bold Chris- 
tian not only tore it down from the place 
, to which it was affixed, but execrated the 
name of the emperor for his injustice. 

A provocation like this was sufficient to 
: call down pagan vengeance upon his head ; 
: he was accordingly seized, severely tor- 
; tured, and then burnt alive. 
; All the Christian prelates were then ap- 
; prehended and imprisoned ; and Galerius 
; privately ordered the imperial palace to be 
; set on fire, that the Christians might be 
! charged as the incendiaries, and a plausi- 
! ble pretence given for carrying on the per- 
l secution with the greatest severities. 

A general sacrifice was commanded,' 
; which occasioned various martyrdoms. 
; Among others a Christian named Pkter 
! was tortured, broiled, an8 then burnt ; seve- 
J ral deacons and presbyters were seized 
; upon and executed by various means ; and 
; the bishop of Nicomedia, named Anthi- 
( Mus, was beheaded. 
\ No distinction was made of age or sex ; 



the name of Christian was so obnoxious 
to the pagans, that all fell indiscriminately 
I sacrifices to their opinions. Many houses 
] were set on fire, and whole Christian fami- 
\ lies perished in the flames ; and others 
I had stones fastened about their necks, and 
I being tied together were driven into the 
> sea. The persecution became general in 
i all the Roman provinces, but more par- 
I ticularly in the east ; and as it lasted ten 
\ years, it is impossible to ascertain the num- 
bers martyred, or to enumerate the various 
modes of martyrdom : some were beheaded 
in Arabia ; many devoured by wild beasts 
in Phoenicia ; great numbers were broiled 
on gridirons in Syria ; others had their 
bones broken, and in that manner were 
left to expire in Cappadocia ; and several 
in Mesopotamia were hung with their heads 
downward over slow fires, and suffocated. 
In Pontuo, a variety of tortures were 
used, in particular, pins were thrust imder 
the nails of the prisoners, melted lead was 
poured upon them, and various modes were 
adopted in tormenting the Christians, the 
indecency of which could be only equalled 
by the savage barbarities practised in their 

In Egypt the Christians were martyred 
by means of the four elements, some were 
buried alive in the earth, others were drown- 
edin the waters of the Nile, many were hung 
up in the air till they perished, and great 
numbers received their death by being 
thrown into large fires. 

Racks, scourges, swords, daggers, 
crosses, poison, and famine, were made 
use of in various parts to despatch the 
Christians ; and invention was exhausted 
to devise tortures against such as had no 
crime, but thinking difl'erently from the 
votaries of superstition. 

A city of Phrygia, consisting entirely 
of Christians, was surrounded by a number 
of pagan soldiers to prevent any from es- 
caping ; who setting it on fire, all the in- 
habitants perished in the flames. But 
though the sufl^erings of the Christians 
were many, their souls were serene : a 

perfect lesignation to the chastisements of 
Heaven being one of the greatest Christian 
duties ; for, as a learned divine says : — 

" Naked as from the earth we came, 
And crept to life at first, 
We to the earth return again. 
And mingle with our dust. 

" The dear delights we here enjoy, 
And fondly call our own, 
Are but short favors borrowed now, 
To be repaid anon. 

" 'Tis God that lifts our comforts high, 
Or sinks them in the grave ; 
He gives, and blessed be his name, 
He takes but what he gave." 

Tired with slaughter, at length, several 
governors of provinces represented to the 
imperial court that it was " unfit to pollute 
the cities with the blood of the inhabitants, 
or to defame the government of the em- 
perors with the death of so many subjects." 
Hence many were respited from execu- 
tion, but though they did not put them to 
death, as much as possible was done to 
render their lives miserable. 

Accordingly, as marks of infamy, many 
of the Christians had their ears cut off, 
their noses slit, their right eyes put out, 
their limbs rendered useless by dreadful 
dislocations, and their flesh seared in con- 
spicuous places with red-hot irons. 

It is necessary now to particularize the 
most conspicuous persons who laid down 
their lives in martyrdom in this bloody per- 

Vitus, a Sicilian of a considerable fam- 
ily, was brought up a Christian ; when his 
virtues increased with his years, his con- 
stancy supported him under all afflictions, 
and his faith was superior to the most dan- 
gerous perils. 

His father, Hylas, who was a pagan, 
finding that Jie had been instructed in the 
principles of Christianity by the nurse who 
brought him up, did all his endeavors to 
bring him back to paganism. 

Failing in his design, he forgot all the 
feelings of a parent, and informed against 
his son to Valerian, governor of Sicily, 
who was very active in persecuting the 

•i b2 


Vitus, at the time of his being appre- 
hended upon the information of his father, 
was little more that twelve years of age ; 
Valerian, therefore, on account of his ten- 
der age, thought to frighten him out of his 
faitn. He was accordingly threatened with 
great anger, and ordered to be scourged 

Having received this punishment, the 
governor sent him back to his father, think- 
ing that what he had suffered would cer- 
tainly mnke him change his principles : but 
in this he was mistaken ; and Hylas, find- 
ing his son inflexible, suffered nature to 
sink under superstition, and determined to 
sacrifice his son to the idols. 

Vitus, on being apprized of his design, 
escaped to Lucania, where being seized, 
he was by order of Valerian put to death 
June 14, A. D. 303 ; but in what manner 
we are not informed. 

Crescentia, the nurse who brought 
him up as a Christian, and a person who 
escaped with him, called Modestus, were 
martyred at the same time. 

Victor was a Christian of a good family 
at Marseilles, in France ; he spent a great 
part of the night in visiting the afflicted, 
and confirming the weak, which pious work 
he could not, consistent with his own safety, 
perform in the daytime ; and his fortune he 
spent in relieving the distresses of poor 
Christians, thinking that riches were use- 
less unless subservient to works of charity, 
and otherwise employed, were a bane to 

" Mark whore yon mines their radiant stores unfold, 
Peru's rich dust, or Chili's heds of gold : 
Insidious bane, that makes destruction, smooth ; 
Thou foe to virtue, liberty, and truth: ; 

Whose arts the fate of monarchies decide, ; 

Who gddst deceit, the darling child of pride : ; 

How oft allured by thy persuasive charms, | 

Have earth's contending jjowers appeared in arms ! \ 
What nations bribed have owned thy jjowerfid reign, I 
For thee what inillinris ploughed the stormy main, ! 
Travelled from pole to j)ole with ceaseless toil, ; 
And felt their blood alternate freeze and boil !" 

He was at length, however, seized by 
thvi emperor's orders, and being carried be- 
fore two prrcfects, they advised him to em- 
brace paganism, and not forfeit the favor 
of his prince, on account of a dead man, as 

he styled Christ. In answer to which he 
replied, that he "preferred the service of 
that dead man, who was in reality the Son 
of God, and was risen from the grave, to 
all the advantages he could receive from 
the emperor's favor ; that he was a soldier 
of Christ, and would therefore take care 
that the post he held under an earthly prince, 
should never interfere with his duty to the 
King of heaven ; and that as for the gods, 
whose worship they recommended to him, 
he could not think them any better than 
evil spirits." 

He was loaded with reproaches for this 
reply, but being a man of rank, he was 
sent to the emperor to receive his final sen- 

Being by order stretched upon the rack, 
he turned his eyes toward heaven, and 
prayed to God to endue him with patience ; 
after which he underwent the tortures with 
most admirable fortitude. After the execu- 
tioners were tired with inflicting torments 
on' hiiTi, he was taken from the rack and 
conveyed to a close dark dungeon. He 
was afterward sentenced to be thrown into 
a mill, and crushed to pieces with the 

'This cruel sentence was, in some meas- 
ure, put into execution ; Victor was thrown 
into the mill, but part of the apparatus 
breaking, he was drawn from it terribly j 
bruised ; and the emperor not having pa- > 
tience to stay till it was mended, ordered > 
his head to be struck off, which was ex- i 
ecuted accordingly, A. D. 303. * 

Andronicus was next brought up for / 
examination, when being asked the usual 
questions, he said : " I am a Christian, a 
native of Ephesus, and descended from one 
of the first families in that city." After a 
great deal of altercation, in which the gov- 
ernor was unsuccessful in endeavoring to j 
dissuade him froiH his fate, he was ordered 
to undergo punishnicnts similar to those of 
Tarachus and Probus, and then to be re- 
manded to prison. 

After being confined some days, the 
three prisoners were brought before Max- 




iinus again, who begaa first to reason with 
Tarachus, saying that as old age was hon- 
ored from the supposition of its being ac- ; 
companied by wisdom, he was in hopes that 
what had already past must, upon delibera- ; 
tion, have caused a change in his senti- ; 
ments. Finding himself, however mista- : 
ken, he ordered him to be tortured by vari- ; 
ous means ; particularly, fire was placed : 
in the palms of his hands ; he was hung : 
up by his feet, and smoked with wet straw ; ; 
a mixture of salt and vinegar was poured : 
into his nostrils ; and he was then again 
remanded to prison. 

Probus being then called for, and asked 
if he would sacrifice, replied : " I come bet- 
ter prepared than before ; for what I have 
already suffered has only confirmed and 
strengthened me in my resolution. Em- 
ploy your whole power upon me, and you 
will find that neither you nor your masters, 
the emperors, nor the gods whom you 
serve, nor the devil who is your father, 
shall oblige me to adore gods whom I know 

The governor then attempted to reason 
with him on religious subjects ; for having 
a slender education, he was proud of show- 
ing his talents ; for those who know little 
are fond of talking much, and by mistaking 
casuistry for reason, would fain deceive 
others as they do themselves. He launched 
forth into the most extravagant praises of 
the pagan deities, and as he enumerated 
them described their respective powers 
and separate virtues ; and inferred, from 
what himself had said, that such deities, 
possessed of such admirable qualities, 
ought to be worshipped. " However," 
continues he, " as your chief objection is 
against a plurality of gods, I will not press 
you to sacrifice to all of them ; sacrifice 
only to Jupiter, the chief, the most power- ; 
ful, and most invincible, of our deities." 

Probus, however, easily confuted his 
arguments, turned his casuistry to r.dicule, 
and in particular said : " Shall I pay divine 
honors to Jupiter, to one who married his 
own sister to an infamous debauchee, as is 

even acknowledged by your own poets and 
priests ?" 

Incensed at this speech, the governor 
ordered him to be struck upon the mouth, 
for uttering what he called blasphemy ; his 
body was then seared with hot irons ; he 
was put to the rack and afterward scourged ; 
his head was then shaved, and hot coals 
placed upon the crown ; and after all 
these tortures he was again sent to con- 

Andronicus being again brought before 
Maximus, the latter attempted to deceive 
him, by pretending that Tarachus and Pro- 
bus had repented of their obstinacy, and 
owned the gods of the empire. To this 
the prisoner answered : " Lay not, O gov- 
ernor, such a weakness to the charge of 
those, who have appeared here before me ! 
in this cause ; nor imagine it in your pow- | 
er to shake my fixed resolution with artful [ 
speeches. I can not believe that they have i 
disobeyed the laws of their fathers, re- ? 
nounced their hopes in our God, and obey- :; 
ed your extravagant orders : nor will I ever | 
fall short of them in faith and dependance > 
upon our common Savior : thus armed, I ? 
neither know your gods, nor fear your au- i 
thority ; fulfil your threats, execute your I 
most sanguinary inventions, and employ i 
every cruel art in your power on me ; I ^ 
am prepared to bear it for the sake of 

This answer occasioned him to be cru- 
elly scourged, and his wounds were after- 
ward rubbed with salt. Being perfectly 
well again in a short time, the governor 
reproached the jailer for having suffered 
some physician to attend him. The jailer, 
in his own defence, declared that no person 
whatever had been near him, or the other 
prisoners, and that he would willingly for- 
feit his head if any allegation of the kind | 
could be proved against him. Andronicus » 
corroborated the testimony of the jailer, ? 
and added, that the God whom he served ) 
was the most powerful of physicians, and > 
the plant of grace the most salutary of "c 
vegetables." \ 



" The sick and weak the healing plant shall aid, 
From storms a shelter, and from heat a shade ; 
No sigh, no murmur, the glad world shall hear, 
From every eye he wipes off every tear. 
The dumb shall speak, the lame his crutch forego. 
And leap exulting like the bounding roe ; 
In adamantine chains shall death be bound. 
And hell's grim tyrant feel the eternal wound." 

These three worthy Christians were 
brought to a third examination, when they 
retained their constancy, were again tor- 
tured, and at length ordered for execution. 

Being brought to the amphitheatre, sev- 
eral beasts were let loose upon them ; but 
none of the animals, though hungry, would 
touch them. This so greatly irritated Max- 
imus, that he severely reprehended the 
keeper, and ordered him to produce a beast 
that would execute the business for which 
he was wanted. Th^ keeper then brought 
out a large bear, that had that very day de- 
stroyed three men ; but this creature, and 
a fierce lioness, both refused to touch the 

Finding the design of destroying them 
by the means of wild beasts inefiectual, 
Maximus ordered them to be slain by a 
sword, which was accordingly executed on 
the 11th of October, A. D. 303. They 
all declared, previous to their martyrdom, 
that as death was the coinmon lot of all 
men, they wished to meet that for the sake 
of Christ, which they must of course fall 
a victim to on account of nature ; and to 
resign that life to faith, which must other- 
wise be the prey of disease. These sen- 
timents are noble, Christian-like, and phi- 
losophical ; for as death is certain, the 
time and mode are not of that importance 
commonly imagined. Even the world it- 
self will meet with death in its general 

" Now in a broader range the deluge raves. 

And rolls triunipliaut through the boiling waves 

O'er all the hills the rising (lames aspire, 

The mouniains blaze a mighty ridge of fire. 

Where stood the snow-crowiK-d Alj)s (an awful 

name !) 
Now rolled the doubling smoke, a spiry flame ; 
While o'er the Andes in a whirlwind driven, 
Burst the blue gleam, and darkness wrapt the heaven. 
Even Ktna rocks, with a reluctant groan. 
Sunk in a flame moT" dreadful than its own : 
A fiery stream the deep volcano pours, 
And from its nioiith incessant thunder roars. 
Each humbler vale partakes the general doom, 
The smiling meads resign their lovely bloom ; 

J Not Asia's fields the impetuois flood retain ; 
( It bounds with fury o'er the wide champaign ; 
I Whate'er to view revolving seasons bring, 
> Each opening flower, the painted child of spring, 
5 Bleak wmter's snow, with summer's rosy pride, 
'l And autumn's ripening stores, augment the tide : 
l On its broad wave it bears the shining spoil, 
I Hills burst, rocks melt, woods blaze, aud oceans 

I Marcellinus was an ecclesiastic at 
Rome : being apprehended on account of 
his religion, he was ordered to be privately 
executed in the forest, and was beheaded 
th&je accordingly. 

Peter, a Christian, apprehended for 
the same cause, was executed at the same 
time and place. 

Much about this period Smaragdus, 
Largus, and Cyriacus, a deacon of the 
Christian church, were martyred ; but the 
mode of their deaths is not specified by 

Susanna, the niece of Caius, bishop of 
Rome, was pressed by the emperor Diocle- 
sian to marry a noble pagan, who was 
nearly related to him. Susanna, however, 
refused the honor intended her, on account 
of her religion, which was that of a Chris- 
tian, which so greatly enraged the em- 
peror, that she was beheaded by his order. 

DoROTHEUS, the high-chamberlain of the 
\ household to Dioclesian, was a Christian, 
and took great pains to make converts. In 
his religious labors he was joined by Gor- 
GONius, another Christian, and one belong- 
ing to the palace. They were both high 
in the emperor's favor, but soon had an 
opportunity of evincing that worldly honors 
and temporary pleasures were nothing 
when set in competition with the joys of 
immortality ; for being informed against, 
they were first tortured and then strangled. 

Peter, a eunuch belonging to the em- 
peror, was a Christian of singular modesty 
and humility. Ilis humility caused him to 
undertake any menial ofilce to serve the 
afllicted ; and his benevolence occasioned 
him to give whatever he possessed, to those 
who needed assistance ; convinced that 
riches did not constitute happiness, and 
that want could give instructiont which 
wealth could never bestow. 


Being informed against as a Christian, ;: father was confined, and shared the very 
and confessing the charge, he was scourged > same fate as their parent. 

\ till his flesh was torn in a most terrible 
. manner ; and then salt and vinegar were 
I thrown upon the wounds. Having endured 
i. these tortures with the utmost tranquillity, 
I he was laid on a gridiron, and broiled 
\ over a slow fire till he expired. 

< Saturninus, a priest o*" Albitina, a 
j town of Africa, used to officiate in his 
I clerical capacity, preach, and administer 
X the sacrament, to a society of Christians, 

< who privately assembled at the house of 
I. Octavius Felix ; for the severity of the 

< times were such that they could not pub- 
\ licly perform their religious duties. 

{ Being informed against, Saturninus, with 
I four of his children, and several other 
\ persons, were apprehended ; and that their 
, punishment might be the more exemplary 
] and public, they were sent to Carthage, the 
\ capital of all Africa, where they were ex- 
j amined before Anulinus, the proconsul of 
^ that quarter of the globe. 

> On the examination, Saturninus gave 
5 such spirited answers, and vindicated the 

> Christian religion with such force of elo- 
\ quence, as showed that he was worthy to 

> preside over an assembly that professed a 
\ faith of purity and truth. Anulinus, en- 
\ raged at his superior arguments, which he 
\ could not confute, ordered him to be stopped 

from saying any more, by being put to a 
variety of tortures, such as scourging, tear- 
ing his flesh with hooks, burning with hot 
irons, &c. All this he bore with the most 

Eight other Christians were tor- \ 
tured on the same day as Saturninus, and | 
much in the same manner. Two expired \ 
on the spot through the severity of their \ 
suff'erings, and the other six being sent \ 
back to prison, were suflrtcated by means \ 
of the closeness of the dungeon. \ 

Victor, a native of Ancyra, was accused \ 
by the priests of Diana, of having abused < 
their goddess. For this imputed crime he > 
was seized upon, committed to prison, his t 
house plundered, his family turned out of \ 
doors, and his estate confiscated. < 

Being put to the rack, his resolution ; 
failed him, and he besran to waver in his \ 
faith through the severity of the torments. \ 
Being carried back to prison, in order to \ 
make a full recantation, God punished him \ 
for his intended apostacy ; for his wounds \ 
mortified, and put an end to his life in a | 
few days. \ 

Timothy, a worthy Christian, being | 
carried before Urban, governor of Pales- \ 
tine, was sentenced to be burned to death 
by a slow fire ; which sentence was exe- 
cuted at Gaza, in the year 304, on the 19th 
day of August. 

Philip, bishop of Heraclea, had, in 
every act of his life, appeared as a good 
Christian ; the chief of his disciples were 
Severus, a priest, and Her.aies, a deacon ; 
and these three did all in their power to 
promote the cause of Christianity. 

This worthy bishop was advised to se- 

manjy patience, breathing such generous i crete himself, in order to avoid the storm 
and pure sentiments as these :— | of the persecution ; but he reproved those 

\ who counselled him so to do, telling them 

" O heaven-born patience, source of peace and rest, ' ,i , .i • •» u i ^u„„„„,i u,r «V.«i» 

Descend ; infuse thy spirit through my breast, \ that their merit would be enhanced by their 

That I may calmly meet the hour of fate, 
My foes forgive, and triumph o'er their hate. 
This body let their engines tear and grind. 
But let not all their racks subdue my mind." 

After being tortured he was remanded to 
prison, and there starved to death. 

The four children of Saturninus, 
after being variously tormented, remained > 
steady in their faith, on which they were ] 
sent back to the dungeon in which their \ 

sufferings, and that death had no terror for > 

the virtuous. ) 

" Him fortune can not sink, nor much elate, s 

Whose views extend beyond this mortal state ; | 

By age when summoned to resign his breath, | 

Calm and serene he sees approaching death ; | 

As the safe port, the peaceful silent shore, _ } 

Where he may rest, life's tedious voyage o'er ; 5 

He, and he only is of death afraid, } 

Whom his own conscience has a coward made ; j 

While he who virtue's radiant course has run, | 

Descends like a serenely-setting sun, ' 



His thoughts triumphant heaven alone employs, 
And hope anticipates his future joys." 

An officer named Aristomachus, being 
I employed to shut up the Christian churches 
\ in Heraclea, Philip took great pains to con- 
l vince him that the shutting up of buildings 

< made by hands could not destroy Christi- 
] anity, while the living temples of the Lord 
\ remained : for the true faith consisted not 
I in the places where God is adored, but in 
I the hearts of those who adore him. 

< Being, however, denied entrance into 

< the church, where he used to preach, 

< Philip took up his station at the door, and 

< there exhorted the people to patience and 
I perseverance. 

< These things caused him to be seized 

< and carried before the governor, who se- 
I verely reprimanded him, and then contin- 
ued to speak sternly in these words : 
•' Bring all the vessels used in your wor- 
ship, and the scriptures which you read 
and teach the people, and surrender them 
to me, before you are forced thereto by 
tortures." — " If," replied the bishop, " you 
take any pleasure in seeing us suffer, we 
are prepared for the worst you can do. 
This infirm body is in your power ; use it 
as you please. The vessels you demand 
shall be delivered up, for God is not hon- 
ored by gold and silver, but by the fear of 
his power ; the ornaments of the souls of 
his servants are more pleasing to him than 
the decorations of churches : but as to the 
sacred books, it is neither proper for me to 
part with them, nor for you to receive 
them." This answer so much incensed the 
governor, that he ordered one Mucassor, a 
person particularly distinguished for inhu- 
manity, to torture the prelate. Hermes, 
expressing himself freely against such 
barbarities, was likewise ordered to be 

Proceeding to the place where the ] 
scriptures and the church-plate were kept, 
both wore seized by the pagans ; the 
church was unroofed, the doors were 
walled up, the plate was embezzled, arid 
I the scriptures were burned. 

Philip being taken to the market-place, '- 

was ordered to sacrifice to the Roma*i 5 

deities in general, and to a very handsome < 

image of Hercules in particular; to which i 

command, " Alas !" replied the prelate, / 

" how unhappy are you, who are thus >' 

grossly mistaken in the nature of the deity, | 

and so ignorant in the truth, as to worship '< 

your own workmanship: what value is \ 

there in gold, silver, brass, iron, or lead, | 

which are dug out of the earth ? You are . 

unacquainted with the divinity of Christ, [ 

which is incomprehensible to human ca- \ 
pacities ; but what power can your idols 

boast, which are made by base mechanics, 5 

a drunken statuary, or a debauched carver, i 

and tricked up by the arts of the tailor, and ^ 

the goldsmith 1 and 'yet these are your ^ 

gods." And after some other observations ) 

on the absurdities of the pagan religion, he • 

concluded, that, from what he had already ) 

said, it appeared that the heathens wor- > 

shipped what might lawfully be trod on, > 
and made gods of such things as Prov- 
idence had designed for their use. 

The governor then tried the constancy 
of Hermes, but finding him as inflexible as 

the bishop, he committed them both to / 

prison. Soon after this, the governor's '/ 

time of ruling their parts being expired, a 5 

new governor named Justin arrived ; but he / 

was to the full as cruel as his predecessor, j 

Philip was dragged by the feet through ) 

the streets, severely scourged, and then ? 

brought again to the governor, who charged > 

him with obstinate rashness, in continuing j 

disobedient to the imperial decrees, but he ^ 

boldly replied : " My present behavior is ' 

not the effect of rashness, but proceeds ; 

from my love and fear of God, who made \ 

the world, and who will judge the living ! 
and the dead, whose commands I dare not 
transgress. I have hitherto done my duty 

to the emperors, and am always ready to ! 

comjjly with their just orders, according to \ 

the doctrine of our Lord Christ, who bids < 

us give both to Cajsar and to God their « 

due ; but I am obliged to prefer heaven to j 

earth, and to obey God rather than man." \ 


— 'M 
59 \ 

The governor, on hearing this speech, 

immediately passed sentence upon him to 

^ be burnt, which was executed accordingly, 

and the martyr expired, singing praises to 

God in the midst of the flames. 

Agricola, as we are informed by St. 

Ambrose, was a Christian of so very amia- 

I ble a disposition, that he even gained the 

> esteem and admiration of many pagans. 

> Being apprehended as a Christian, he was 
'( crucified in imitation of the death of our 
{ Savior ; and his body, together with the 

> cross, were buried in one grave, at Bologne, 
\ in Italy. 

5 ViTALis, the servant and convert of the 

I above martyr, Agricola, was seized upon 

\ on the same accoimt as his master, and 

being put to torture, died under the hands 

of his tormentors, through the severity of 

his sufferings. 

VicTORius Carpophorus, Severus, and 
Severianus, were brothers, and all four 
employed in places of great trust and honor 
in the city of Rome. Having exclaimed 
against the worship of idols, they were ap- 
prehended and scourged with the plumbetse, 
or scourges, to the ends of which were 
\ fastened leaden balls. This punishment 
I was exercised with such excess of cruelty, 
s that the pious brothers fell martyrs to its 
i severity. 

I Chrysogonus, a worthy Christian of 
; Aquileia, was beheaded by order of Dio- 
I clesian, for having instructed a young lady 
\ of that city in the Christian faith. 
\ Anastasia, the young lady brought up 
I by the foregoing martyr, was descended 
I from an illustrious Roman family. Her 
'( mother, named Flavia, was a Christian, 
< and dying while her daughter was an in- 
$ fant, she bequeathed her to the care of 
f Chrysogonus, with a strict injunction to 
I instruct her in the principles of Christian- 

> ity. This Chrysogonus punctually per- 
formed ; but the father of the young lady, 

i who was a pagan, gave her in marriage to 
'/ a person of his own persuasion, named 
j Publius. 
j The husband was of a good family, but 

bad morals, and having spent his wife's and 
his own patrimony, he had the baseness to 
inform against her as a Christian. 

Publius, however, dying soon after, his 
wife was released ; but continuing to per- 
form many charitable acts to distresspd 
Christians^ she was again apprehended 
and delivered up to Florus, governor of 
Illyricum. Florus commanded that she 
should be put to the torture, when finding 
her constant in the faith, he ordered her to 
be burnt, which sentence was put in ex- 
ecution on December 25, A. D. 304. The 
event taking place about a month after the 
martyrdom of Chrysogonus her instructor. 

MouRis and Thea, two Christian women 
of Gaza, were martyred in that city some 
time in the year 304. The former died 
under the hands of her tormenters, and the 
latter perished in prison, of the wounds 
she had received in being tortured 

Amphianus was a gentleman of eminence 
in Lucia, and a scholar to Eusebius ; pres- 
sing through the crowd while the procla- 
mation for sacrificing to idols was read, he 
caught the governor, Urbianus, by the hand, 
and severely reproved him for his impiety. 

The governor being highly incensed at 
this freedom, ordered him to be put to the 
torture, and then thrown into the sea, in 
the waves of which he expired. 

iEoKsius, brother to the above martyr, 
was, for nearly the same ofl^ence, much 
about the same time, martyred in a similar 
maimer at Alexandria. 

JuLiTTA, a Lyconian of royal descent, 
but more celebrated for her virtues than 
noble blood, w^as a Christian lady of great 

When the edict for sacrificing to idols 
was published at Iconium, she withdrew 
from that city to avoid the bigoted rage of 
Domitian, the governor, taking with her 
only her young son Cyricus, and two 
women servants. She was, however, seiz- 
ed at Tarsus, and being carried before 
Alexander, the governor, she acknowledged 
that she was a Christian. 

For this confession her son was taken 



i from her, and she was put to the rack, and , 
I tortured with great severity ; but she bore \ 
I all her sufferings with a true Christian for- s 

> titude. 

I Young Cyricus cried bitterly to get at 
; his mother , when the governor observing 
\ the beauty, and being melted at the tears 
I of the child, took him upon his knee and ] 
^ endeavored to pacify him. Nothing, how- 

> ever, could quiet Cyricus, he still called 
I upon the name of his mother, and at length, 

in imitation of her words, lisped out, " I 
\ am a Christian." This innocent expres- 
i sion converted the governor's compassion 
I into rage ; he lost the man in the bigot, 
I and throwing the child furiously against 
I the pavement, dashed out its brains. 
\ The mother, who from the rack beheld 
I the whole transaction, thanked the Al- 
^ mighty that her child was gone before her ; 
5 and she should be without any anxiety con- 
j cerning his future welfare, and certain that 
! now no advantage could be taken of his 
tender years, to pervert his principles, and 
defraud him of his salvation. 
I To complete the execution, Julitta had 
I boiling pitch poured on her feet, her sides 
5 torn with hooks, and received the conclu- 
\ sion of her martyrdom by being beheaded, 
I April 16, A. D. 305. (See engraving.) 
s Pantaleon, a native of Nicomedia, was 
s taught most branches of human learning by 
I his father, who was a pagan, and the pre- 
I cepts of the gospel by his mother, who 
I was a Christian. 

[ Applying to the study of medicine, he 
I became eminent in the knowledge of physic, 
and in process of time was appointed phy- 
sician to the emperor Galerius. 

His name in Greek signifies humane, and 
the appellation well suited his nature, for he 
was one of the most benevolent men living. 
He assisted the poor to the utmost, with his 
fortune ; and, by the help of God, his skill 
in physic was attended with the most as- 
tonishing success. 

His reputation roused the jealousy of the 
pagan physicians, who accused him to the 
s emperor. Galerius finding him a Chris- 


tian, which he had not before known, or- I 
dered him to be tortured, and then behead- j 
ed, which was done July 27, A. D. 305. ! 

Hermolaus, a venerable and pious 
Christian of a great age, and an intimate 1 
acquaintance of Pantaleon's, suffered mar- i 
tyrdom for his faith on the same day, and 
in the same manner as Pantaleon. 

Eustratius, secretary to the governor 
of Armenia, was thrown into a fiery fur- 
nace, for exhorting some Christians, who 
had been apprehended, to persevere in their 
faith. AuxEUTius, and Eugenius, two of j 
Eustratius's adherents, were burnt at Ni- \ 
copolis ; Mardarius, another friend of his, j 
expired under the hands of his tormentors ; | 
and Orestes, a military officer, was, for | 
wearing a golden cross at his breast, < 
broiled to death on a gridiron. I 

Theodore, a Syrian by birth, a soldier j 
by profession, and a Christian by faith, set 
fire to the temple of Cybele, in Amasia, 
through an honest indignation at the idol- 
atrous worship practised therein : for which 
being apprehended, he was severely 
scourged and then burnt, February 18, A. 
D. 306. 

Dorothy, a Christian of Cappadocia, ^ 
was, by the governor's order, placed under ] 
the care of two women, who had become | 
apostates to the faith, with a view that she < 
might be induced to follow their example, j 

Her discourses, however, had such an | 
effect upon the two apostates, that they be- < 
came reconverted, and were put to death l 
for not succeeding. Soon after which } 
Dorothy herself was tortured, and then be- i 
headed. 5 

Pancratius, or Pancrass, was a na- I 
tive of Phrygia, but being made a Chris- ; 
tian, and brought to Rome by his uncle, 
he there suffered martyrdom, being be- 
headed soon after the decease of his uncle, 
who died a natural death. 

Basiltdes, Nabor, Nazarios, and Cv- 
rinus, four worthy Christian oflicors at 
Rome, were thrown into pri.son for their ] 
faith, and being condemned wore sccmrged j 
with rods of wire and then beheaded. i 

^^..^.. V. ^ — ^_ m 






jHE gospel having spread \ The emperor then told him that if he did ) 

itself in Persia, the pa- < not kneel, he, and all the Christians in his i 

gan priests were greatly I dominions, should be put to death ; but | 

alarmed, and dreaded ) Simeon rejected with disdain the proposal $ 

the loss of that influence '/ to kneel, and told him that he would abide > 

which they had hitherto ^ the consequences. On this reply the em- \ 

maintained over the people's minds and i peror ordered him to be sent to prison, till > 

\ properties. Hence they thought it expe- > he had considered in what manner to pun- \ 

I dient to complain to the emperor that the $ ish him. 

J Christians were enemies to the state, and / A short time after, Simeon with his fel- 
\ held a treasonable correspondence with the S low-prisoners, was again examined, and > 
\ Romans, the great enemies of Persia. i commanded to worship the sun, agreeably \ 

I The emperor, being naturally averse to ^ to the Persian custom ; but this they all • 
/ Christianity," easily believed what was said i unanimously refused. The emperor then 
I against the Christians, and gave orders to I sentenced them to be beheaded, and they 

persecute them in all parts of his empire. ;. were executed accordingly. 
I On account of this mandate many fell mar- 1 Usthazares, an aged eunuch, who had 
\ tyrs to the ignorance and ferocity of the > been tutor to the emperor, and was in great 
j pagans, the suflTerings of the most eminent \ estimation at court, on observing Simeon, 
I of whom we shall enumerate. >the foregoing martyr, leading to prison, 

\ Simeon, archbishop of Selencia, v/ith ? saluted him. Simeon, however (as Ustha- 
I many other ecclesiastics, to the number of } zares had formerly been a Christian, and 
i a hundred and twenty-eight, were appre- 1 turned apostate from the faith to oblige the 
I hended and accused of having betrayed the | emperor), would not return his salute, but 

sharply reproved him for his apostacy. 

affairs of Persia to the Romans 
', The emperor being greatly exasperated 
J against them, ordered Simeon to be brought 
\ before him. The worthy archbishop cora- 
<. ing into his presence, boldly acknowledged 
I his faith, and nobly defended the cause of 
< Christianity. The emperor, being offend- 

This so affected the eunuch, that he burst 
into tears, and exclaimed : " Ah ! wo is 
me ! how shall I hereafter look upon my 
God, whom I have denied, when Simeon, 
my old companion, and familiar acquaint- 
ance, disdains to give me a gentle word, 
<. ed at his freedom, not only reproved him [ or to return my salute !" 
', for it, but ordered him to kneel before him, < The emperor, being told that his ancient 

5 as he had always done heretofore. 

tutor was greatly afflicted, sent for him, 

Simeon answered, that " before, having | and asked whether he desired or wanted 
the free admittance to his presence, he did '. anything which could be conferred upOn, 
not scruple to conform to the customary | or procured for him. To which the eunuch 
salutation of the country ; but being now | replied that there was nothing that he 
brought before him a prisoner, for the truth \ wanted which this earth could afford ; but 
of his religion, and the sake of his God, it j that his grief was of another kind, and for 
was not lawful for him to kneel, lest he I which he justly mourned, namely, that to 
should be thought to worship and to betray \ oblige him he had denied his God, and had 
his faith, which he was fully resolved to | dissemblingly worshipped the sun, against 
defend with his last breath." > his own conscience ; " for which," contin- 



ued he, " I am deserving of a double death, 5 Suenes, a Christian nobleman, refusing 
first, for denying of Christ, and secondly to deny Christ, had his wife taken from 
for dissembling with my king ; at the same I him, and given to one of the meanest of 
time solemnly protesting that he would \ the emperor's slaves ; and what added to 
nevermore forsake the Creator of the world, ] his mortification was, that he was ordered 
to worship the creatures which he had i to wait upon his wife and the slave, which 
made. I at length broke his heart. 

The emperor being greatly offended at 5 Theodoret, a deacon, was imprisoned 
the explanation of the cause of his grief, for the space of two years, and being re- 
ordered Ustliazares to be beheaded. While $ leased, was ordered not to preach the doc- 
he was going to the placg of execution, he I trine of Christ. Disregarding, however, 
desired that a messenger might be sent to I the order, he did his utmost to propagate 
the emperor, to request the favor that it I the gospel of Christ ; for which being 
might be proclnimed, that " Usthazares seized upon, he was miserably tormented, 
did not die a traitor for any crime against \ by having sharp reeds thrust under his 
the king or the state : but only that being \ nails ; and then a knotted branch of a tree 
a Christian, he would not deny his God." was forced up his body, and he expired in 
This petition, we are informed, was grant- > the greatest agonies. 

ed, and accordingly performed; which | Bademus, a Christian of Mesopotamia, 
was a great satisfaction to Usthazares, gave away his fortune to the poor, and de- 
whose chief reason for desiring it was, be- ; termined to devote his life to a religious 
cause his falling off from Christ had caused I retirement ; being filled with the humble 
many others to follow his example, who l sentiments thus finely described by the 
now hearing that he died for no crime but ; poet : — 
his r'jjigion, they might learn, like him, to / 
/eturn to Christ, and become fervent and J 
constant in the faith. Usthazares, being 
thus satisfied, cheerfully yielded his neck | 
,o the stroke of the executioner, and joy- j 
fully received his crown of martyrdom. | 

On the Good Friday, after the above ex- ' 
ecution, an edict was published, to put to ^ 

death all who confessed themselves Chris- '<, That liumblc virtue is the wisest choice." 
tians, on which occasion great multiludeb ( 

suffered. About this time the empress of < 'i'his inoffensive Christian, together with 
Persia falling sick, the sisters of Simeon, J seven others, were seized upon and cruelly 
the archbishop, were accused by some of j tortured for being Christians. The seven 
the magi, of being the occasion. This | Christians, who were apprehended with 
absurdity being believed, they were, by ', Bademus, received the crown of martyr- 
the emperor's order, sawed in quarters, and \ dom, though the particular manner is not 
their quarters fixed upon poles, between $ recorded : and Bademus himself, after 
which the empress passed as a charm to | having been four months in prison, was 
recover her. (See engraving.) | brought to the place of execution, and be- 

AcEPsiMUs, and many other clergymen, headed by Narscs, an apostate Christian, 
were sfized upon, and ordered to adore the | who was ordered to act as the executioner 
sun; which refusing, they were scourged, j of this worthy man, in order to convince 
and then tormented to death, or suffered to the emperor that he was sincere in the 
remain in prison till they perished. } renunciation of his faith. 

Blessed be his name, whose matchless goodness 

A fund of blessings and a choice of friends : 
Unawed by custom, tyrant of mankind, 
Faithful to reason, sovereign of tlie mind, 
Serene I steer ihroui^h life's tempestuous sea, 
My pilot faith, my ciiart Christianity. 
The wrecks of pride, the insoh-nce of power, 
I'^arth's transient glittering bubbles of an hour; 
Envenomed tongues; law with its mazy snares, 
The din of folly and the broil of wars, 
Proclaim to all, with one united voice. 





HE author of the Arian her- 
esy was Arius, a native of 
Libya, and a priest of 
Alexandria, who, in A. D. 
318, began to publish his 
errors. He was condemn- 
ed by a council of the Libyan and Egyp- 
tian bishops, and that sentence was con- 
firmed by the council of Nice, A. D. 325. 
After the death of Constantine the Great, 
the Arians found means to ingratiate them- 
selves into the favor of Constantius, his 
son and successor in the east ; and hence 
a persecution was raised against the or- 
thodox bishops and clergy. The celebra- 
ted Athanasius and other bishops were 
banished, and their sees filled with Arians. 
In Egypt and Libya thirty bishops were 
martyred, and many other Christians cru- 
elly tormented ; and, A. D. 336, George, 
the Arian bishop of Alexandria, under the 
authority of the emperor, began a perse- 
cution in that city, and its environs, and 
carried it on with the most infernal sever- 
ity. He was assisted in his diabolical 
malice by Catophonius, governor of Egypt ; 
Sebastian, general of the Egyptian forces ; 
Faustinus, the treasurer ; and Heraclius, 
a Roman officer. 

The persecution now raged in such a 
manner, that the clergy were driven from 
Alexandria, their churches were shut, and 
the severities practised by the Arian here- 
tics were as great as those which had been 
practised by the pagan idolators. If a man 
accused of being a Christian, made his es- 
cape, then his whole family were massa- 
cred, and his effects confiscated. / 
The orthodox Christians, being now de-> 
privnd of all places of public worship in ( 
the city of Alexandria, used to perform \ 
their devotions in a desert place, at some \ 
distance from it. Assembling for this i 
purpose on a Trinity Sunday, George, the j 
I 5 

I Arian bishop, engaged Sebastian, the gen- 
^eral, to fall upon them with his soldiers, 
i while they were at prayers. On this oc- 
casion several fella sacrifice to the popular 
^fury of the troops, and received the crown 
I of martyrdom for no other offence than per- 
aorming necessary acts of piety. The 
I modes of cruelty were various, a«d the 
^degrees difl'erent ; for they were beaten 
I over their faces till all their features were 
s disfigured; then they were lashed with 
hwigs of palm-trees, newly cut, with such 
violence, that they expired under the blows, 
or by the mortification of the wounds. 

Many, whose lives had been spared, 
were, however, banished to the deserts of 
Oasis, where they suffered unspeakable 
hardships ; but their exile admitted of their 
indulgence of the most pious thoughts, and 
their sorrows were of a salutary nature. 

'' Alas, how vain is happiness below, 
Man soon or late must have his share of wo ; 
Slight are his joys, and fleeting as the wind, 
His griefs wound home, and leave a sting behind ; 
His lot distinguished, from the brute appears, 
Less certain by his laughter than his tears ; 
For ignorance too oft our pleasure breeds. 
But sorrow from the reasoning soul proceeds." 

Secundus, an orthodox priest, diflfering 
in point of doctrine from a prelate of the 
same name ; the bishop, who had imbibed 
all the heretical opinions of Arianism, de- 
termined to put Secundus to death for re- 
jecting opinions which he had thought 
proper to embrace. Taking one Stephen 
with him, who was as much an Arian as 
himself, they sought out Secundus privately, 
and being unable to make him change his 
opinion, they fell upon and murdered him ; 
when the holy martyr, just before he ex- 
pired, called upon Christ to receive his 
soul, and to forgive his executioners. 

Not content with the cruelties exercised 
upon the orthodox Christians in Alexandria, 
the principal persecutors applied to the em- 
peror for an order to banish them from 




{ Egypt and Libya, and to put their churches / 
f into the possession of the Arians. > 

{ They obtained their request, and an or- 1 
I der was sent for that purpose to Sebastian, > 
the commander-in-chief of the Roman for- '< 
I ces in those provinces. < 

I As soon as the general received the or- i 
i der, he signified the emperor's pleasure to ■' 
I all the sub-governors and officers, and com- ■ 
I manded that the mandate should be imme- 
( diately put into execution. Hence a great 
>. -number of the clergy were seized, and 
I imprisoned for examination; when it ap- 
\ pearing that they adopted the opinions of 
< Athanasius, an order was signed for their 
i banishment into the most wild, uncultivated, 
) and desert places. Thus were the ortho- 
l dox clergy used, and many of the laity 
; were condemned to the mines, or compel- 
'. led to work in the quarries. Some few 
s indeed escaped to other countries, and sev- 
l eral were weak enough to renounce their 
5 faith, in order to avoid the severities of the 
\ persecution. 

'< Paul, the bishop of Constantinople, was 
' a Macedonian by birth, and was designed, 
from his birth, for a clerical life. 

When Alexander, the predecessor of 
i Paul, was on his deathbed, he was con- 
/ suited by some of the clergy on the choice 
I of a successor ; when, we are informed, 
'/ he told them that, " if they were disposed 
> to choose a person of an exemplary life, 
I unexceptionable character, and thoroughly 
capable of instructing the people, Paul was 
f the man ; who, though young, had all the 
j prudence and gravity of more advanced 
' age ; but if they had rather have a person 
I of a well-composed appearance, acquainted 
with worldly affairs, and fit for the conver- 
sation of a court, they might then choose 
Macedonius, who had all the proper quali- 
fications. Macedonius was a deacon in 
the church of Constantinople, in which 
office he had spent many years, and gained 
great experience ; and the dying prelate 
did both him and Paul justice in their dif- \ 
ferent characters. Nevertheless, the Ari- 
ans, with- their accustomed disingenuous- 

ness, gave out, that Alexander had be- 
stowed great commendations on Macedo- 
nius for sanctity, and had only given Paul 
the reputation of eloquence, and a capacity 
for business : it is true, indeed, he was a 
master in the art of speaking and persua- \ 
ding ; but the sequel of his life and suffer- ? 
ings sufficiently evinced the absurdity of \ 
their deeming him a man formed for the J 
world. But, after some struggle, the ortho- ? 
dox triumphed, and Paul was consecrated. \ 
Macedonius being greatly offended at ] 
this preference, did his utmost to calumni- j 
ate the new bishop, and was very severe .' 
upon his moral character ; but not gaining 
any belief, he dropped the charge, and rec- ; 
onciled himself to Paul. This, however, \ 
was not the case with Eusebius of Nico- | 
media, who resumed the accusations under \ 
two heads, viz : — 

1. That he had led a disorderly life be- 
fore his consecration. 

2. That he had been placed in the see 
of Constantinople without the consent of > 
the bishops of Nicomedia and Heraclea, | 
two metropolitans, who ought to have been j 
consulted upon that occasion. ' 

To support these accusations, Eusebius ' 
procured the emperor's authority, by repre- ; 
senting, that Paul having been chosen 
during the absence of Constantius, the im- 
perial dignity had been insulted. This 
artifice succeeded, and Paul being deposed, [ 
Eusebius was placed in his room. i 

Paul having lost his authority in the s 
east, retired to the territories of Constans, ] 
in the west, where he was well received j 
by the orthodox prelates and clergy. At 
Rome he visited Athanasius, and assisted 
at a council held there, by Julius, the bishop 
of that see. Letters being written by this 
council to the eastern prelates, Paul re- 
turned to Constantinople, but was not re- 
stored to his bishopric till the death of 
Eusebius. The Arians, however, consti- 
tuting Macedonius their bishop, by the 
title of bishop of Constantinople, a sedition, 
and a kind of civil war ensued, in which, 
many lost their lives. 




The emperor Constantius, who was then 
at Antioch, hearing of these matters, laid 
the whole blame upon Paul, and ordered 
that he should be driven from Constanti- 
nople. Hermogenes, the officer, who had 
received the emperor's order, attempted in 
vain to put it into execution ; for the ortho- 
dox Christians rising in defence of Paul, 
Hermogenes was killed in a scuffle that 

This transaction greatly exasperated the 
emperor, who left Antioch though in the 
depth of winter, and immediately returned 
to Constantinople, with a design severely 
to punish the Christians. But their sub- 
mission and entreaties softened him, and 
he contented himself with banishing Paul 
and suspending Macedonius. 

Paul retired again to the territories of 
Constans, implored the protection of that 
emperor, and, by his intercession, was 
again invested in his see. On this occa- 
sion, we are informed, that " his re-estab- 
lishment did but exasperate his enemies, 
who were at that time constantly employed, 
both in secret and open attempts against 
his life, against which the affections of his 
people were his only security ; and being 
convinced that the emperor had no other 
motive for allowing his stay at Constanti- 
nople, but the dread of disobliging his 
brother. Paul could not think himself 
wholly restored to his bishopric, while 
things were in this situation ; and being 
very much concerned at what the orthodox 
bishops suffered from the power and malice 
of the Arian faction, joined Athanasius, 
who was then in Italy in soliciting a gen- 
eral council." 

A council was accordingly held at Sar- 
dica, in Illyrium, in the year 347, at which 
were present one hundred bishops of the 
western, and seventy-three of the eastern 
empire. But disagreeing in many points, 
the Arian bishops of the east retired to 
Philippolis, in Thrace ; and forming a 
meeting there, they termed it the council 
of Sardica. From this place they pretend- 

ed to issue out an excommunication against 
Julius, bishop of Rome ; Paul, bishop of 
Constantinople ; Athanasius, bishop of 
Alexandria ; and several other prelates. 

In A. D. 350, the emperor Constans died, 
which gave the Arians fresh courage, and 
they immediately applied to the emperor, 
Constantius, who being an Arian in his 
heart, wrote an order to the prefect Philip, 
to remove Paul from the bishopric of Con- 
stantinople, and banish him again, to restore 

Being exiled to Cucucus, he was con- 
fined in a small, loathsome, dark dungeon, 
where he was kept six days without food, 
and then strangled. He met death with 
fortitude, as he was always perfectly re- 
signed in misfortunes, and convinced of the 
vanity of this transitory life, for reasons 
similar to those given by Solomon, in the 
expressive passages, which have been thus 
finely paraphrased : — 

" Ye sons of men, with just regard attend, 
Observe the preacher, and believe the friend, 
Whose serious muse inspires him lo explain, 
That all v/e act and all we think is vain. 
That in this pilgrimage of seventy years, 
O'er rocks of perils and through vales of tears. 
Destined to march, our doubtful steps we tend, 
Tired with the toil, yet fearful of its end, 
That from the womb we take our fatal shares 
Of follies, passions, labors, tumults, cares : 
And at approach of death shall only know 
The truths, which from these pensive numbers flow, 
That we pursue false joy and suffer real wo." 

The Arian party now prevailing, made 
Gregory of Cappadocia, a very obscure per- 
son, bishop of Alexandria, after having de- 
posed Athanasius for his strict adherence 
to the orthodox faith. In the accomplish- 
ment of this affair, they were assisted by 
Philagerius, the governor of Egypt, who 
was an apostate, and who suffered them to 
commit all manner of outrages. Hence 
arming themselves with swords, clubs, <fcc., 
they broke into one of the principal churches 
of Alexandria, where great numbers of or- 
thodox Christians were assembled at their 
devotions ; and falling upon them in a most 
barbarous manner, without the least respect 
to sex or age, the principal part of them 
were murdered. 




ULIAN commonly called ^ clergy of the privileges granted them by 

the apostate, was the son | Constantine the Great. 

of Julius Constantius, \ Hence was this persecution more dan- 

and the nephew of Con- < gerous than any of the former, as Julian 

stantine the Great. He < aimed to sap the foundations of Christianity, 

studied the rudiments of \ instead of attacking the superstructure, and 

grammar under the inspection of Mar- under the mask of clemency, practised the 

donius a eimuch, and a heathen of Con- \ greatest cruelty in wishing to delude many 

stantinople. His father sent him some- < thousands of their eternal salvation. 

time after to Nicomedia, to be instructed in The Christian faith was thus in more 

the Christian religion, by the bishop Euse- danger of being subverted than it ever had 

bius his kinsman ; but his principles were been before, by the means of a monarch, at 

corrupted by the pernicious doctrines of ^ once witty and wicked, learned and hypo- 

Ecebolius the rhetorician, and Maximus < critical ; who, at first, made his attempts, 

the magician. "Ot by the means of fire, sword, and poison, 

Constantius dying in the year 361, Julian but by flatteries, gifts, and favors; not by 

succeeded him, and had no sooner attain- using racks and tortures, but by bestowing 

ed the imperial dignity, than he renoun- offices and dignities ; and then, by prohibit- 

ced Christianity, and embraced paganism, ing Christian schools, he compelled the 

i which had for some years fallen into great children of the. gospel either to remain il- 

' disrepute. But he again restored idola- literate, or become idolaters. 

I trous worship, by opening the several tem- Other methods taken by Julian were, to 

\ pies that had been shut up, rebuilding such ! order that Christians might be treated cold- 

; as were destroyed, and ordering the magis- \ ly upon all occasions, and in all parts of the 

' trates and people to follow his example. J empire, and to employ several witty persons 

I He however, made no public edicts against to turn them, and their principles, into ridi- 

\ Christianity, but tried to do that privately cule. Many were likewise martyred in his 

• which other emperors had done openly. \ reign ; for though he did not publicly per- 

* He recalled all l)anislied pagans, allowed | secute them himself, he connived at their 
; the free exercise of religion to every sect, \ being murdered by his governors and offi- 

but deprived all Christians of offices at ' cers ; and though he affected never to pa- 
court, in the magistracy, or in the army. | tronise them for their murders, he never 
< He was chaste, temperate, vigilant, labori- ^ offered to punish them for their delinquency. 
\ ous, and seemingly pious, so that by his / We shall recount the names, sufferings, and 
\ hypocrisy and pretended virtues he for a \ martyrdoms of such as have been transmit- 
\ time did more mischief to Christianity than ; ted to the present times, that their example 
J the most profligate libertine of his predc- 1 may inspire fortitude, and their lives give 
f cessors. Thus he attempted to niiderinine ; a useful lesson to maidvind in general. 
I Christianity by artifice, instead of expelling '. Hash, made himself first famous by his 
I it by force ; and to make his measures the ; opposition to Arianism, which brought upon 
\ more effectual he prohii)ited any Christian I him the vengeance of the Arian bishop of 
i from keeping a school or puldic seminary ', Constantinople, who issued out an order 
'; of learning, and deprived all the Christian I to prevent his preaching. He continued. 





however, to perform his duty at Ancyra, 
the capital of Galatia. Enraged at his or- 
thodox and manly proceedings, his enemies 
accused him of being an incendiary, and a 
disturber of the public peace ; the monarch, 
however, was too intent on an expedition to 
Persia, to take notice of the accusation, 
and their malice at that time was disap- 

Basil continued to preach strenuously 
against the idolatry of paganism on the one 
hand, and the errors of Arianism on the 
other : and earnestly exhorted the people to 
serve Christ, in the purity of faith, and fer- 
vency of truth. By this conduct, both 
heathens and Arians were exasperated 
against him, and appeared equally desir- 
ous of accomplishing his destruction. 

Meeting one day with a number of pa- 
gans going in procession to a sacrifice, he 
boldly expressed his abhorrence of such idol- 
atrous proceedings, and inveighed against 
such absurd worship, at once in a manly 
and decent manner. This freedom caused 
the people to seize him, and carry him be- 
fore Saturninus, the governor, where they 
brought three accusations against him, 
viz : — 

1. Reviling the gods. 

2. Abusing the emperor. 

3. Disturbing the peace of the city. 

On hearing these accusations which were 
equally malicious as groundless, Saturninus 
desired to know his sentiments from his 
own mouth ; when finding him a strenuous 
Christian, he ordered him first to be put to 
the rack, and then he committed him to 

The govegrnor wrote an account of his 
proceedings to the emperor, who was at 
this time very busy in establishing the 
worship of Cybele, the fictitious mother 
of the fabulous deities. Julian, upon re- 
ceiving the letter, sent Pagosus and Elpi- 
dius, two apostates, to Ancyra, the city 
where Basil was confined, to employ both 
promises and threats to engage him to re- 
nounce his faith, and in case of their fail- 
ure, to give him up totally to the power of 

the governor ; for it was the policy of .Tulian 
to appear all moderation and clemency, 
and to suffer others, as much as possible, 
to seem the ostensible persons in acts of 
cruelty. In this afTair, however, a future 
circumstance made the emperor forego his 
usual policy, and sacrifice his affected mer- 
cy to his resentment. 

The emperor's agents in vain tampered 
with Basil by means of promises, threats, 
and racks ; he was firm in the faith, and re- 
mained in prison to undergo some other 
sufferings when the emperor came acci- 
dentally to Ancyra. 

The people no sooner knew of Julian's 
approach, than they met him in grand pro- 
cession, and presented to him their idol, 
the goddess Hecate. The two agents then 
gave the emperor an account of what Basil 
had suffered, and how firm he had been. 
Julian, on this, determined to examine 
Basil himself, when that holy man being 
brought before him, the emperor did every- 
thing in his power to dissuade him from 
persevering in the faith. Basil not only 
continued as firm as ever, but, with pro- 
phetic spirit, foretold the death of the em- 
peror, and that he should be tormented in 
the other life. 

Enraged at what he heard, Julian lost 
his usual affectation of clemency, and told 
Basil, in great anger, that though he had 
an inclination to pardon him at first, yet he 
had now put it out of his power to save his 
life, by the insolence of his behavior. He 
then commanded, that the body of Basil 
should be torn every day in seven different 
parts, till his skin and flesh were entirely 
mangled. This inhuman sentence was ex- 
ecuted with rigor, and the martyr expired 
under its severities, on the 28th day of 
June, A. D. 362. 

DoNATUs, bishop of Arezzo, and Hilar- 
INUS, a hermit, suffered about the same 
time for the faith : the first being beheaded, 
and the latter scourged to death. 

GoRDiAN, a Roman magistrate, having a 
Christian brought before him for examina- 
tion, was so charmed with the confession 



of his faiih, that he not only discharged the 
prisoner, but became himself a Christian. 
This so enraged the Roman praefect, that 
he ordered him to be scourged and behead- 
ed ; which sentence was executed, A. D. 

John and Paul, two brothers, of a good 

family, and in high offices under the em- 

\ peror, on being accused of professing 

< Christianity, were deprived of their posts, 
I and allowed ten days to consider, whether 
\ they would renounce their faith and be pro- 

Imoted, or retain their faith and be martyred ? 
Making choice of the latter alternative, they 
were both beheaded, A. D. 362. 
I Artemius, commander-in-chief of the Ro- 
I man forces in Egypt, being a Christian, 
{ had these two charges exhibited against 
i him by the pagans. 

5 1. That he had formerly demolished 
I several idols in the reign of Constantine 
I the Great. 

i 2. That he had assisted the bishop of 
i Alexandria in plundering the temples. 
i On the exhibition of these charges, Juli- 
t an, who was then at Aniioch. ordered the 
j general to repair thither, in order to answer 
'i to them. On Artemius's arrival, he owned 
't the charges, and his faith : when he was 
( first deprived of his commission, then of his 
J estate, and lastly of his head. 

< Cassian, a schoolmaster of Imola, in the 
I province of Romagna, refusing to sacrifice 
' to the idols, was hurried before the judge ; 

< who being apprized of his profession, and 

< informed that many of the boys had an 

< aversion to him on account of the strictness 

Iwith which he kept them to their studies, 
determined that they should have permis- 
sion to murder their master. He was ac- 

< cordiiigly delivered, with his hands tied 

i behind him, to the boys, who fell upon him 
with rods, whips, sticks, and stiles, or the 
steel pencils which were then used in 
writing, and murdered him. This singular 
martyrdom happened on the i3thol*August, 
A. D. 362. (See engraving.) 

Bonasus and Maximilian, two officers 
I of the Herculean guards, upon Julian's 

taking away Constantine the Great's stand- 
ard of the cross of Christ, threw up their 
commissions. Being apprehended on ac- 
count of their faith, they were carried be- 
fore the governor of the east, who com- 
manded them to sacrifice to the gods, and 
obey the emperor's orders ; but they re- 
plied, that as they were no longer his sol- 
diers, but the soldiers of Christ, they would 
do neither. The governor had them sep- 
arately examined, and finding them as in- 
flexible when asunder, as when together, 
he ordered Bonasus to be beaten with 
whips that had leaden bullets at the ends of 
the thongs, and Maximilian to be scourged. 

Being remanded back to prison, they 
were allowed nothing but bread and water 
for subsistence, and the bread was marked 
with the seal of the emperor, the intpres- 
sion of which was an idol ; on which ac- 
count they refused to eat it. They were 
soon afterward again examined, and then, 
according to the sentence pronounced upon 
them, beheaded. 

BiniANA was the daughter of Flavian 
and Dafrosa, two Christians. Flavian her 
father, held a considerable post under the 
government, but being banished for his 
faith, died in exile. Dafrosa, her mother, 
was, for the same reason, ordered to be 
starved ; but Aj)roniaiuis, governor of Rome, 
thinking her too long in dying, had her be- 

Bibiana, and her sister Demetria, after 
the death of their parents, were stripped of 
all their efl'ects, and being brought before 
the governor, were ordered to renounce their 
religion. Demetria suddenly dropped down 
dead in the governor's presence, and Bi- 
biana resolutely refused to renounce her 
faith ; on which account she was scourged 
to death, December 2, A. D. 362. 

The persecution raged dreadfully about 
the latter end of the year 363 ; but as many 
of the particulars have not iieen handed down 
to us, it is necessary to remark in general, 
that in Palestine many were burnt alive, 
others were dragged by their feet through 
the streets naked till they expired ; some 




were scalded to death, many stoned, and 
great numbers had their brains beaten out 
with cUibs.. In Alexandria innumerable 
were the martyrs who suffered by the 
sword, burning, crucifixion, and being 
stoned. In Arethusa several were ripped 
open, and corn being put into their bellies, 
swine were brought to feed therein, who, 
in devouring the grain, likewise devoured 
the entrails of the martyrs ; and in Thrace, 
Emilianus was burnt at a stake, and Do- 
MiTius murdered in a cave, whither he had 
fled for refuge. 

Theodorus, for his faith, and singing 
the praises of God, was apprehended and 
put to the tortures of a martyr, though not 
to death. After being taken from the rack, 
he was asked how he could so patiently 
endure such exquisite tortures. To which 
he returned this remarkable reply : " At the 
first I felt some pain, but afterward there 
appeared to stand by me a young man, who 
wiped the sweat from my face, and fre- 
quently refreshed me with cold water, 
which so delighted me, that I regretted be- 
ing let down from the rack." 

Marcus, bishop of Arethusa, having de- 
stroyed a pagan temple in that city, erected 
a Christian church in its room, on which 
account he was accused to Julian, the em- 
peror, as a Christian. Being apprehended, 
his persecutors had no respect to his ven- 
erable person, but stripping him naked, 
most cruelly beat him. He was then 
thrust into a filthy jake, or sink, till he 
was almost suffocated ; afterward he was 
goaded with sharp-pointed sticks ; and last- 
ly, he was hung up in a basket in the heat 
of the sun, after having been smeared all 
over with honey, in order to be tormented 
to death by wasps. As soon as he was 
hung up, they asked him if he would rebuild 
their temple ? To which he answered, that 
he would neither rebuild it nor advance a 
single doit toward its being rebuilt ; upon 
which they left him, and he fell a martyr 
to the dreadful stings of those troublesome 

Maxentius and Juventius, two Chris- 

tian oflicers, were put to death for reproving 
the emperor, on account of his idolatries ; 
but the manner of their deaths is not known. 
We shall now enter upon some detach- 
ed particulars necessary to be preserved, 
and finish this chapter with the conclusion 
of the persecutions under Julian the apos- 

Julian intending an expedition against 
the Persians, set a large fine upon every 
one who refused to sacrifice to the idols, 
\ and by that means got a great sum toward 
I defraying his expenses from the Christians. 
I In collecting these fines, many of the 
officers exacted more than their due, and 
some of them tortured the Christians to 
make them pay what they demanded, at the 
same time telling them in derision, that I 
" when they were injured, they ought to \ 
take it patiently, for so their god had com- ^ 
manded them." 

The inhabitants of Csesarea were fined ' 
three hundred weight of gold, and several 
of the clergy obliged to serve in the wars, J 
as a punishment for having overthrown the 
temples of Jupiter, Apollo, and Fortune. 

At Meris, in Phrygia, the governor hav- 
ing cleansed and opened a pagan temple, 
\ the Christians in the night broke in, and ? 
\ demolished the idols. Next day the gov- | 
\ ernor ordered all Christians that accident- / 
ally came in the way to be seized, that he \ 
might make examples of them, and by this i 
means was going to execute several inno- > 
cent persons. But those who really per- ^ 
petrated the fact, being too noble and just 
in their sentiments to suffer such an in- 
justice, voluntarily delivered themselves 
up ; when they were first of all scourged | 
severely, and then broiled to death upon \ 
gridirons. \ 

The emperor, Julian the apostate, died j 
of a wound which he received in his Per- \ 
sian expedition, A. D. 363, and even while \ 
expiring uttered the most horrid blasphe- j 
mies. He was succeeded by Jovian, who 
restored peace to the church. | 

After the decease of Jovian, Valentinian X 
succeeded to the empire, and associated \ 

< to himself Valens, who had the command ', the officer, "of the emperor's order, to put to 

/ of ttie east. \ death all who are found there ?" — " I have," 

Valens was a great favorer of Arianism, | said she, " and for that cause I make the 

and so incensed against the Christians, that | more haste." — " And whither," said the ofR- 

he ordered, on a certain day, all of them in I cer, " do you lead that child V — " I take him 

i Edessa to be slain, while they were at their \ with me," replied she, " that he also may be 

' devotions in their churches. The officers, j reckoned in the number of the martyrs." 

however, being more compassionate than > Upon this the humane officer returned to the 

the emperor, privately gave notice to the | emperor, and told him, that all the Christians 

Christians, not to assemble on tlie day ap- 1 were prepared to die in defence of their 

pointed, so that they might escape death, > faith, and represented tu him how rash it 

i and themselves be excused for non-perform- would be to murder so great a multitude, 

' ance of dutv. < ^^^ entreated the emperor to drop the de- 

i The Christians thanked the officers for | sign, at least for the present, which he at 

I their advice, but disregarded both that, and ^ length complied with. 

\ the emperor's menaces, sooner than they Menedemus, Urbanus, and Theodo- 

} would neglect their duty. They accord- > rus, with several other orthodox clergymen, 

\ ingly repaired to church, and the troops ] to the number of fourscore, at Constanti- 

i beiii" compelled, by the positiveness of the ? nople, petitioned the emperor, in a most 

- command, were put in motion to destroy ^ humble manner, to relieve them from the 

I them. As they marched along, a woman, i oppressions, persecutions, and cruelties of 

; with a child in her arms, broke through the \ the Arians. But the tyrant, instead of re- 

^ ranks, when the officer ordered her to be | dressing their grievances, ordered tliem to 

' brought before him, and asked her whither | be all embarked in a ship, and the ship set 

' she was going. She replied, to church, J fire to; when this infernal and inhuman 

I whither others were making all the haste < order being executed, they all perished in 

\ they could. " Have you not heard," says ' the flames. 


ANY of the Scythi- 
an Goths having 
embraced Chris- 
tianity about the 
time of Constan- 
tino the Great, the 
light of the gospel spread itself consider- 
l ably in Scylhia, though the two kings who 
j ruled that country, and the majority of the 
I people, continued pagans. Fritegern, king 
\ of the West Goths, was an ally to the Ko- 
; mans ; but Aihanarick, king of the East 
< Goths, was at war with them. The Chris- 
j tians, in the dominions of the former, lived 
: unmolMl|d ; but the latter, having been de- 

feated by the llomans, wreaked his vcn- | 

geance on his Christian sul)jects. < 

Sabas, a worthy Christian, upon this oc- s 

casion, was one who felt the enraged king's \ 

misplaced resentment. Sabas was humble | 

and humane, mild and modest, yet fervent | 

in worship, and zealous for the advance- S 

ment of the church. Remarkable for his i 

contempt of riches, and singular in shun- I 

ning every sensual enjoyment, the sanctity 5 

of his life, and purity of his matiners were 5 

such, as gave the greatest f(»rce to his doc- \ 

trines. He convinced the rational, and con- i 

founded the obdurate: hence lie became, at | 

once, famous for his piety and doctrines. 5 



Athanarick, in the year 370, gave orders, , went and released him ; but though he was < 
that all persons in his dominions should | now at liberty, and his persecutors asleep, > 
sacrifice to the pagan deities, and eat the \ he did not avail himself of the opportunity I 
meat which had been offered to the idols, ^ to make his escape. 1 

or be put to death for disobedience. Some | The next morning the persecutors began ' 
humane pagans, who had Christian rela- 1 to practise on these two worthy Christians, > 
tions, endeavored to save them by offering \ and tampered with them to renounce their < 
them meat which had not received the \ religion, and eat the meat consecrated to 
idolatrous consecration, while the magis- s the idols. This, however, they jointly re- 
trates were to be imposed on, and made to '- fused, and positively declared, that they ■ 
believe that all had been done according to I were ready to meet the most cruel death, \ 
their (direction. But Sabas too well knew > rather than comply with such detestable [ 
St. Paul's principles, to imagine that the > idolatry. Sansala was at length dischar- \ 
sin lay in eating : he knew that scandali- 1 ged, and Sabas ordered to be drowned ; 
zing the weak, and giving the enemies of ^ which sentence was put into execution < 
the faith an advantage over them, was all ] April 12, A. D. 372. j 

that made that action criminal in Christians, > Nicetas was of Gothic extraction, born \ 
neither of which consequences would have > near the banks of the Danube, and though < 
been avoided by this disguise. He not > he had been long a Christian, he never met > 

only refused to comply with what was pro- 
posed to him, but publicly declared, that 
those who sheltered themselves under that : 
artifice, were not worthy to be called Chris- 

Sabas being soon after apprehended on 

with any molestation on that account, till 
the abovementioned persecution be<^an by 
Athanarick. That monarch ordered an 
idol to be drawn about on a chariot, through 
all the places where the Christians lived : 
the chariot stopped at the door of every one 

account of his faith, was carried before a < who professed the gospel, and the Chris- \ 

magistrate, who inquired into his fortune 
and circumstances. Finding that what he 
had upon his back was the principal part ' 
of what he possessed, he was dismissed, as 
a person of little or no consequence. 

Sabas went to spend the ensuing easter 
with Sansala, a Christian priest of great 

tian inhabitants were ordered to pay it 
adoration. Upon a refusal, the house was 
immediately set on fire, and all within were 
burnt. 'This was the case with Nicetas, 
who, on account of his religion, refusing to 
pay the respect demanded to the idol, had 
his. house burnt, and himself consumed in 

piety: they lived in great tranquillity for < it, September 15, A. D. 372. 

three days, but on the third night they were 
both seized by a party of soldiers. The 
priest was allowed to dress himself, and to 
ride, but Sabas was obliged to leave his 
clothes behind him, and to walk ; and dur- 

EusEBius, bishop of Samosata, makes a 
most distinguished figure in ecclesiastical 
history, and was one of the most eminent 
champions of Christ against the Arian 
heresy. The Arians having advanced Mi- 

ing the journey, they drove him through < letus to the see of Antioch, thinking him of 
thorns and briers, beating him with great l their party, the instrument of his advance- 
violence almost continually. This cruelty i ment was placed in the care of Eusebius. 
he bore without a single murmur, and in < When Miletus preached his first sermon, 
the evening they extended him between ; the Arians, to their great surprise, found 
two beams, fastening his legs to the one, < they had been greatly mistaken in him, for ] 
I and his arms to the other; and in that pos- i his doctrines were pure and orthodox. { 

f ture left him for the night, while they re- < Enraged at their disappointment, they > 
> tired to repose. The woman of the house, \ persuaded the emperor to displace him, and ^ 
• however, hearing how ill he had been used, likewise to get the instrument out of the < 

hands of Eusebius. Miletus was accord- 1 my, and maintain the faith in its purity 
ingly deposed, and the emperor sent to against all the endeavors of such as would 
Eusebius to deliver the instrument. Euse- 1 corrupt the people ; but knowing that sev- 
bius's answer was, that he could not give | eral churches were, by the iniquity of the 
up a trust reposed in him by so great a | times, deprived of their pastors, he disguis- 
number, without the express consent of all ed himself; and thus made the tour of 
concerned in it. The emperor, incensed 1 Syria, Phenicia, and Palestine ; fortified the 
at this reply, wrote to him on that subject, | pure against the solicitations of the here- 
and assured him he had commissioned the \ tics ; ordained several priests and inferior 
bearer of his letter to cut off his right hand, ministers, wherever they were wanting; 
if he refused to surrender the instrument in and, when he found any orthodox prelates 
< question ; which threat was artfully added \ in his travels, assisted them in consecrating 
I only to awe him into a compliance. Eu- ^ bishops forthe use of the widowed churches, 
sebius, however, knew the party was capa- \ If was impossible to conceal the hand that 
ble of any cruelty to promote their cause ; \ every day gave some fresh stroke to the 
but, without the least emotion, offered his Arian party, and sunk their interest wher- 
hands, and declared he would lose them \ ever it was employed ; so that the emperor, 
both rather than part with so flagrant a at their instigation, granted an order for 
proof of Arian injustice. The emperor | banishing him into Thrace. He was at 
could not but be surprised at his resolu- < Samosata when the messenger came with 
tiou, and professed a high esteem for him this commission ; it was late in the even- 
ever after: so true it is that virtue can ing.'and Eusebius, who was very well-be- 
sometimes force even its declared enemies ^ loved by his people, begged he would make 
to love and praise it. '' no noise, but conceal his business ; " for," 

The Arians from this time looked upon | says he, "if it takes air, the people will 
Eusebius as a most dangerous enemy. At fall on you, throw you into the river, and 
the lime Jovian restored peace to the then I shall be charged with your death." 
church, Miletus convened a council at An- Eusebius was calm enough to go through 
\ tioch, which consisted of Eusebius, and ', his usual devotions, and when the night 
' twenty-five other prelates, who unanimous- \ was far advanced he left his house on foot, 
ly c(mfirmed the doctrines of the council of attended only by one trusty servant, who 
Nice. \ carried a pillow and one book after him. 

When the see of Cesarea became vacant, j Thus accommodated he took a boat, and 
Eusebius was greatly instrumental in pro- 't went to Zeugma, about seventy miles down 
moting Ba.sil to it, on which occasion, ^ the river, 
i flregory the younger calls him, " The pil- \ The people, however, next day, missing 
lar of truth, the light of the world, the for- \ Eusebius, and hearing which way he was 
tress of the church, the rule of faith, the ', gone, followed in a great number of boats, 
support of the faithful, and an instrument^ and overtaking would have rescued him, at 
in the hands of God for bestowing favors ', the same time entreating him with tears in 
} on his people." When the Arians were \ their eyes not to abandon them. 
\ the most vigilant to propagate their heresy, \ Eusebius was greatly touched with theii 
I Eusebius was exceedingly assiduous in ) affection, but said he must go according to 
taking measures to prevent their success ; ; the emperor's order, putting them in mind 
and his zeal was always so governed by ^ of the authority of St. Paul, for paying a 
the rules of prudence, that his attempts sel- \ due reverence, and proper submission to 
dom failed of success. It was not enough | the civil powtjr. Finding they could not 
for our excellent prelate to screen his own \ prevail, they accommodated him with every- 
flock fiM the insults of the common ene- | thing that could comfort him in his journey. 


77 5 

and then left him to pursue his way to the 
place of destination. 

At this time Thrace was a scene of con- 
fusion, by means of the war carried on be- 
tween the Goths and the emperor's forces ; 
and in these contests, the life of Eusebius 
was frequently in danger. The emperor, 
in order to terminate the war with the 
greater expedition, resolved to march 
against the Goths in person ; but first to 
engage the prayers of the Christians, he 
gave peace to the church of Christ, and al- 
lowed the orthodox prelates to return to 
their churches. Thus was Eusebius re- 
stored to his see, which, however, he did 
not long enjoy, for an Arian woman threw 
a tile at him from the top of a house, which 
fractured his skull, and terminated his life 
in the year 380. 

Marcellus, bishop of Apamea, a prelate 
of great merit, was very active in attempt- 
ing to suppress idolatry in his diocese, on 
which account his life was in continual 
danger, till Cynegius, the praefect, arrived 
with a considerable body of troops, which 
kept the pagans in awe. This officer's de- 
sign was totally lo abolish idolatry, to effect 
which he determined to destroy the temple 
of Jupiter ; he however, found this a more 
difficult attempt than he had imagined, for 
the building was so strong, the stones so 
unwieldy, the cement so durable, and the 

iron cramps so massy, that he despaired of 
being able to accomplish the work ; when 
a poor laboring Christian, recommended by 
Marcellus, undertook to go through with 
what the praefect had given up, and the 
business was executed in the following 
manner : — 

This person examined the situation of 
the edifice, and finding it surrounded by a 
gallery, supported by stately pillars, ten 
yards in circumference, he judged it would 
be more to his purpose to weaken the foun- 
dation than pretend to attack the body of the 
building directly ; with this view he dug at 
the bottom of the said pillars, and shored 
them with timber beams. When he had 
thus undermined three of the most consid- 
erable pillars, he set fire to the wood, which 
burning in sunder, the pillars fell, and drew 
twelve more with therrr, and brought down 
one whole side of the building ; upon which 
the people fiocked together from all parts 
of the town, and praised God who had, in 
this signal manner, triumphed over his 

The bishop and prsefect continued de- 
stroying a great number of idol temples, 
when being at a town called Aulo upon this 
business, while the troops were busy in de- 
molishing the buildings, some pagans pri- 
vately seized upon the bishop, and burnt 
him, A. D. 393. 


HE Vandals passing from < 
Spain to Africa in the ■ 
fifth century, under their i 
leader Genseric, commit- ; 
ted the most unheard-of < 
cruelties. They persecu- ; 
ted the Christians wherever they came, and j 
even laid waste the country as they passed, ; 
that the Christians left behind, who had 
escaped them, might not be able to subsist. ] 
i ^_.._^ 

They plundered the churches, and mur- j 
dered the bishops and ministers by a variety < 
of tortures. In particular, they poured ^ 
stinking oil and vinegar down the throats I 
of some till they expired ; suffocated others > 
by filling their mouths with mud, and mar- \ 
tyred many by stretching their limbs with | 
cords till the veins burst, and sinews crack- i 
ed. They also wreaked their vengeance i 
on several of the clergy and nobility, whom \ 





, they loaded with heavy burdens, and ob-|to persecute the orthodox Christians, as | 

) liged them to carry their l>aii^age ; and if ^ they assured him that they were friends to | 

s they did not travel fast enough, they prick- s the people of Rome. \ 

\ ed them on with sharp goads, insomuch) Armogastus was one who felt the rage | 

'■ that several died under their burdens. > of this persecution; Victor, the learned | 

! Reverend gray hairs found no instances of ^bishop of Vita, who was personally ac- \ 

/ niercy, and guiltless infants felt the rage of)quainted with Armogastus, and who like- | 

! their barbarity. Stalely buildings were ; wise wrote the history of this persi-eniion, \ 

. burned or levelled with the earth; and the; informs us, that " his legs were ti.-.d, and '. 

i chief churches in Carthage employed to j his forehead bound with cords several | 

} their own heretical worship, or put to pro- | times ; which, though applied with no gen- l 

\ fane uses ; and where any castles held out ', tie hand, made not the least imj)ression on ^ 

; against them, they brought great numbers ^ his flesh, nor left any mark on his skin. | 

I of Christians, and slew them, leaving their;; Alter this, he was hmig up by one foot; J 

dead bodies lying under the walls, that the i but in that posture seemed as much at his ', 

\ stench thereof might force the besieged to s ease as if reposed on a soft bed. The- I 

\ surrender. sodoric, one of the king's sons, finding all \ 

\ Having seized and plundered the city of ; attempts on his life had hitherto proved un- 5 

J Carthage, they put the biohop, and all the ^successful, ordered his head to be struck { 

/ clergy, into a leaky ship, and committed it > off. But Jocundus, an Arian priest, dis- 5 

\ to the mercy of the waves, thinking that I suaded him from that resolution, by telling | 

[ they must all perish of course ; but provi-shim it would be much better to destroy him | 

I deniiaily the vessel arrived safe at Naples, ^by slow and imperceptible means, and wear > 

Innumerable orthodox Christians were piim out by degrees; whereas a violent ; 

beaten, scourged, and banished to Capsur, j death would procure him the reputation of ' 

where it pleased God to make them the > a martyr among those of his own opinion, ; 

means of converting many of the Moors to ; which could be of no service to the oppo- < 

Christianity; but this coming to the ears > site cause. The prince sent him to the 'j 

of Genseric, he sent orders, that they and j mines, and sometime after removed him to j 

their new converts should be tied by the ; a place near Carthage, where he was em- s 

feet to chariots, and dragged about till they | ployed in looking after cattle. While Ar- I 

were dashed to pieces. | mogastus was thus engaged, he grew ex- 5 

Pampinman, the bishop of Mansuetus, j cecding ill, and imagining that the end of | 

was tortured to death with plates of hot | his labors was near, he communicated his I 

iron; the bishop of Urice was burnt; the / thoughts to Felix, a virtuous Christian, em- / 

bishop of Habensa was banished, for re- > ployed in that prince's service. From him ? 

fusing to deliver up the sacred books which / he received some consolation ; but his dis- < 

were in his possession; and a whole con- ' order increasing daily soon deprived him j 

gregaiion, who were asscmbhid in a church / of life, and he was buried by Felix accord- > 

) at their devotions, together with the clergy- f ing to his own direction." ; 

j man who was preaching to them, were; Archinimus was a devout Christian, ^ 

> murdered by these barbarians breaking in \ upon whom all manner of artifices were | 

I upon them, and exercising the most indis- '/ employed, in vain, to make him renounce S 

criminate cruelties. 

his faith. At len"th Genseric himself un- 

> The Vandalian tyrant Genseric, having | dertook to persuade him, but finding his 5 

; made an expedition into Italy, and plunder- ^ endeavors ineffectual, he passed sentence j 

4 ed the city of Rome, returned to Africa, | upon him to be beheaded. He, however, \ 
• fln.^tied with the success of his arms. The | privately ordered the executioner to really , 

5 Arians took this occasion to persuade him ^ perform his office, if the prisoner seemed | 



intimidated and afraid ; " for then," said he, 
" the crown of martyrdom will be lost to 
him ; but if he seems courageous, and wil- 
ling to die," continued the king, " strike not 
the stroke ; for I do not intend that he shall 
have the honor of being deemed a martyr." 
The executioner, when they came to the 
place appointed, finding Archinimus re- 
solved, and happy in the thought of dying 
for the sake of Christ, brought him back 
unhurt. He was soon after this banished, 
and never heard of more, though it is con- 
jectured that he was murdered privately by 
the king's order. 

DioNYSiA, a lady of fortune, and a widow, 
being apprehended as an orthodox Chris- 
tian, was stripped naked, exposed in a 
most indecent manner, and severely scourg- 
ed. Her son, a young lad, being seized at 
the same time, seemed afraid of the torture, 
and looked pitifully at his mother, who or- 
dered him not to fear any torments that 
co\".id be inflicted on him, but to be con- 
stant to the faith in which she had brought 
him up. When he was upon the rack, she 
again comforted him in these words : — 

" Remember, O my child, that we were 
baptized in the name of the ever-sacred 
Trinity, let us not lose the benefit thereof, 
lest it should hereafter be said, cast them 
into outer darkness, where there is weep- 
ing and gnashing of teeth ; for that pain 
which never endethis, indeed, to be dread- 
ed, and that life which endureth to eternity 
to be desired." Whereupon the youth pa- 
tiently persevered, and from the force of his 
torments resigned his soul to his God. 

The pious mother saw the death of her 
son with pleasure, and soon after received 
the crown of martyrdom herself. 

The Arian bishop of Carthage, named 
Cyrilla, was a most furious heretic, and a 
very great enemy to those Christians who 
professed the faith in its purity. Having 
gained the ear of the king, he persuaded 
him that he could never expect prosperity 
in his undertakings, or hope to enjoy his 
kingdom in peace, while he suffered any of 
the orthodox Christians to live. 

The weak monarch, believing all that 
Cyrilla told him, sent for several of the 
most eminent Christians, who were partic- 
ularly obnoxious to that prelate. He, at 
first, attempted to draw them from their 
faith by flattery, and to bribe them from the 
hopes of future salvation, by the promise of 
immediate worldly rewards. Being firm 
and constant in their faith, they were proof 
against the former, and despised the latter; 
declaring resolutely against Arianism, and 
saying : "We acknowledge but one Lord, 
one faith, and one baptism ; you may there- 
fore do whatever you please with our bodies, 
for it is better that we should suffer a few 
temporary pains, than to endure everlasting 

The king, being greatly exasperated at 
this freedom, sent them to a filthy dark 
dungeon, and ordered them to be put into 
irons. The keeper, however, not being of 
the savage disposition too common to such 
as are intrusted with the care of jails, suf- 
fered their friends to have access to them ; 
by which they received great consolation, 
and became daily more and more confirm- 
ed in their resolution of dying for the sake 
of Christ. 

The king hearing of the indulgence given 
them by their keepers was exceedingly 
angry, and sent orders that they should be 
more closely confined, and loaded with still 
heavier fetters. He then began to ruminate 
in his mind by what means he should put 
them to death, and after revolving over and 
over- all the modes of cruelty that he could 
recollect, he at length determined to imitate 
the monstrous barbarity of the emperor 
Valens, who, as we have already related, 
caused fourscore clergymen to be burnt to- 
gether in a ship. Fixing upon this infernal 
precedent, he ordered these Christians to 
be put on board a ship filled with combus- 
tible materials, and the vessel being set 
fire to, they received the crown of martyr- 
dom. The names of seven of the principal 
of these Christians were, Rusricos, Se- 


Servus, and Rogatus. 

J 80 




ROTERIUS was made a > and the prudence of the governor of Alex- { 
priest by Cyril, bishop of \ andria, whose name was Florus, soon re- \ 
Alexandria, who was well stored peace to the city, 
acquainted with his virtues, The discontented party, however, still be- s 
before he appointed him to held Proterius with an eye of resentment- ^ 
f preach. On the death ofjso that he was obliged to have a guard ouk 

< Cyril, the see of Alexandria was filled by of respect to his personal safety, and at 

\ Dioscorus, an inveterate enemy both to the length, though naturally of a sweet and mild | 

\ memory and family of his predecessor. '. temper, was compelled to excommunicate ', 

\ Dioscorus, however, knowing the rcputa- ^ some of them, and obtain their banishment ; 

\ lion of Proterius, did the utmost in his \ from Alexandria. Ecclesiastical history, \ 

\ power to gain his confidence and interest ; \ however, informs us, that, " When the em- \ 
\ as he thoui>ht he might be of singular ser- $peror Marcian's death, which happened 

\ vice to him in carrying on his designs. ^wo years after, gave a new turn to affairs, | 

\ Proterius, however, was not to be cor- | the exiles returned to Alexandria, engaged \ 
I rupted, the welfare of the church sat next ^ in their usual cabals against Proterius, and 

\ his heart, and no prospect of worldly pre- seemed resolved to be revenged on him for \ 

\ ferment could bribe him to forego his duty, what they had suffered in the last reign. ; 

I Dioscorus being condemned by the coun- Timothy, a priest, who was at the head of \ 

\ oil of Chalcedon, for having embraced the ail the designs that had been formed against , 
I errors of Eutyches, was deposed, and Pro- 1 Proterius, employed every art to ruin his 

I terius chosen to fill the vacant see, and ap- \ credit, drawing the people from his com- j 

} proved of by the emperor. This occasion- ^ munion, and raising hims-jlf to that see. At j 

< ed a dangerous insurrection, for the city of j last, taking advantage of the abuse of Di- j 
AlexaP'lria was divided into two factions ; | onysius, who commanded the forces of that 5 

\ the oi.p to espouse the cause of the old, province, and was then in Upper Egypt, he 

'< and the >:her of the new prelate. A great j seized on the great church, and was unca- j 

\ deal of mischief was done on both sides, | nonically and sacrilegiously consecrated by j 

1 and Prnierius was in the most imminentUwo bishops of his faction, that had been de- ; 

''■ personal danger, from a set of schismatics, | posed for heresy. The usurper went on in 

\ who would neither obey the decisions of ahhe exercise of all the episcopal functions, , 

< council nor the emperor's deci;ee. and used the whole rigor of his pretended | 
I As these disorders became serious, the \ authority to oppress the orthodox, till the j 

governor of Thebais marched at the head commander's return, who, upon hearing the \ 
of a body of troops, in order to quell the disorders that had been committed, and that | 
sedition. The people, however, had work- Timothy was the chief author of them, < 
ed up their imaginations to a kind of | drove that incendiary out of the town." 
' phrensy; when they heard of the approach This affair so enraged the Eutychians, 
I of the governor, they armed themselves, | that they determined to wreak their ven- \ 

< marched out of Alexandria, gave him battle, \ geance on Proterius, who fled to the church j 
\ and defeated him. The intelligence of this for sanctuary ; but on Good Friday, A. D. | 
\ affair so exasperated the emperor, that he 457, a large body of them rushed into the \ 
\ sent a detachment of two thousand men church, and barbarously murdered the prel- \ 
\ against them ; the 'appearance of whom, \ ale ; after which they dragged the body \ 




through the streets, insulted, cut it to pieces '> that while she was permitted to enjoy her \ 
burnt it, and scattered the ashes in the air. > religion, she was as free as she desired \ 

JuLTA, a Carthaginian lady, was taken | to be. > 

prisoner when the Vandals sacked that > Felix, not being able to prevail, ordered I 
city. After being sold and re-sold as a I her to be severely beaten, which she bore ^ 
slave, she became the property of a Syrian ? with the utmost patience. Finding her 
pagan, named Eusebius, Her master could ) still resolute, he commanded, that the hair ; 
not but admire a religion which inspired ,- of her head should be pulled out by the [ 
such resignation and patience in A-assal- ,; roots. This barbarity having no greater > 
lage, and the most painful employments : ' effect than the former, he sentenced her to \ 
thus it is plain, that the humility and purity :■ be hanged, which sentence was immediate- > 
prescribed by Christianity will attract even J ly put into execution. \ 

the admiration of heathens. > .lulia was scarce dead when Eusebius \ 

The master of Julia frequently took her recovered from his intoxication. As soon < 
with him upon his voyages : in one of these as he understood what had passed, he was > 
they touched upon the island of Corsica, \ greatly afflicted, and in the first transports s 
where Eusebius joined in an idolatrous ^ of his resentment had thoughts of complain- ^ 
festival ; but Julia kept at a distance. \ ing to the emperor, who being a Christian, , 

The heathens complained of this con- \ would have punished the perfidity of the i 
duct as disrespectful to their gods, and in- j governor. But reflecting again, that Felix J 
formed the governor Felix of it, who sent 'i had only acted with a zeal for the deities t 
for Eusebius, and demanded what young Uhat he himself adored, he determined to | 
woman it was that had refused to join in \ put up with the loss, and retire from a ? 
worship to the gods. > place which was become so disagreeable ! 

Eusebius replied, that the young woman < to him. | 

was a Christian, and that all his authority < Hermenigildos, was a Gothic prince, ; 
over her had proved too weak to prevail i being the eldest son of Leovigildus, king of ' 
with her to renounce her religion ; but that < the Goths, in Spain. This prince, who \ 
as she was a very diligent and faithful ser» \ was originally an Arian, became a convert ? 
vant, he could not think of parting with her. i to the orthodox faith, by means of his wife / 

Felix then pressed him to exert himself < Ingonda. When the king heard that his < 
on this occasion, and either to oblige her < sou had changed his religious sentiments, > 
to assist at the pagan worship, or to part ;; he stripped him of the command at Seville, l 
with her ; and offered to- give him his own | where he was governor, and threatened to ( 
price, or four of his best female slaves in I put him to death, unless he renounced the I 
exchange for her, which Eusebius abso- faith he had newly embraced. I 

lutely refused, saying, that he would not The prince, in order to prevent the exe- < 
part from her for any price, \ cution of his father's menaces, began to put ] 

Felix finding the master inflexible, de- himself into a posture of defence ; and ,' 
termined to get her into his power by arti- many of the orthodox persuasion in Spain 
fice. To effect this, he invited Eusebius declared for him. The king, exasperated 
to an entertainment, and having intoxicated I at this act of rebellion, began to punish all i 
him, he sent for Julia in the name of her the orthodox Christians who could be seiz- | 
master. \ ed by his troops ; and thus a very se- I 

The innocent slave not suspecting the vere persecution commenced : he likewise j 
trap laid for her, came immediately, when $ marched his son at the head of a < 
the governor told her that he would pro- very powerful army. The prince, knowr ; 
cure her liberty, if she would sacrifice to ^ ing that he was unable to oppose the fox-- | 
the heathen gods. To which Julia replied, \ midable force that his father was bringing \ 




against him, implored the assistance of the , prince, believing his father to be sincere, 
Roman troops, that were left to garrison | immediately went to him, and threw him- 
those parts of Spain, which the emperor I self, most submissively, at his feet. The 
still possessed. The Roman commander king, however, instead of forgiving him, 
engaged to assist Herminigildus, but being? loaded him with chains, and carried him to 
bribed by the king he broke his promise. . Seville, where he endeavored, both by prom- 
Leovigildus then made it his business, as ; ises and menaces, to make him renounce 
much as possible, to detach the orthodox '> the orthodox faitli. 

Christians from the interest of his son ; and 
in this he had great success, for it was ef- 

The prince remained constant to the 
truth ; and at the feast of Easter, when the 

fected in 581, by convening the Arian prel- ; king sent an Arian bishop to him to ad- 
ates at Toledo, who abolished the practice '/ minister the eucharist, Hermenigildus ab- 

of rebaptizing those that came over to their 
sect, and drew up a captious profession of 
faith which deceived many, and prevailed 
upon them to quit the interest of Hermeni- 

The prince, thus forsaken by numbers of 
those whom he most confided in, was ob- 
liged to retreat toward Seville, in which 

/ solutely refused to receive it, which so en- 
raged the kino-, that before he gave himself 
time to reflect, he ordered some of his 
guards to go and cut the prince to pieces, 
which they punctually performed April 13, 
A. D. 586. (See engraving.) 

Martin, bishop of Rome, was born at 
Todi, in Italy. He was naturally inclined 

I city he soon after shut himself up, and sent ^ to virtue, and his parents bestowed on him i 
i to Constantinople for assistance from the ' an admirable education. He had every ^ 
i emperor. The death of that monarch, how- ^ liberal endowment that the sciences could > 
I ever, prevented him from receiving any re- i bestow, and all the worthiness that a mortal \ 
lief; for Maurice, who succeeded him, ^ could derive from the saving grace of the | 
; found his own hands too full to afford any ( gospel. He took orders, and on the death '■ 

I succor to Hermenigildus. The king, who 

> had information of every step which his 
l son took, proceeded to Seville, and laid 
I seige to it. The prince defended the place 
I with great bravery, and even held out for 
I the space of twelve months ; but finding 
I that the city must soon be taken, he private- 

> ly made his escape, and fled to the Roman 
< troops to beg protection. Being informed 

that tbey intended to give him up, he pre- 
cipitately retired to Corduba, and thence 
went to Asseto, which he fortified. 

After the escape of the prince from Se- 
ville the city surrendered, and the king 
having properly garri-soncd it, pursued his 
son, laid sioge to Asseto, and soon obliged 
it to surrender. The unfortunate prince 

of Theodore, bishop of Rome, was advan- ' 
ced to that important see, by a unanimous > 
election, in which all parties gave him the ! 
fullest praises, and admitted, that he well j 
merited a trust of such great consequence. < 

His character has been thus drawn by • 
a masterly hand : — I 

" His compassion for the poor appeared ' 
in large contributions for their relief, and < 
the offices of hospitality, which he perform- | 
ed in favor of strangers. His fasts were j 
rigorous and fretjuent, and prayer employ- } 
ed a very considerable part of his time. | 
He was always ready to receive returning j 
sinners ; took no small pains to lead such < 
through the paths of repentance, as testified ! 
their sorrow by tears ; and comforted them, 

being driven to this distress, flew lo a ^ by letting them see what reason they had } 
church for sanctuary. The king having | to confide in God's infinite goodness. He ) 

too much respect for the sanctity of the \ loved his clergy with a brotherly tender- S 
place to force him from it, sent an officer, <, ness, and honored the episcopal character 5 

wherever it was found. j 

The first trouble he received in his epis- 1 

named Reccaredus, to assure him of his 
pardon, upon his submitting to ask it. The 




85 ] 

copal capacity, was fri)m a set of heretics, 
called Monolhelites ; who not daring, after 
the express decisions of the council of 
Chalcedon, to maintain the Unity of nature 
in Christ, asserted, artfully, that he had but 
one will and operation of mind. This sect 
was patronised by the emperor Heraclius ; 
and the first who attempted to stop the 
progress of these errors, was Sophronius, 
bishop of Jerusalem. 

!> Martin, who perfectly coincided in sen- 
timents with the bishop of Jerusalem, call- 
ec ".ouncil, which consisted of one hun- 
dred and five bishops, and they unanimous- 
ly condemned the errors in question. 

Incensed at these proceedings, the em- 
peror ordered Ol3-mpius, his lieutenant in 
Italy, to repair to Home, and seize the 
bishop, provided it could be done without 
causing an insurrection. The lieutenant 
performed the journey ; but on his arrival 
at Rome, he found the people loo unani- 
mous in their opinions, and the prelate too 
much beloved, to attempt anything by open 
violence. Hence he had recourse to treach- 
ery, and suborned a ruffian to assassinate 
the bishop at the altar ; but the fellow, after 
promising to execute the bloody deed, was 
seized with such horrors of mind, that he 
had not the power to perform his promise. 
Olympius, finding it would be very difficult 
to perform anything against Martin, with- 
drew from Rome, and putting himself at 
the head of his troops, marched against the 
Saracens, who had made some inroads into 
Italy, but he died in the expedition. 

Olympius was succeeded by Calliopas, 
who received express orders to seize the 
person of Martin, which, with the assist- 
ance of a considerable body of troops, he 
performed ; at the same time showing the 
clergy the imperial mandate, which com- 
manded him to dispossess Martin of his 
bishopric, and carry him to Constantinople 
as a prisoner. 

After a very tedious voyage, and en- 
during innumerable hardships, he reached 
the imperial city of Constantinople, and was 
immediately thrown into prison. While in 

confinement, he wrote two epistles to the 
emperor to refute the calumnies forged 
against him, with respect to his faith and 
loyalty. The substance of which was, that 
" for a proof of the soundness of the former, 
he appeals to the testimony of the whole 
clergy, and his own solemn protestation to 
defend the truth as long as he lived. In 
answer to such objections as had been 
made against the latter, he declares he 
never sent either money, letters, or advice, 
to the Saracens, but only remitted a sum 
for the relief of poor Christians among 
those people : he concludes with saying, 
that nothing could be more false than what 
the heretics had alleged against him con- 
cerning the Blessed Virgin, whom he firm- 
ly believed to be the mother of God, and 
worthy of all honor after her divine Son. 
In his second letter he gives a particular 
account of his being seized at Rome, as 
already related, and his indisposition and 
ill usage since he was dragged from that i 
city ; and ends with wishing and hoping 5 
his persecutors would repent of their con- ] 
duct, when the object of their hatred was > 
removed from this world." \ 

The fatigues that Martin had undergone ' 
were so many, and his infirmities so great, > 
that on the day appointed for his trial, he \ 
was forced to be brought out of prison in a ', 
chair, as he was unable to walk. When ^ 
he was before the court, the judge ordered < 
him to stand, which not being able to do, < 
two men were ordered to hold him up. I 
Twenty witnesses were produced against 5 
him, who swore as they were directed, and I 
charged him with pretended crimes that had \ 
been invented for the purpose. Martin be- I 
gan his defence, but as soon as he entenxi ] 
upon an investigation of the errors which 
he had combated, one of the senators stop- 
ped him, and said, that he was only ex- 
amined respecting civil aflfairs, and conse- 
quently that ecclesiastical matters had noth- 
ing to do in his defence. The judge then 
prevented him from going on, and having 
broke up the court, went and reporte i the 
progress of the proceedings to the emperor. 



Martin was now ordered to be exposed 
in the most public places of the town, to 
the ridicule of the people ; to be divested 
of all episcopal marks of distinction, and to 
be treated with the greatest scorn and se- 
verity. All these rigors he bore with a 
Christian-like patience, and a degree of 
fortitude, that only Heaven can inspire ; and 
trusted to Christ as his strength, agreeable 
to the prophecy, Isaiah xl. 27, 30, which 
has been thus beautifully paraphrased by a 
learned divine : — 

" Whence do our mournful thoughts arise ? 
And Where's our courage fled ? 
Has restless sin, and raging hell, 
Struck all our comforts dead ? 

" Have we forgot the Almio^hty name, 
That formed the earth and sea ? 
And can an all-creating arm 
Grow weary, or decay i 

" Treasures of everlasting might 
In our Jehovah dwell, 
He gives the conquest to the weak, 
And treads their foes to hell. 

" Mere mortal power shall fade and die, 
And youthful vigor cease ; 
But we that wait upon the Lord, 
Shall feel our strength increase. 

" The. saints shall mount on eagles' wings, 
And taste the promised bliss. 
Till their unwearied feet arrive. 
Where perfect pleasure is." 

After laying some months in prison, 
Martin was sent to an island at some dis- 
tance, and there cut to pieces, A. D. 655. 

JoH.v, bishop of Bergamo, in Lombardy, 
was a learned man, and a good Christian. 
He did his utmost endeavors to clear the 
church from the errors of Arianism, and 
joining in this holy work with John, bishop 
of Milan, he was very successful against 
the heretics. Grimoald, however, an Arian, 
having usurped the throne of Lombardy, 
the orthodox Christians feared that heresy 
would gain footing, once more, in Lom- 
bardy ; but the bishop of Bergamo used 
such persuasive arguments with Grimoald, | 
that he brought him from the errors of j 
Arianism to profess the orthodox faith. | 

After the death of Grimoald, and his son \ 
who succeeded him, Pantharit came to the 
crown, and again introduced those errors 
which had been combated with such spirit 

by the orthodox clergy. The bishop of 
Bergamo exerted himself strenuously to 
prevent the heresy from spreading, on which 
account he was assassinated on July 11, 
A. D. 683. 

" Conscience, the guilty will control, 
And waken horrors in the soul ; 
Pursue the bloody murderer's feet. 
At every turn the villain meet ; 
And do that justice law denies, 
With dreadful stings, and glaring eyes." 

Adalbert, bishop of Prague, was a 
Bohemian by birth. His parents were 
persons of rank, but more distinguished for 
their virtue and piety than for their opulence 
or lineage. They were happy in a son, 
whose dawning perfections gave them a 
pleasing hope, that he would one day be- 
come a shining ornament to his family. 
That he might fulfil their expectations, they 
gave him a complete education ; but their 
joy was in some measure damped, by his 
falling into a dropsy, from which he was 
with difficulty recovered. 

When he was effectually cured, they 
; sent him to Magdaburg, and committed him 
: to the care of the archbishop of that city, 
who completed his education, and confirm- 
ed him in piety and virtue. The rapid 
progress which Adalbert made in human 
and divine learning, made him dear to the 
prelate, who, to the authority of a teacher, 
joined all the tenderness of a parent for his 
amiable pupil. 

Having spent nine years at Magdaburg, 
he retired to his own country upon the 
death of the archbishop, and entered him- 
self among the clergy at Prague. Dithmar, 
bishop of Prague, died soon after the re- 
turn of Adalbert to that city ; and, in his 
expiring moments, expressed such contri- 
tion for having been ambitious, and solici- 
tous of worldly honor and riches, as sur- 
prised every one who heard it. Adalbert, 
who was among the number present, was 
so sensibly affected at the bishop's dying 
sentiments, that he received them as an 
admonition to the strict practice of virtue, 
which he afterward exercised with the 
greatest attention, spending his time in 


87 I 

prayer, and relieving the poor with a S bishopric, rather than be the witness of ; 
cheerful liberality. | enormities, which he could not remedy. I 

A few days after the decease of Dithmar, I He determined to take the pope's advice, I 
an assembly was held for the choice of a I and to devote the remainder of his days to \ 
successor, which consisted of the clergy of $ mortification, poverty, and silence; which \ 
Prague, and the chief quality of Bohemia. I design he began, by giving all his treasures i 
Adalbert's character for every virtue that i to the poor. He was, however, before he I 
important post required soon determined ) entirely secluded himself from mankind, \ 
them to raise him to the vacant see, which \ desirous of seeing the Holy Land, and set I 
they did on the 19th of February, 983. | off accordingly, with three persons in his ', 
Messengers were immediately despatched I company. ' 

to Verona, to desire Olho H. would confirm > In their way they arrived at Mount Cas- , 
the election. The emperor granted the > sino, where the heads of the monastery of ^ 
request, ordered Adalbert to repair to court ^ that place received them in a very friendly i 
for investiture, gave him the ring and > manner, and entertained them as well as I 
crosier, and then sent him to the arch- \ the rules of their order would admit. Be- > 
bishop of Mentz for consecration. That Mng apprized of the cause of their journey, i 
ceremony was performed on the 29th of | when they were about to depart the supe- ', 
June the same year ; and he was received i rior of the monastery addressed himself to I 
at Prague with all possible demonstrations i Adalbert, and observed to him, that the \ 
of public joy. He divided the revenue of | journey he had undertaken would give him I 
his see into four parts, according to the di- | more trouble and uneasiness than he was ' 
rection of the canons extant in the fifth | aware of ; that the frequent desire of chang- I 
century. The first was employed in the i ing place and travelli .g, often proceeded > 
fabric, and ornaments of the church ; the ( more from a restless disposition, and eager \ 
second went to the maintenance of the < curiosity, than real religion, or solid devo- > 
clergy; the third was laid out for the relief j tion. " Therefore," said he, " if you will ' 
of the poor ; and the fourth reserved for the I listen to my advice, leave the world at once ^ 
support of himself and family ; which was < with sincerity, and settle in some religious ? 
always made to include twelve indigent i community, without desiring to see more > 
persons, to whom he allowed daily subsist- j than you have already seen." Adalbert | 
ence. \ listened attentively, and came readily into ) 

He now performed his duty with the ut- < the sentiments of the superior, which soon \ 
most assiduity, and spent a great portion of | determined him to take up his residence in ' 
his time in preaching to and exhorting the \ that monastery, where he then thought he >. 
people. His conduct was discreet and hu- i might live entirely recluse, and, being un- I 
mane ; and his manner neither too severe I known, might pass unhonored to the grave. \ 
nor too indulgent ; so that his flock were I But in the latter particular he was mis- < 
not terrified into despair, or flattered into s taken ; for the priests, by accident, coming | 
presumption. But some things which he to a knowledge of the rank and former dig- i 
could not remedy gave him great uneasi- s nity of their colleague, began to treat him i 
ness, particularly the having a plurality of ^ with great deference and respect, which i 
wives, and selling the Christians to the | occasioned him to leave the place. Nilus, < 
Jews, for trivial ofi'ences. Hence he de- l a Grecian, was then at the head of a com- i 
termined to consult the pope, and made a s munity not far from Mount Cassino ; Adal- i 
journey to Rome. Accordingly, John, who ^ bert made his way to him, and begged to I 
then sat in the papal chair, received him I be received into his monastery. He as- \ 
with great cordiality, and having heard his '• sured him he would willingly comply with j 
grievance, advised him to give up his \ his request, if he thought the rule and \ 

{ practice of his religious family would be > to his diocese ; but, at the same time, had 
i agreeable to a stranger ; besides which, he j permission to quit his charge again, if he 
' told him that the house in which he and his } found his flock as incorrigible as before. 
I people lived was given to them by those of | The inhabitants of Prague met him, on his 
Mount Cassino ; and therefore it might not < arrival, with great joy, and promised obe- 
< be safe for him to receive one that had left dience to his directions ; but they sorn for- 
i that community. When Nilus had thus got their promises, and relapsed into their 
\ excused himself, he advised him to return i former vices, which obliged him, a second 
? to Rome, and apply himself to Leo, an ab- | time, to leave them, and return to his 
I bot of his acquaintance there, to whom he I monastery. 

I gave a letter of recommendation. Adalbert The archbishop of Mentz sent another 
I went to Rome, where he found Leo, who, deputation to Rome, and desired that his 
I before he would admit him, put his virtue \ suffragan might be again ordered back, to 
\ and courage to proper trials, by speaking ^ his diocese. Gregory V. who was then 
\ roughly to him, and giving him a terrible I pope, commanded him to return to Prague ; 
\ account of the labors and severities of the and he obeyed, though with great reluct- 
'. state in which he desired to engage. But, | ance. 

\ finding his resolution was not moved or \ The Bohemians, however, did not look 

j weakened by the prospect of the most aus- upon him as before, but deemed him the 

I tere mortifications, he conducted him to the I censor of their faults, and the enemy to 

; pope, and, with the consent of that pontiff their pleasures, and threatened him with 

I and the whole college of cardinals, gave death upon his arrival ; but not having him 

I him the habit on Holy Thursday in the year I yet in their power, contented themselves 

/ 990. We have already said that he had J with falling on his relations, several of 

j been attended only by three select persons whom they murdered, plundered their 

I ever since he had the pope's advice for re- estates, and set fire to their houses. 

> signing his bishopric ; two of them left him Adalbert had intelligence of these out- 

\ now ; but the third, who was his own ^ rageous proceedings, and could not judge 

\ brother Gaudentius, followed his example, \ it prudent to proceed on his journey. He 

and engaged in the same community. \ therefore went to the duke of Poland, who 

\ Adalbert, full of the most profound humili- 1 had a particular respect for him, and en- 

\ ty, took a particular pleasure in the lowest f gaged that prince to sound the Bohemians 

\ employments of the house, and lived here ; in regard to his return ; but could get no 

I an excellent pattern of Christian simplicity ; belter answer from that wretched people. 

\ and obedience. | than that " they were sinners, hardened in 

I The archbishop of Mentz, as a metro- | iniquity ; and Adalbert a saint, and conse- 

politan, was exceedingly afilicted at the dis-^quenlly not fit to live among them; for 

I orders in the church of Prague, and wished I which reason he was not to hope for a 

I for the return of the bishop, with whose re- '. tolerable reception at Prague." The bish- 

treat he was not, for sometime, acquainted. '. op thought this message discharged him 

I At length, after five years' absence, he i from any further concern for that church, 

i heard that Adalbert was at Rome, when he '', and began to direct his thoughts to the con- 

\ sent a deputation to the pope to press his ; version of infidels ; to which end he re- 

I return to his diocese. The pope summon- j paired to Dantzic, where he converted 

, ed a council to consider of the deputation, | and baptized many, which so enraged the 

\ and after a warm dispute between the pagan priests, that they fell upon him and 

I monks and deputies, the latter carried their | despatched him with darts, on th» 23d of 

1 point, and Adalbert was ordered to return ' April, A. D. 997. 



89 ! 


LPHAGE, archbishop of ^ remainder of his life in religious security ; \ 
Canterbury, was descend- ? when the following aflair once more drew I 
ed from a considerable '/, him from his retreat : — \ 

family in Gloucestershire' I The see of Winchester being vacant by 
and received an education ^ the death of Ethelvvold, it was no easy > 
suitable to his illustrious matter to agree upon the choice of a sue- \ 
birth. Hisparents were worthy Christians, jcessor to that bish(>pric. The clergy had ' 
and Alphage seemed to inherit all their j been driven out of the cathedral for their 
virtues. He was prudent and humble, I scandalous lives, but were admitted again ^ 
pious and chaste : he made a rapid progress J by King Ethelred, upon certain terms of ^ 
both in polite literature and scripture learn- i reformation. The monks, who had been .^ 
ing, and was, at once, the admired scholar, \ introduced upon their expulsion, looked l 
and devout Christian : he strove to make i upon themselves as the chapter of that 
the arts useful to the purposes of life, and church ; and hence arose a violent contest 
to render philosophy subservient to the \ between them, and the clergy who had been 
cause of religion. In order to be more at^ readmitted, about the election of a bishop ; 
leisure to contemplate the divine perfec- ^ while both parties were hot, and vigorous- 
tions, he determined to renounce his fortune, j ly set upon promoting each their own man 
quit home, and become a recluse. He ac- JThis dispute at last ran so high, that Dun 
cordingly retired to a monastery of Bene- 1 stan, archbishop of Canterbury, as primate 
dictines, at Deerhurst, in Gloucestershire, ^ of all England, was obliged to interpose in 
and soon after took the habit. i the aflair, who consecrated Alphage to the 

Considering that the principal business 5 vacant bishopric, to the general satisfaction 
of a Christian was to subdue his passions, 5 of all concerned in the election, or inter- ^ 
and mortify his appetites, he lived with the I ested in the aflair. \ 

utmost temperance, and spent the greatest $ Alphage's behavior was a sufficient proof '/ 
part of his time in prayer. But not think- s of his being equal to the dignity of his vo- ^ 
ing the austerities he underwent in this | cation. Piety flourished in his diocese; '< 
monastery sufiiciently severe, he retired to unity was established among his clergy and I 
a lonely cell near Bath, and lived in a man- people ; and the church of Winchester re- j 
ner still more rigid and mortifying. Here I covered its lustre in such a manner, as '. 
he thought to remain unknown, but some I made the bishop the admiration of the whole \ 
devout persons finding out his retreat, his ; kingdom. i 

austere life soon became the subject of con- 1 Dunstan had an extraordinary veneration \ 
versation in the neighboring villages, where I for Alphage, and when at the point of death, < 
many flocked to him, and begged to be > made it his ardent request to God, that he • 
taken under his pastoral care. He yielded | might succeed him in the see of Canter- 
to their importunities, raised a monastery ^ bury ; which accordingly happened, though 
near his cell, by the contributions of several '> not till about eighteen years after Dunslan's 
well-disposed persons ; formed his new ^ death. In the course of that period the 
pupils into a community, and placed a priori metropolitan church was governed by three 
over them. Having prescribed rules for ^ successive prelates ; the last of whom was ^ 
their regulation, he again retired to his be- ; Alfrick ; upon whose decease, in 1006, AI- \ 
loved cell, I'eivently wishing to pass the plia^e wus raL-^eJ to the see of Canto oury. s 



The people belonging to the diocese of 
Winchester were the only persons who did 
not sincerely rejoice at his promotion ; for 
they were too sensible of the loss they sus- 
tained by his translation, not to regret his 
removal to Canterbury. 

Soon after his being made archbishop he 
went to Rome, and received the pall from 
Pope John XVIII., and after his return to 
England, labored assiduously to introduce 
the best regulations into the church. 

After Alphage had governed the see of 
Canterbury about four years, with great rep- 
utation to himself, and benefit to his peo- 
ple, the Danes made an incursion into 
England. Ethelred, who then reigned, 
was a prince of very weak understanding, 
and pusillanimous disposition. Too tear- 
ful to face the enemy himself, and too ir- 
resolute to furnish others with the means 
of acti[ig in his stead, he suffered his coun- 
try to be ravage^d with impunity, and the 
greatest depredations to be committed, at 
the option of his enemies. 

The archbishop Alphage, upon this try- 
ing occasion, acted with great resolution 
and humanitj': he went boldly to the Danes, 
purchased the freedom of several whom 
they had made captives ; found means to 
send a sufficient quantity of food to others, 
whom he had not money enough to redeem, 
and even made converts of some of the 
Danes : but the latter circumstance made 
the Danes, who still continued pagans, 
greater enemies to him than they would 
otherwise have been, and determined them 
to be revenged on him for occasioning a 
change in the sentiments of their compan- 
ions, f^dric, an English malecontent, and 
an infamous traitor, gave the Danes every 
encouragement, and even assisted them in 
laying siege to Canterbury. When the de- 
sign of attacking this citj' was known, 
many of the principal people made a preci- 
pitate llight from it, and would have per- 
suaded Alphage to follow their example. 
But he, like a good pastor, would not listen 
to such proposal ; he assured them he could 
not think of abandoning his flock, at a time 

when his presence was more necessary 
than ever, and was resolved to hazard his 
life in their defence, at this calamitous 
juncture. While he was employed in as- 
sisting and encouraging his pepple, Can- 
terbury was taken by storm ; the enemy 
poured into the town, and destroyed all that 
came in their way, by fire and sword. The 
monks did what they could to detain the 
archbishop in the church, where they hoped 
he might be safe. But his concern for his 
flock made him break from them, and run 
into the midst of the danger. He had the 
courage to address the enemy, and offer 
himself to their swords, as more worthy 
their rage than the people : he begged they 
niight be saved, and that they would dis- 
charge their whole fury on him. They ac- 
cordingly seized him, tied his hands, in- 
sulted, and abused him in a rude and bar- 
barous manner ; and obliged him to remain 
on the spot till his church was burnt, and 
the monks massacred. They then deci- 
mated all thf; inhabitants, both ecclesiastics, 
and laymen, leaving only every tenth per- 
son alive : so that they put 7,236 persons 
to death, and left only four monks, and 800 
laymen alive : after which they confined 
the archbishop in a dungeon, where they 
kept him close prisoner for several months. 
During his confinement, they proposed to 
him to redeem his liberty with the sum of 
jC;3,000and to persuade the king to j)urchase 
their departure out of the kintrdom with a { 
further sum of jC 1 0,000. Alphage's cir- 
cumstances would not allow him to satisfy 
the exorbitant demand : they bound him, 
and put him to severe torments, to oblige 
liim to discover the treasure of his church; 
upon which they assured him of his life 
and liberty. The prelate knew, that what 
they insisted on was the inheritance of the 
poor, not to be thrown away upon the bar- \ 
barous enemies of the Christian religion ; i 
and therefore persisted in refusing to give ? 
th(!m any account of it. They remanded \ 
him to prison again, confined him six days i 
longer, and then taking him with them to | 
Greenwich, brought him to a trial there, i 




He still remained inflexible with respect to I pleasure to find that his endeavors were not 
the church treasures ; but exhorted them to < unsuccessful, for his sweetness of disposi- 
forsake their idolatry, and embrace Chris- < tion won upon the people so much, that they 
tianity. This so greatly incensed the \ could not help believing one whom they 
Danes, that the soldiers dragged him out < loved, or of placing a confidence in the doc- 
of the camp, and beat him unmercifully, j trines of a man they had such great reason 
•Alphagebore this usage patiently, and even s to reverence. 
^' prayed for his persecutors. One of the j His conquests over idolatry were not 
? soldiers, who had been converted and bap- 5 confined to his own diocese, but extended 

< tized by him, was greatly afliicted, that his > to the adjacent country, where his doctrines 

< pains should be so lingering, as he knew ^ successfully spread, and many became con- 

< his death was determined on ; he, there- > verts to the pure faith of Christ. Wher- 
^ fore, with the fury of a desperate zeal, and \ ever the faith made its way by his ministry, 
I a kind of barbarous compassion, cut off his I he took care to establish ecclesiastical dis- 

> head, and thus put the finishing stroke to > cipline for the preservation of religion, and 

< his martyrdom, on April 19, A. D. 1012. made several useful regulations in the pub- \ 
I This transaction happened on the very spot i lie service of the church. His exemplary ; 
s where the church at Greenwich, which is i conduct was at least as instructive as his | 
I dedicated to him, now stands. After his \ sermons and exhortations, and went a great ' 
] death his body was thrown into the Thames, ? way in convincing his converts of the truth ; 
\ but being found the next day, it was buried 'i and dignity of their new profession : for \ 

> in the cathedral of St. PauFs by the bish- ). who could doubt of the excellency of a re- \ 

> ops of London and Lincoln; whence it Migion, that raised him above the weaknesses \ 
I was, in the year 1023, removed to Canter- \ and passions of human nature ; and appear- \ 
] bury by iEthelmoth, the archbishop of that 'i ed divine, by placing him at a distance from ; 


all that flatters or delights the senses ? He 

i Gerard, a Venetian, devoted himself to \ visited his diocese, and was remarkable for c 
^ the service of God from his tender years ; < an uncommon tenderness for the poor, espe- - 
> entered into a religious house for some time, \ cially such as had the misfortune of sick- J 
\ and then determined to visit the Holy Land. \ ness, or were incapable of following their \ 

< Going into Hungary, he became acquainted \ accustomed employments. 

< with Stephen, the king of that country, ? During the life of Stephen, Gerard re- 

< who, at once, acted the parts of prince and '/ ceived every kind of assistance which that 

< preacher, and not only regulated his sub- '( excellent monarch could afford him ; but 

\ jects by wholesome laws, but taught them on the demise of Stephen, his nephew | 

\ religious duties. Finding Gerard every \ Peter, who succeeded him, was of so dif- \ 

\ way qualified to instruct his people, he \ ferent a temper, that Gerard was greatly \ 

\ tried, by every means, to detain him in his > perplexed during his government. ^ 

\ kingdom ; and, at length, founding several ^ At length, the tyranny of Peter exasper- \ 

\ churches, he made Gerard bishop of that \ ated his subjects so much against him, that \ 

Chonad. \ they deposed him, and placed Ouvo on the < 

Gerard had a very difficult task to per- < throne. They, however, soon found, that \ 

form ; the people of his diocese were fond \ they had changed from bad to worse ; for < 

of and accustomed to idolatry ; and their > Ouvo proved a greater monster of cruelty \ 

perverseness was equal to their immorality. \ than his predecessor. At Easter Ouvo re- \ 

The new bishop, however, assiduous in \ paired to Chonad, in order to receive the < 

his charge, and full of zeal for the salvation \ crown from the hands of Gerard. When < 

of his flock, labored diligently to bring them J he arrived at the place, the other prelates | 

t« a sense of their dutv. He soon had the | of the kingdom, who were assembled on \ 



! that solemn occasion, assured the prince j Stanislaus, bishop of Cracow, was de- 
' of their affections for his person, and . scended from an iUustrious Polish family. 
^ promised to concur in his coronation ; but The piety of his parents was equal to their 

< Gerard absolutely refused to pay that com- \ opulence, and the latter they rendered sub- 
: pliment to a public and malicious enemy ; > servient to all the purposes of charity and 
' and took the liberty of letting the intruder $ benevolence. Stanislaus was their only 

< know, that he could not look on Peter's ex- ^ child, and consequently the sole object of 
I elusion as regular, and consequently should ;; their parental affection. When he was of 

not proceed to do anything to the prejudice I a proper age, they employed masters in 
of his title : he then told him, that if he > several branches of learning to instruct 
persisted in his usurpation, the Divine > him, and were happy to find, that his rapid 
Providence would soon put an end to his ; improvement fully answered their most 
life and reign. Ouvo growing more insup- > sanguine expectations. He had a pene- 
portable than his predecessor, was brought i trating genius, retentive memory, and solid 
to the scaffold in the year 1044; upon ^ understanding ; hence study became his 
which Peter was recalled, and placed on ' amusement, learning his delight, and books 
the throne a second time ; but his disposi- ? his beloved companions. Nor was his dis- 
tion and retirement had made no alteration i position inferior to his abilities ; he was 
in his temper, so that he was again depriv- \ modest, mild, candid, and grave, temperate 
ed of the royal dignity after two years' pos- \ in his meals, and moderate in his sleep ; he 
session. / voluntarily gave himself, in the dawn of 

Andrew, son of Ladisl.uis, cousin-german < youth, to such austerities, as might have 
to Stephen, had then a tender of the crown < given reputation to a professed hermit, 
made him, upon condition that he would < Having pursued his studies at home for 
employ his authority in extirpating the < some years, he was sent to a seminary of 
Christian religion out of Hungary. The J learning in Poland, and afterward to the 
ambitious prince came into the proposal, '. university of Paris, that his education might 
and promised to do his utmost in re-estab- s be completed in that celebrated seat of 
lishing the idolatrous worship of his de- ', literature. After continuing seven years at 
luded ancestors. Gerard, being informed \ Paris, he returned to his own country, and 
of this impious bargain, thought his duty s on the demise of his parents became pos- 
obliged him to remonstrate against the s sessed of a plentiful fortune. Sensible that 
enormity of Andrew's crime, and persuade i riches constituted no part of a Christian's 
him to withdraw his promise. In this 5 happiness, any further than as they enabled 
view he undertook to go to that prince, at- ) him to assist the needy ; he devoted most 
tended by three other prelates, full of a like s of his property to charitable uses, retaining 
zeal for religion. The new king was at | only a small portion for his own susten- 
Alba Ilegalis, but as the four bishops were ance. 

going to cross the Danube, they were stop- s His views were now solely directed to 

ped by a party of soldiers posted there by ) the ministry ; but he remained for some- 

I order of a man of quality in the neighbor- 1 time undetermined, whether he should em- 

< hood, remarkable for his aversion to the ^'race a monastic life, or engage among the 

< Christian religion, and to Stephen's memory. ; secular clergy. He was at length per- 
/, They bore an attack with a shower of stones I suaded to the latter by Lambert Zula, 
I patiently, when the soldiers proceeding to J bishop of Cracow, who gave liiin holy or- 
{ greater outrages, beat them unmercifully, i ders, and made him a canon of his cathedral. 

< and at length despatched them with lances. ' In this capacity he lived in a most pious 

< Their martyrdoms happened in the year ; and exemi)lary manner, and perlornieil the 
'■ 1045. ^duties of his function with uiucniiiling 



assiduity and fervent devotion. Lambert 
could not help being charmed with the 
many virtues which so particularly distin- 
guished Stanislaus, and would fain have 
resigned his bishopric to him. The reason 
he alleged for such resignation was his great 
age, but Stanislaus absolutely refused to 
accept of the see, for the contrary reason, 
viz. : his want of years, for being then only 
thirty-six years old, he deemed that too 
early a time of life for a man to undertake 
the important care of a diocese. Lambert, 
however, made him his substitute upon 
various occasions, by which he became 
thoroughly acquainted with all that related 
to the bishopric. Lambert died on Novem- 
ber 25, A. D. 1071, when all concerned in 
the choice of a successor declared for 
Stanislaus. But his former objection re- 
mained, and on account of his age, he de- 
clined the acceptance of the prelacy. 

Determined, however, to conquer his 
scruples, the king, clergy, and nobility, 
unanimously joined in writing to Pope Alex- 
ander n. who at their entreaty sent an 
express order that Stanislaus should accept 
the bishopric. Thus commanded, he obey- 
ed, and exerted himself to the utmost in the 
improvement of his flock. He was equally 
careful with respect both to clergy and 
laity-; and exhorted the former to show a 
good example as much as he did the latter 
to imitate it. He kept a list of all the poor 
in his diocese, and by feeding the hungry, 
clothing the naked, and administering reme- 
dies to the sick, he proved himself, not only 
the godly pastor, but the bodily physician 
and generous benefactor. 

Bolislaus the second king of Poland had, 
by nature, many good qualities, but giving 
way too much to his passions he ran into 
many enormities. He daily grew worse 
and worse, and from being deemed a good 
king, at length had the appellation of cruel 
bestowed on him. The nobility were 
shocked at his conduct, but did not care to 
speak to him concerning it, and the clergy 
saw his proceedings with grief, but were 
afraid to reprehend him. Stanislaus alone 

had the courage to tell him of his faults, 
when taking a private opportunity he free- 
] ly displayed to him the enormity of his 

The king was greatly exasperated at this 
freedom, but, awed by the virtues of the 
bishop, dissembled his resentment, and ap- 
pearing to be convinced of his errors 
promised to reform his conduct. So far, 
however, from designing to perform his 
promise, he complained to some of his 
sycophants of the freedom that Stanislaus 
had taken with him ; and they, to flatter his 
folly, condemned the boldness of the bish- 
op. The king, soon after, attempted the 
chastity of a married lady, who rejected his 
offers with disdain ; which piqued his pride 
so much, that he seized her by force, and 
violated her by compulsion. This greatly 
alarmed all the nobility : none knew how 
long his own wife, daughter, or sister, might 
be safe ; and each dreaded for the peace of 
his family. They, at length, assembled to- 
gether, and calling the clergy to their as- 
sistance, entreated Peter, archbishop of 
Gresne, to remonstrate to the king on the 
impropriety and viciousness of his conduct ; 
adding, that it was more particularly his 
business so to do, as primate of Poland. 

The archbishop, however, declined the 
dangerous task ; for though a man of some 
virtue, he was of a disposition uncommonly 
mild. Several other prelates sheltered 
themselves behind his refusal, and gave 
their fear the name of modesty, which 
would not permit them to undertake what 
their metropolitan had thought too great for 
his abilities. Stanislaus alone was, as be- 
fore, the only one who had courage, and 
zeal sufficient, to perform what he looked 
upon as a most important and indispensable 
duty. He, therefore, put himself at the 
head of a select number of ecclesiastics, 
noblemen, and gentlemen ; and, proceeding 
to court, addressed the king in a solemn and 
serious manner, and fully represented the 
heinousness of his crimes, and what would 
be the fatal consequences of his debauch- 




The king bad scarce patience to hear 
him out ; and, as soon as he had done 
speaking, flew into a violent passion, at 
once complaining of the want of respect to 
his royal dignity, and vowing revenge for 
what he called an insult to his person. 
Stanislaus, however, not in the least in- 
timidated by his menaces, visited him twice 
more, and remonstrated with him in a simi- 
lar manner, which so much exasperated the 
king, that he knew not how to contain him- 

The nobility and clergy, finding that the 
admonitions of the bishop had not the de- 
sired effect upon the king, thought proper 
to interpose between them. The nobility 
entreated the bishop to refrain from any 
more exasperating a monarch of so fero- 
cious and untractable a temper ; and the 
clergy endeavored to persuade the king not 
to be offended with Stanislaus for his 
charitable remonstrances. Neither, how- 
ever, succeeded, for the king remained as 
obstinate, and the bishops as zealous, as 
ever. The haughty sovereign, at length, 
determined, at any rate, to get rid of a 
prelate, who, in his opinion, was so ex- 
tremely troublesome. Hearing one day 
that the bishop was by himself, in the 
chapel of St. Michael, at a small distance 
from the town, he despatched some soldiers 
to murder him. The soldiers readily un- 
dertook the bloody task ; but when they 
came into the presence of Stanislaus, the 
venerable aspect of the prelate struck them 

with such awe, that they could not perform 
what they had promised. On their return, 
the king, finding they had not obeyed his 
orders, stormed at them violently, snatched 
I a dagger from one of them, and ran furious- 
' ly to the chapel, where, finding Stanislaus 
at the altar, he plunged the weapon to his 
heart. The prelate immediately expired, 
on the 8th day of May, in the year 1079, 
receiving a crown of martyrdom as a re- 
ward for his zeal, and being numbered 
among the glorified saints, whose blessed- 
ness is described in Revelation, chap, vii., 
V. 13, &c., which passage hath been ren- 
dered, by a learned divine, into English 

" What happy men, or angels these, 

That all their robes are spotless white ? 
Whence did this glorious troop arrive, 
At the pure realnfis of heavenly light ? 

" From tottering racks, and burning fires. 
And seas of their own blood, they came ; 
But nobler blood has washed tlieir robes, 
Flowing from Christ, their dying lamb. 

"Now they approach the Almighty throne, 
Witli loud hosannahs night and day ; 
Sweet antliems to the Three in One, 
Measure their blessed eternity. 

" No more shall hunger pain their souls. 
He bids their parching thirst he gone, 
And spreads tlie shadow of his wings, 
To screen them from the scorching sun. 

" The lamb that fills the middle throne. 
Shall shed around his milder beams; 
There shall they feast on his rich love, 
And. drink full joys from hving streams. 

" Thus shall their mighty bliss renew. 

Through the vast round of endless years ; 
And the sol't lian<l of sovereign grace 

Heals all their wounds, and wipes their tears." 



FTER a long series of jand that by two ways: first by pretendmg j 
troubles in France, the that an army was to be sent intd the lower j 
papists seeing nothing ) country, under the command of the admi- { 
could be done against I ral, prince of Navarre and Conde ; not that | 
the protestants by open ^ the king had any intention of so doing, but 

_ force, began to devise / only with a view to ascertain what force the \ 

how they could entrap them by subtlety, < admiral had imder him, who they were, and 

)lp'''i''ii™i|tl!!;piii;iJ)»f"yc"fn"tiii;|1|y3"|?ii!ft;T --?=^_^-,^Jr ' — =; ' - • -r^ -^-:, / I MII L.^ _ f 





wlial were their names. The second was, > which, they took him to the place of ex- 
a marriage suborned between the prince of < ecution, out of the city, and there hanged 
Navarre and the sister of the king of < him up by the heels, exposing his mutilated 
France; to which were to be invited all < body to the scorn of the populace, 
the chief protestants. Accordingly, they \ The martyrdom of this virtuous man had 
first began with the queen of Navarre ; she s no sooner taken place, than the armed sol- 
consented to come to Paris, where she s diers "ran about slaying all the protestants 
was at length won over to the king's mind. ; they could find within the city. This con- 
Shortly after she fell sick, and died within | tinned many days, but the greatest slaugh- 
five days, not without suspicion of poison ; > ter was in the first three days, in which 
but her body being opened, no signs thereof ^ were said to be murdered above 10,000 
appeared. A certain apothecary, however, \ men and women, old and young, of all 
made his boast, that he had killed the queen S sorts and conditions. The bodies of the 
by venomous odors and smells, prepared by j dead were carried in carts and thrown into 
himself. > the river, which was all stained therewith ; 

Notwithstanding this, the marriage still \ also whole streams in various parts of the 
proceeded. The admiral, prince of Na- ^ city ran with the blood of the slain. In 
varre and Conde, with divers other chief > the number that were slain of the more 
states of the protestants, induced by the ? learned sort, were Peter Ramus, Lambi- 
king's letters and many fair promises, came \ nus, Plateanus, Lomenius, Chapesius, and 
to Paris, and were received with great ^' others. 

solemnity. The marriage at length took j These brutal deeds were not confined 
place on the 18th of August, 1572, and o within the walls of Paris, but extended 
was solemnized by the cardinal of Bourbon ] into other cities and quarters of the realm, 
upon a high stage set up on purpose with- ? especially to Lyons, Orleans, Toulouse, 
out the church walls : the prince of Na- ) and Rouen, where the cruelties were un- 
varre and Conde came down, waiting for | paralleled. Within the s, ice of one month, 
the king's sister, who was then at mass. | thirty thousand protestants, at least, are 
This done, the company all went to the } said to have been slain, as is credibly re- 
bishop's palace to dinner. In the evening \ ported by those who testify of the matter, 
they were conducted to the king's palace i When intelligence of the massacre was 
to supper. Four days after this, the ad- ? received at Rome, the greatest rejoicings 
miral coming from the council-table, on 5 were made. The pope and cardinals went 
his way was shot at with a pistol, charged > in solemn procession to the church of St. 
with three bullets, and wounded in both Mark to give thanks to God. A jubilee 
his arms. Notwithstanding which, he still l was also published, and the ordnance fired 
remained in Paris, although the Vidam ad- i from the castle of St. Angelo. To the 
vised him to flee. | person who brought the news, the cardinal 

Soldiers were appointed in various parts > of Lorraine gave 1,000 crowns. Like re- 
of the city to be ready at a watch-word, hoicings were also made' all over France 
upon which they rushed out to the slaugh- for this imagined overthrow of the faithful, 
ter of the protestants, beginning with the j The following are among the particulars 
admiral, who being dreadfully wounded, i recorded of the above enormities : — 
was cast out of the window into the street, > In some measure to palliate their cruel- 
where his head being sii'uck off*, was em- } ties, the Roman catholics, while they were 
balmed with spices to be sent to the pope. \ murdering the innocent people, cried out. 
The savage people then cut off" his arms I " Vile wretches, this is for wanting to over- 
and mutilated his body, and drew him in ', turn the constitution of your country ; this 
that state through the streets of Paris, after j is for conspiring to murder the king." ; 



': Rank, sex, or age, were no protections ; ^ gentleman into the street, stabbed him with ' 
/ noblessunkbeneath the daggers of ruffians; I their daggers, laid his body in a stable, ; 
\ the tears of beauty made no impression on s covered his face with manure, and the next ; 
^ the hearts of bigotry ; the silver hairs of ', day threw him into the Seine. | 

I venerable age, and the piteous cries of > Peter Ramus, the royal professor of I 
<, helpless infancy, were alike disregarded. ; logic, was seized in the college over which ' 
] Superstition steeled the hearts of the pa- 1 he presided, for professing protestant tenets; ] 
I pists against the ties of humanity ; and in- ^ and after being murdered, his body was , 
I fatuation directed the sword of false zeal, Uhrown out of the window, and trailed about i 
; to pierce the bosoms of piety and inno- - the streets in derision, by several boys who > 
I cence. The lamentations of distress, the \ were ordered so to do by their popish ; 
' shrieks of terror, and the groans of the '' tutors. > 

\ dying, were music to the ears of the furi- A pious young gentlerr)an was killed with :■ 
\ ous murderers : they enjoyed the horrors \ battle-axes in his study ; two ministers ; 

< of slaughter, and triumphed over the man- > were stabbed, and thrown into the river ; ;: 
' gled carcasses of those whom they had j and several of the assassins, breaking into ; 

< butchered. | the house of a jeweller, they found the ' 
I Upon this dreadful occasion, swords, midwife with his wife, who was in lalior. '> 
I pistols, muskets, cutlasses, daggers, and Having murdered the jeweller, they were \ 
\ other instruments of death, had been put proceeding to kill the wife, when the mv\- > 

< into the hands of above sixty thousand ( wife kneeled before them, and entreated \ 
I furious and bigoted papists, who now, in a \ permission to deliver the woman ; •' for ; 
>f frantic manner, ran up and down the streets \ this will be the twentieth child she has ' 
\ of Paris, uttering the most horrid blasphe- \ borne." The inhuman brutes, however, - 
\ mies, and committing the inost inhuman ' turning a deaf ear to her entreaties, spurn- . 
' barbarities. It is almost beyond the power I ed the midwife from them, stabbed the I 
( of imagination to paint, or of language to I woman, and threw her out of the window. ? 
5 describe, the cruelties that were acted on s The fall forced the child from the womb, ^ 
{ that fatal night, and the two succeeding I who lay crying for some time, and then -^ 
I days. The infirm were murdered in the I perished in the street for want of proper | 
\ bed of sickness ; the aged stabbed while \ care. j 

tottering on their crutches ; children snatch- ^ Some soldiers entering the house of a \ 
I ed from their mothers, and tossed on the I doctor of civil law, demanded a sight of his | 
\ points of spears ; infants strangled in their I library. With this he complied, when s 
I cradles ; pregnant women ripped open, and \ finding some protcstant books, they took > 
', men indiscriminately murdered by various I him into the street, and beat his brains out ; 
I means. The confusion and horrors of the \ with a club, A cook, who had hid him- j 

scene were dreadful indeed ; oaths, shout- \ self on the first alarm, being pressed by 5 

ings, shrieks, and the discharge of firearms, ) thirst, came from his lurking-place to pro- i 
I were heard in all quarters; ho\ises were > cure food, but was inunediately nuirdered ; s 
; defiled with the blood of their owimts ; the I and an apothecary, who was carrying some i 
'/ streets strewed with carcases; and the | medicines to a patient, met with the same > 
/ waters of the Seitie appeared of a crimson I fate. 

^ color, from the number of mangled bodies ; Three hundred and fifiy protestants were 
I which had been thrown into thai river. \ confined in a place called the archbishop's 
\ Several ruffians enteri'd the house of I prison. To this place a number of sol- 
I Monsieur De la Place, president of the ;; diers repaired, picked their pockets of what } 
I court of requests, and having plundered it ' money they had, took from them such gar- ) 
\ of al)ove a thousand crowns, they took that ; menls as they thought proper to appropri- > 




ate to their own uses, and then drawing 
their swords, cut them to pieces without 
the least remorse. 

A protestant merchant, named Francis 
Bassu, expecting to share the fate of other 
protestants, thus addressed his two sons : 
" Children, be not terrified at what may 
happen : it is the portion of true believers 
to be hated and persecuted by imbelievers, 
as sheep are devoured by wolves. But 
remember, that if we suffer for Christ, we 
sliall reign with him : therefore let not 
drawn swords terrify you, they will be but 
a bridge over which to pass to eternal life." 
He had scarce uttered these words, when 
the murderers broke in, and cut to pieces 
the father and both his sons. 

After the massacre had subsided, the in- 
human assassins paraded the streets, boast- 
ing that they had dved their white cock- 
ades red with the blood of huguenots. On 
seeing a multitude of dead bodies lay about, 
a papist apothecary suggested that money 
might be made of the fat contained in them ; 
the plumpest bodies were accordingly se- 
lected, and the grease being extracted from 
them, was sold for three shillings per 
pound : a shocking instance of the most 
depraved cruelty! The inhabitants of the 
villages which lay below Paris, on the 
borders of the Seine, were a.stonished to 
see the number of dead bodies that floated 
down the stream, and even some of the 
Roman catholics were so much touched 
with compassion, as to exclaim. " It surely 
could not be men, but devils in their 
appearance, who have transacted these 
cruelties." The pope's legate, soon after, 
gave all who were concerned in these 
murders a general absolution, which plainly 
evinces that the Roman catholics them- 
selves thought these transactions criminal. 

The king of France gave a formal ac- 
count to the king of Navarre, and the 
prince of Conde, of the whole affair, and 
told them, at the same time, he " expected 
they should renounce their religion, as he 
had saved their lives with that expectation 
only." The king of Navarre only an- 

swered, " / beg you will recollect our late 
alliance, and not think of forcing my con- 
science ;" but the prince of Conde, with 
more spirit, replied, " You may seize my 
estates, property, and life, hut my religion 
is out of your poicerP This answer so 
much enraged the king, that he fell into a 
vehement passion, and threatened him vio- 
lently ; but becoming cool again, he thought 
proper to let his anger subside, and suf- 
\ fered his resentment to give way to policy. 

\ Occurrences supplerncntary to the Massacre 

) of Paris. 


I It was represented to the king by his 

\ council, that the massacre would be in- 

? effectual, if it did not extend to every part 

^ of the kingdom ; for though all the protes- 

I tants of Paris were murdered, yet if any 

\ were suffered to live in other parts of 

;; France, they would again increase in num- 

j bers, and spread to the metropolis. This 

^ occasioned the massacre to become more 

^general, for the king sent orders to all 

\ parts of the nation to put the protestants to 

( death. 

At Meaux, the king's attorney, Cosset, 

'having received the bloody mandate, or- 

< dered a number of ruflians to attend him at 

> seven o'clock in the evening. At the ap- 

> pointed time, he commanded the city gates 
Mo be shut, and all the protestants seized. 

< This was immediately executed ; many 
\ were murdered that night, and about two 

< hundred of the principal persons were con- 

> fined till the next day. On the ensuing 
\ morning. Cosset, and his murderers, went 

< to the prison, and having a list of the prot- 
' estant's names, called them one by one, 

and murdered them as they answered to 
the call. They then plundered the houses 
of those they had murdered, divided the 
spoils, gave an entertainment upon the oc- 
casion, and concluded the evening with 
\ illuminations. 

\ At Troyes the protestants were all seized, 
^ and put into dungeons. The provost then 
) commanded the common executioner to go 




and murder them all. Shocked, however, 5 by a learned and sensible Roman catholic, 
I at the inhumanity of the thing, the execu- > we presume it will appear, at the coiiclu- 
tioner had spirit enough to refuse, with > sion of this chapter, with peculiar pro- 
\ this remarkable expression : " Mj/ office > priety : — 

\ obliges me to execute none but such as are " The nuptials of the young king of Na- 
^ legally condemned." But this did not save ; varre with the French king's sister, were 
\ the protestants, for the provost engaged the solemnized with pomp ; and all the endear- 
\ jailer to perform what the executioner had ( ments, all the assurances of friendship, all 
\ refused. They were all accordingly mur- the oaths sacred among men, were pro- 
> dered, and their bodies buried in pits, dug fusely lavished by Catharine, the queen- 
on purpose, within the prison. While the mother, and by the king ; during which, the 
I bloody tragedy was performing, one of the rest of the court thought of nothing but 
I ruffians struck at a protestant two or three \ festivities, plays, and masquerades. At 
\ limes without killing him : the protestant last, at twelve o'clock at night, on the eve 
then taking hold of the point of the halberd, of St. Bartholomew, the signal was given. 
^ with whictj he had been wounded, placed \ Immediately all the houses of the protes- 
\ it close to the left side of his breast, and i tants were forced open at once. Admiral 
then boldly cried, " Push it to my heart, \ Coligni, alarmed by the uproar, jumped 

fellow, push it to my heart." 

out of bed ; when a company of assassins } 

\ At Orleans, the massacre continued for | rushed into his chamber. They were 
\ a week, and a prodigious number of men, \ headed by one Besme, who had been bred 
\ women, and children, were murdered ; the | up as a domestic in the family of the 
; general cry bein<', Kill the huguenots and ] Guises. This wretch thrust his sword into 
\ take the sj '. Some, who were weak | the admiral's breast, and also cut him in 
\ enough to apostatize from their faith to Mhe face. Besme was a German, and 
] save their lives, had weapons put into their \ being afterward taken by the protestants, 
\ hands, and were compelled to kill those of i the Rochellers would have bought him, in 
i the religion they had forsaken, or to be > order to hang and quarter him ; but he was 
[ murdered themselves ; the Roman cathohcs ^ killed by one Brctanville. Henry, the 
\ crying, in derision, all the time, " Swiic | young duke of Guise, who afterward framed 
i 'em, smite 'em, were they not your holy \ the catholic league, and was murdered at 
[ brothers and sisters?" j Blois, standing at the door till the horrid 

■', At Lyons, all the protestants houses < butchery should be comjileted, called aloud, 
^ were plundered, and the slaughter almost s " Besme ! is it done ?" Immediately after 
/ incredible ; at Rouen, six thousand were \ which the ruffians threw the body out of 
'- massacred; at Thoulouse^ about three hun- | the window, and Coligni expired at Guise's 
' dred were martyred upon the occasion ; \ feet. 

{ many were drowned at Angiers, and seve- \ Count de Teligny also fell a sacrifice. 
\ ral were butchered at Bordeaux; though 5 He had married, about ten months before, 
/ happily, at the latter place, several got s Coligni's daughter. His countenance was 

expeditiously on board a .ship, and escaped s so engaging, that the ruHiaus, when they 

to England. \ advanced in order to kill him, were struck 

\ with compassion ; l)Ut others, more barba- 

A curious corroboration of the foregoing ^^^^^ rushing forward, munlered him. 
account of the Parisian massacre, and ^n the meantime, all the friends of Co- 
the murders which immediately ensued in jj^j^j ^^^e assassinated throughout Paris : 
several parts oj r ranee. > men, women, and children, were promis- 

As the following narrative is extremely | cuously slaughtered ; every street was 

interesting in itself, and as it was written \ strewed with expiring bodies. Some 





priests, holding up a crucifix in one hanJ, 
and a dagger in the other, ran to the chiefs 
of the murderers, and strongly exhorted 
them to spare neither relations nor friends. 

Tavannes, marshal of France, an igno- 
rant, superstitious soldier, who joined the 
fury of religion to the rage of party, rode on 
horseback through the streets of Paris, cry- 
ing to his men, " Let blood ! let blood ! Bleed- 
ing is as wholesome in August as in May." 
In the memoirs of the life of this enthusias- 
tic, written by his son, we are told, that 
the father being on his deathbed, and ma- 
king a general confession of his actions, 
the priest said to him, with surprise, 
" What ! no mention of St. Bartholomew's 
massacre ?" To which Tavannes replied, 
" I consider it as a meritorious action, that 
will wash away all my sins." Such horrid 
sentiments can a false spirit of religion 
inspire ! 

The king's palace was one of the chief 
scenes of the butchery : the king of Na- 
varre had his lodging in the Louvre, and all 
his domestics were protestants. Many of 
these were killed in bed with their wives ; 
others, running away naked, were pursued 
by the soldiers through the several rooms 
of the palace, even to the king's ante-cham- 
ber. The young wife of Henry of Na- 
varre, awaked by the dreadful uproar, being 
afraid for her consort, and for her own life, 
seized with horror, and half dead, flew from 
her bed, in order to throw herself at the 
feet of the king her brother. But scarce 
had she opened her chamber-door, when 
some of her protestant domestics rushed 
in for refuge. The soldiers immediately 
followed, pursued them in sight of the 
princess, and killed one who had crept 
under her bed. Two others, being wound- 
ed with halberds, fell at the queen's feet, 
so that she was covered with blood. 

Count de la Rochefaucault, a young no- 
bleman, greatly in the king's favor for his 
comely air, his politeness, and a certain 
peculiar happiness in the turn of his con- 
versation, had spent the evening till eleven 
o'clock with the monarch, in pleasant fa- 

l miliarity ; and had given a loose, with the < 

< utmost mirth, to the sallies of his imasrina- ; 

< i 
Uion. The monarch felt some remorse; ) 

^ and being touched with a kind of compas- ,' 

\ sion, bid him, two or three times, not go ; 

< home, but lie in the Louvre. The count : 
i said he must go to his wife ; upon which j 
s the king pressed him no further, but said, ) 
\ " Let him go ! I see God has decreed his > 
<f death." And in two hours after he was '; 
\ murdered. ; 
\ Very few of the protestants escaped \ 
\ the fury of their enthusiastic persecutors. \ 
'. Among these was young la Force (after- \ 

< ward the famous marshal de la Force), a \ 
; child about ten years of age, whose de- \ 
] liverance was exceedingly remarkable. / 
^ His father, his elder brother, and himself, \ 
^ were seized together by the duke of Anjou's 5 
] soldiers. These murderers flew at all three, > 

< and struck at them at random, when they \ 
\ all fell, and lay one upon another. The > 

< youngest did not receive a single blow, but > 
\ appearing as if he was dead, escaped the ] 

\ next day ; and his life, thus wonderfully 
] preserved, lasted fourscore and five years. 
\ Many of the wretched victims fled to the 
\ water-side, and some swam over the Seine 
s to the suburbs of St. Germains. The mon- 
\ arch saw them from his window, which 
') looked upon the river, and fired upon them 
\ with a carbine that had been loaded for that 
> purpose by one of his pages : while the 
/ queen-mother, undisturbed and serene in 
^ the midst of slaughter, looking down from 
? a balcony, encouraged the murderers, and 
? laughed at the dying groans of the slaugh- 
I tered. This barbarous queen was fired 
I with a restless ambition, and she per- 
[ petually shifted her party in order to satiate 
I it. She was accused of a loose commerce 
' with certain gentlemen ; and was weak 

< enough to believe in magic, as appeared 

< from the talismans found after her death. 

< Some days after this horrid transaction, 
\ the French court endeavored to palliate it 
\ by forms of law. They pretended to justify 

' the massacre by a calumny ; and accused s 
' the admiral of a conspiracy, which no one \ 




believed. The parliament was commanded 
to proceed against the memory of Coligni : 
and his dead body was hung in chains on 
J Montfaucon gallows. The king himself 
\ went to view this shocking spectacle ; 
I when one of his courtiers advising him to 
:; retire, and complaining of the stench of the 
I, corpse, he replied, " A dead enemy smells 
I well." The massacres on St. Bartholo- 
j mew's day are painted in the royal saloon 
< of the Vatican at Rome, with the following 
\ inscription : " Pontifcx Colignii necem pro- 
\ bat" i. e., " The pope approves of Coligni's 
\ death." 

\ The young king of Navarre was spared 
I through policy, rather than from the pity 
' of the queen-mother, she keeping him 
prisoner till the king's death, in order that 
he might be as a security and pledge for 
I the submission of such protestants as might 
\ effect their escape. 

This horrid butchery was not confined 
merely to the city of Paris. The like 
orders were issued from court to the gov- 
ernors of all the provinces in France ; so 
that, in a week's time, above one hundred 
thousand protestants were cut to pieces in 
jl different parts of the kingdom. Two or 

three governors only refused to obey the 
king's orders. One of these, named Mont- 
morrin, governor of Auvergne, wrote the 
king the following letter, which deserves 
to be transmitted to latest posterity : — 

" Sir : I have received an order under 
your majesty's seal, to put to death all the 
protestants in my province. I have loo 
much respect for your majesty, not to be- 
lieve the letter a torgery : but if (which 
God forbid) the order should be genuine, 
I have loo much respect for your majesty 
to obey it " 

These barbarities inflamed such protes- 
tants as escaped rather with rage than 
terror : their irreconcilable hatred to the 
court supplied them with fresh vigor, and 
the spirit of revenge increased their 
strength. The king, under whose influ- 
ence this dreadful havoc had been com- 
mitted, never enjoyed his health after, but 
died in about two years, his blood gushing 
daily through the pores of his skin ; so 
that he expired, as it were, weltering in 
his own gore. 

" Fear haunts the guilty mind with horrid views, 
And Providence the murderer pursues : 
Tliose by whose means the iiinoieni are slain, 
Shall live detested and expire in pain." 


ANCERRE, a city chiefly 
inhabited by protestants, 
was besieged A. D. 1573, 
by the lord of Chartres, 
with a considerable army. 
He planted his carmon 
judiciously, and played incessantly on the 
place ; so that more were wounded by the 
fragments of stones, and splinters of timber, 
broken by means of the artillery, tlian by 
the balls lhems(;lves. 

Besides caimonading the place almost 
continually, the lord of Chartres frcqueittly 
gave furious assaults, in order to lake it by 

'> storm ; but was as often repulsed, with 
f' loss, by the besieged. The conflict was 
\ dreadful, and each side appeared resolved 
pn their several purposes; the one to suc- 
I ceed in compelling the city to surrender ; 
I the other in defending it to the last ex- 
>, trcmity ; which brings to our recollection 
'the following admirable lines, descriptive 
of the horrors of a siege : — 



103 \ 

Flash o'er the plains, and lis^hten to the skies. 
The heavens above, the fields and floods beneath, 
Glare formidably bright, and shine with death: 
In fiery stornns descends a murdrous shower, 
Thick flash ihe lightnins;s, fierce the thunders roar ; 
Swift rush the balls with many a fiery round, 
Tear the huge stones, or rend the stead fast mound; 
Death shakes alot"t her dart, and over her prey 
Gigantic stalking, marks in blood her way." 

The want of provisions seemed to 
threaten what the arm.s of the besiegers 
could not perform ; the long continuance 
of the siege had caused a great scarcity of 
the necessaries of life, and the bravest of 
the besieged began to fear they must either 
give up the place, or fall victims to famine. 
So great, indeed, were the distresses of 
the people, that the flesh of horses, mules, 
and asses, was purchased at a great price ; 
and many were compelled to live only upon 
the flesh of dogs, cats, mice, moles, &c. 
Even these disagreeable resources at 
length failed, and the severity of hunger 
forced them to put up with leather, parch- 
ment, beasts' hoofs, and horns stewed down 
to a jelly, or boiled sufficiently soft to be 
swallowed. The wild routs in the few 
gardens of the city, the grass and house- 
leek which grew on the tops of houses, 
walls, and sheds, were sought for with 
avidity, and devoured as delicacies. The 
substitutes for bread were dried herbs and 
bran, straw-meal, powdered nut-shells, and 
even pounded states, made into cakes with 

During this extremity, a poor man and 
his wife were apprehended, for having 
eaten a part of their own daughter, a child 
of three years old, who died of hunger : 
they had already devoured the head and 
entrails, and when taken were dressing 
some of the limbs. In their excuse they 
pleaded the horrid severity of the hunger 
with which they were tormented, and that 
they had not murdered the child : it was, 
however, proved against them, that on the 
very day when they began to eat their oflf- 
spring, some humane person had charitably 
sent to their house a mess of pottage, made 
with herbs, and some wine, which might 
have enabled them to refrain, at least 
another day, from the unnatural meal. The 

^ place, to massacre all within it ; and if he 
\ could not, to block them up till they devoured 
I each other. But the full completion of this 
( cruel order was providentially defeated, by 

governor, therefore, to make an example ^ 
which might deter others from practising ] 
anything so atrocious, ordered them to be ^ 
hanged. Their fate, however, drew com- <, 
passion from many, who, from what them- 
selves felt, and considering the desperate 
circumstances of the persons, could not 
help sympathizing with the criminals, 
though they abhorred their crimes. 

A laboring man and his wife, who had a 
little vineyard within the city walls, and 
'> who had fed themselves, for some time, 
} with the leaves and branches of the vines, 
t were found dead, and two young children 
I crying by them. The children, however, 
^ were taken by a charitable widow, and 
I sustained with as much care as the present 
I circumstances would permit. Several others 
I were found dead in their houses ; many 
i dropped down in the streets ; the sorrow- 
< ful lamentations of the living for the dead 
i were equally mingled with the cries of 
I hunger, and, in conjunction, formed the 
most doleful sounds of horror. 

A boy dropping down, through weak- 
ness, at the feet of his father and mother, 
they bitterly lamented over him ; when he 
heroically said : " Don't weep to see me 
die with hunger ; I do not ask you for 
food ; I know you have none to give me : 
it is the will of God I should die, and 
therefore I cheerfully submit." He expired 
the moment he had uttered these words, 
leaving his parents astonished at his forti- 
tude, and happy in his religious resignation. 
Several soldiers and citizens, rather than 
stay and be starved, chose to escape from I 
the place, and run all hazards : some were 
immediately killed in the attempt, and the 
rest put into prison, tried as traitors, and 
afterward executed. 

The king of France was so much exas- 
perated at the long and valiant defence of 
the besieged, that he sent word to his 
general, the lord of Chartres, jyAe toon the 




the following circumstance : there being 
an election for a king of Poland, the duke 
of Anjou, brother to the king of France, 
was elected, upon condition that the king 
of France should cease the persecution 
against his protestant subjects : these con- 
ditions were, for political reasons, complied 
with ; and Sancerre, among other places, 
had immediate relief. Eighty-four persons 
were killed during the siege ; near six 
hundred perished by famine ; and several 
were so emaciated from the same cause. 

that they died soon after the siege was 
i raised. Thus, when we deem ourselves 
at the very last extremity, are we some- 
times suddenly relieved by the most un- 
expected means: so inscrutable are the 
ways of that Providence, on which, in all 
emergencies, we ought to depend. 

" Heaven is our guard, and innocence its care, 
Nor need the good the worst of dangers iVar ; 
It pities the defenceless, poor man's grief, 
And sends him, when he caUs, help and relief; 
It arms the surest succor, and the best 
Delivers, and revenges the distressed." 


ANY of the Wal- 
denses, to avoid 
the persecutions to 
which they were 
continually sub- 
jected in France, 
went and settled in the valleys of Piedmont, 
where they increased exceedingly, and 
flourished very much for a considerable 
time. Though they were harmless in their 
behavior, inoff'ensive in their conversation, 
and paid tithes to the Romish clergy, yet 
the latter could not be contented, but wish- 
ed to give them some disturbance : they 
accordingly complained to the archbishop 
of Turin, that the Waldenses of the valleys 
of Piedmont were heretics, for these rea- 
sons : — 

1. That they did not believe in the doc- 
trines of the church of Rome. 

2. That they made no offerings for 
prayers for the dead. 

3. That they did not go to mass. 

4. That they did not confess and receive 

5. That they did not believe in purga- 
tory, or pay money to get the souls of their 
friends out of it. 

Upon these charges the archbishop or- 
dered a persecution to be commenced, and 

thousands fell martyrs to the superstitious 
rage of the priests and monks. 

At Turin, one of the reformed had his 
bowels torn out, and put into a basin be- 
fore his face, where the}' remained, in his 
view, till he expired. At Revel, Catelin 
Girard being at the stake, desired the ex- 
ecutioner to give him up a stone ; which 
he refused, thinking that he aieant to 
throw it at somebody ; but Girard assuring 
him that he had no such design, the execu- 
tioner complied ; when Girard looking 
earnestly at the stone, said : " When it is 
in the power of a man to eat and digest 
this solid stone, the religion for which I am 
about to suffer shall have an end, and not 
before." He then threw the stone on the 
] ground, and submitted cheerfully to the 
flames. A great many more of the re- 
formed were oppressed, or put to death by 
various means, till the patience of the Wal- 
denses being tired out, they flew to arms 
in their own defence, and formed them- 
selves into regular bodies. 

Exasperated at this, the archbishop of 
Turin procured a number of troops, and 
sent against them ; but in most of the skir- 
mishes and engagements the Waldenses 
were successful, which partly arose from 
their being better acquainted with the 



passes of the valleys of Piedmont than I These gentlemen, after travelling through 
their adversaries, and partly from the des- ) all their towns and villages, and conversing 
peration with which they fought ; for they > with people of every rank among the Wal- 
knew, if they were taken, thej' should not I denses, returned to the duke, and gave him 
be considered as prisoners of war, but > the most favorable account of those people ; 
should be tortured to death as heretics. \ affirming, before the faces of the priests 

At length, Philip, the seventh duke of | who vilified them, that they were harm- 
Savoy, and supreme lord of Piedmont, de- 1 less, inoffensive, loyal, friendly, industrious, 
termined to interpose his authority, and i and pious : that they abhorred the crimes 
stop these bloody wars, which so greatly l of which they were accused ; and that, 
disturbed his dominions. He was not wil- \ should an individual, through his depravity, 
ling to disoblige the pope, or affront the I fall into any of those crimes, he would, by 
archbishop of Turin ; nevertheless, he sent i their laws, be punished in the most exem- 
them both messages, importing, that he l plary manner. With respect to the chil- 
could not any longer tamely see his do- \ dren, the gentlemen said, the priests had 
minions overrun with troops, who were <■ told the most gross and ridiculous falsities, 
directed by priests instead of officers, and \ for they were neither born with black 
commanded by prelates in the place of \ throats, teeth in their mouths, or hair on 
generals ; nor would he suff'er his country l their bodies, but were as fine children as 
to be depopulated, while he himself had s could be seen. " And to convince your 
not been even consulted upon the occasion. I highness of what we have said," continued 

The priests, finding the resolution of the s one of the gentlemen, " we have brought 
duke, did all they could to prejudice his I twelve of the principal male inhabitants, 
mind against the Waldenses ; but the duke I who have come to ask pardon in the name 
told them, that though he was unacquainted 5 of the rest, for having taken up arms with- 
with the religious tenets of these people, \ out your leave, though even in their own 

yet he had always found them quiet, faith- 
ful, and ledient, and therefore he was 
determined they should be no longer per- 

The priests now had recourse to the 

defence, and to preserve their lives from 
their merciless enemies. And we have 
likewise brought several women, with chil- 
dren of various ages, that your highness 
may have an opportunity of personally ex- 

most palpable and absurd falsehoods : they ^ amining them as much as you please." 
assured the duke that he was mistaken in I The duke, after accepting the apology 
the Waldenses, for that they were a very I of the twelve delegates, conversing with 
wicked set of people, aad highly addicted > the women, and examining the children, 
to intemperance, uncleanness, blasphemy, > graciously dismissed them. He then com- 
adultery, incest, and many other abomina- nianded the priests, who had attempted to 
ble crimes ; that they were even monsters > mislead him, immediately to leave the 
in nature, for their children were born with \ court ; and gave strict orders, that the per- 

black throats, with four rows of teeth, and 
bodies all over hairy. 

The duke was not so devoid of common 

secution should cease throughout his do- 

The Waldenses had enjoyed peace many 

sense as to give credit to what the priests 5 years, when Philip, the seventh duke of 
Slid, though they affirmed, in the most I Savoy, died, and his successor happened 
solemn manner, the truth of their asser- ^ to be a very bigoted papist. About the 
tions. He, however, sent twelve very j same time, some of the principal Walden- 
learned and sensible gentlemen into the > ses proposed that their clergy should preach 
Piedmontese valleys, to examine into the > in public, that every one might know the 
real characters of the inhabitants. \ purity of their doctrines ; for hitherto they 




had preached only in private, and to such several were suddenly apprehended and 
congregations as they well knew to con- ^ burnt, by their order. Among these was 
sist of none but persons of the reformed ] Bartholomew Hector, a bookseller and 
reliction. \ stationer of Turin, who was brought up a 

On hearing these proceedings, the new | Roman catholic, but having read some 
duke was greatly exasperated, and sent a ^ treatises written by the reformed clergy, he 
considerablebody of troops into the valleys, ^ was fully convinced of the errors of the 
swearing, that if the people would not < church of Rome ; yet his mind was, for 
change their religion, he would have them \ some time, wavering, and he hardly knew 
flayed alive. The commander of the troops J what persuasion lo embrace. The anguish 
soon found the impracticability of conquer- < of his soul, the palpilation of his heart, and 
ing them with the number of men he had \ the doubts which tormented his breast, are 
with him ; he therefore sent word to the | hnely described in a poem, written by him- 
duke, that the idea of subjugating the Wal- self, which has thus been rendered into 
denses, with so small a force, was ridicu- ] English : — 
lous ; that those people were better ac- 
quainted with the country than any that 
were with him ; that they had secured all 
the passes, were well armed, and resolutely 
determined to defend themselves ; and, 
with respect to flaying them alive, he said 
that every skin belonging to those people, 
would cost him the lives of a dozen of his 

Terrified at this information, the duke 
withdrew the troops, determining to act 
not by force, but by stratagem. He there- 
fore ordered rewards for the taking of any 
of the Waldenses, who might be found 
straying from their places of security ; and 
these, when taken, were either flayed alive 
or burnt. 

The Waldenses had hitherto had only 
the New Testament, and a few books of the 
Old, in the Waldensian tongue; but they 
determined now to have the Sacred Wri- 
tings complete in their own language. 
They therefore employed a Swiss printer 
to furnish them with a complete edition of 
the Old and New Testaments in the Wal- 
densian tongue, which he did for the con- 
sideration of fifteen hundred crowns of 
gold paid him by those pious people. 
Pope Paul the Third, a bigoted papist. 

JOB XXill., Ver. 3. 

" O that I knew where I might find A'm .'" 

" Where shall I hide my blushing face, 
So full of horror and disgrace ? 
Or where a healing; nied'cine find, 
To ease the anguish of my mind ? 

" Worldlings of want and loss complain, 
And holj' joy in Christ disdain ; 
An evil heart of unbelief, 
Fills my whole nature full of grief. 

" This fatal plague, this fiery dart, 
Gives me intolerable smart ; 
I pant, I weep, I groan, I cry, 
Pressed by exceeding misery. 

" Or is my stony heart so hard, 

Or is my conscience so much seared. 
That I can't drop a single tear, 
Through filial love, or servile fear ? 

" Should I to distant lands repair. 
My evil heart attends me there ; 
Should I attempt to cross the sea, 
From my own self I can not flee. 

" Where shall I go ? What shall I do ? 
Who will relieve my torment ? — Who ! 
If Jesus will not heal my wound, 
My place in hell will soon be found. 

" Did not the dear Redeemer bleed. 
To purchase life for all his seed? 
Did he not die u])on the tree, 
To save rebellious worms like me ? 

" When will the Prince of Peace descend, 
And bid my cries and conflicts end? 
O ! for that happy, lieavenly day, 
When Christ shall take my sins away." 

Bartholomew Hector, at length, fully 
ascending the pontifical chair, immediately I embraced the reformed religion, and was 
solicited the parliament of Turin to pcrsc- ^ apprehended, as we have already mention- 
cute the Waldenses, as the most pernicious \ ed, and burnt by order of the parliament of 
of all heretics. s Turin. 

The parliament readily agreed, when } A consultation was now held by the 





parliament of Turin, in which it was agreed, 
to send deputies to the valleys of Piedmont, 
with the following propositions : — 

1. That if the Waldenses would come 
to the bosom of the church of Rome, and 
embrace the Roman catholic religion, they 
should enjoy their houses, properties, and 
lands, and live with their families, without 
the least molestation. 

2. That to prove their obedience, they 
should send twelve of their principal per- 
sons, with all their ministers and school- 
masters, to Turin, to be dealt with at dis- 

3. That the pope, the king of France, 
and the duke of Savoy, approved of, and 
authorized the proceedings of the parlia- 
ment of Turin, upon this occasion. 

4. That if the Waldenses of the valleys 
of Piedmont refused to comply with these 
propositions, persecution should ensue, and 
certain death be their portion. 

To each of these propositions the Wal- 
denses nobly replied in the following man- 
ner, answering them respectively : — 

1. That no considerations whatever 
should make them renounce their religion. 

2. That they would never consent to 
commit their best and most respectable 
friends, to the custody and discretion of 
their worst and most inveterate enemies. 

3. That they valued the approbation of 
the King of kings, who reigns in heaven, 
more than any temporal authority. 

4. That their souls were more precious 
than their lives. 

These pointed and spirited replies greatly 
exasperated the parliament of Turin : they 
continued, with more avidity than ever, to 
kidnap such Waldenses as did not act with 
proper precaution, who were sure to suffer 
the most cruel deaths. Among these it 
unfortunately happened, that they got hold 
of Jeffery Varnagle, minister of Angrogne, 
whom they committed to the flames as a 

They then solicited a consiilentble body 
of troops of the king of France, in order w 
exterminate the reformed, entirely, from 

the valleys of Piedmont ; but just as tlie 

troops were going to march, the protestant ; 

princes of Germany interposed, and threaten- \ 

ed to send troops to assist the Waldenses, <■ 

if they should be attacked. The king of ' 

France, not caring to enter into a war, re- 5 

manded the troops, and sent word to the ', 

parliament of Turin, that he could not spar'e \ 

any troops at present to act in Piedmont. I 

The members of the parliament were greatly | 

vexed at this disappointment, and the per- \ 

secution gradually ceased ; for as they l 

could only put to death such of the reform- \ 

ed as they caught by chance, and as the ^ 

Waldenses daily grew more cautious, their ^ 

cruelly was obliged to subside, for want of > 

objects on whom to exercise it. \ 

" Kxppricnce teaches to be wise, i 

While danger sharpens hnnian eyes ; | 

And the more hazards we have run, ( 

The more expert we are to sh'jn " ', 

After the Waldenses had enjoyed a few \ 

years' Iranquillity, they were again dis- I 

turbed by the following means : the pope's | 

nuncio coming to Turin to the duke of \ 

Savoy upon business, told that prince, he t 

was astonished he had not yet either rooted | 

out the Waldenses from the valleys of ? 

Piedmont entirely, or compelled them to 't 

enter into the bosom of the church of Rome. \ 

That he could not help looking upon such | 

conduct with a suspicious eye, and that he | 

really thought him a favorer of those here- \ 

tics, and should report the affair according- ^ 

ly to his holiness the pope. I 

Stung by this reflection, and unwilling i 

to be misrepresented to the pope, the duke i 

determined to act with the greatest severity, I 

in order to show his zeal, and to make < 

amends for former neglect by future cruelty. I 

He, accordingly, issued express orders for s 

all the Waldenses to attend mass regularly, \ 

on pain of death. This they absolutely , 

refused to do, on which he entered the I 

Piedmontese valleys, with a formidable 
body of troops, and began a most furious 
persecution, in which great numbers were 
Hanged, Burnt, 

Drowned. Slabbed, 

Ripped open. Racked to death, 

\ 110 


Tied to trees, and Crucified with their 

pierced with prongs, heads downward, 
Thrown from precipies. Worried by dogs, 
&c. (See engraving.) 

Those who flad had their goods plunder- 
ed, and their houses burnt to the ground : 
they were particularly cruel when they 
caught a minister or a school-master, whom 
they put to such exquisite tortures, as are 
almost incredible to conceive. 

The most cruel persecutors, upon this 
occasion, that attended the duke, were three 
in number, viz.: 1. Thomas Incomel, an 
apostate ; for he was brouglit up in the 
reformed persuasion, but renounced his 
faith, embraced the errors of popery, and 
turned monk. He was a great libertine, 
given to unnatural crimes, and sordidly 
solicitous for the plunder of the Waldenses. 
2. Corbis, a man of a very ferocious and 
cruel nature, whose business was to ex- 
amine the prisoners. 3. The provost of 
justice, who was very anxious for the exe- 
cution of the Waldenses, as every execu- 
tion put money into his pocket. 

These three persons were unmerciful to 
the last degree ; and, wherever tliey came, 
the blood of the innocent was sure to flow. 
Exclusive of the cruelties exercised by 
the duke, these three persons, and the 
army, in their different marches, many 
local barbarities were committed. At Pig- 
nerol, a town in the valleys, was a monas- 
tery, the monks of which finding they might 
injure the reformed with impunity, began 
to plunder the kouses, and pull down the 
churches of the Waldenses. Not meeting 
with any oj)posilion, they next seized upon 
the persons of those unhappy people, mur- 
dering the men, confining the women, and 
putting the children to Roman catholic 

The Roman catholic inhabitants of the 
valley of St. Martin, likewise, did all they 
could to vex and torment the neighboring 
Waldenses : they destroyed their churches, 
burnt their houses, seized their properties, 
stole their cattle, converted their lands to 
their own use, committed their ministers to 

5 the flames, and drove the Waldenses to the 
woods, where they had nothing to subsist 
t on but wild fruits, roots, the bark of trees, 
I &c. 

^ Some Roman catholic ruffians having 
', seized a minister as he was going to preach, 

> determined to take him to a convenient 
i place, and burn him. His parishioners 

> having intelligence of the affair, the men 
I armed themselves, pursued the rufiians, and 
I seemed determined to rescue their minister ; 
I which the ruffians no sooner perceived, than 
'; they stabbed the poor gentleman, and leav- 
^ ing him weltering in his blood, made a pre- 
\ cipitate retreat. The astonished parishion- 
j ers did all they could to recover him, but in 
/ vain ; for the weapon had touched the vital 
) parts, and he expired as they were carry- 
ing him home. 

The monks of Pignerol having a great 
inclination to get the minister of a town in 
<; the valleys, called St. Germain, into their ^ 
' power, hired a band of ruffians for the pur- I 
J pose of apprehending him. These fellow.* > 
I were conducted by a treacherous person, ; 
? who had formerly been a servant to the ] 
'/ clergyman, and who perfectly well knew a 
'/ secret way to the house, by which he could 
lead them without alarming the neighbor- 
hood. The guide knocked at the door, and 
being asked who was there, answered in his 
j own name. The clergyman, not expecting 
( any injury from a person on whom he had 
<; heaped favors, immediately opened the 
I door ; but perceiving the ruffians, he started 
\ back, and fled to a back door ; but they 
J; rushed in, followed, and seized him. Hav- 
I iug murdered all his fauiily, they made him 
I proceed toward Pignerol, goading him all 
\ the way with pikes, lances, swords, &.c. \ 
I He was kept a considerable time in prison, \ 
I. and then fastened to the stake to be burnt ; | 
J when two women of the Waldenses, who 
' had renounced their religion to save their 
\ lives, were ordered to carry fagots to the 
;; stake to burn him ; and as they laid them 
\ down, to say, " Take these, thou wicked 
;; h(!retic, in recompense for the pernicious 
', doctrines that thou hast taught us." These 




words they both repeated to him : to which , it as a rarity." He then stabbed the man, 
he cahnly replied : " I formerly taught you I and threw him into a ditch, 
well, but you have since learned ill." The! A party of the troops found a venerable 
fire was then put to the fagots, and he was \ man upward of a hundred years of age, to- 
speedily consumed, calling upon the name < gether with his grand-daughter, a maiden, 
of the Lord as long as his voice permitted. I of about eighteen, in a cave. The)'' butch- 
\ As the troops of ruffians, belonging to s ered the poor old man in a most inhuman 
s the monks, did great mischief about the \ manner, and then attempted to violate the 
I town of St. Germain, murdering and plan- s girl, when she started away, and fled from 
I dering many of the inhabitants, the reform- 1 them ; but they pursuing her, she threw 
I ed of Lucerne and Angrogne sent some > herself from a precipice, and perished. 
I bands of armed men to the assistance of> The Waldenses, in order the more ef- 
\ their brethren of St. Germain. These | fectually to be able to repel force by force, 
i bodies of armed men frequently attacked ) entered into a league with the protestants 
the ruffians, and often put them to the rout, I of Dauphiny, with some protestant powers 
which so terrified the monks, that they left nn Geimany, and with the reformed of 
their monastery of Pignerol for sometime, ,' Pragela. These were, respectively, to fur- 
till they could procure a body of regular | nish bodies of troops ; and the Waldenses 
troops to guard them. | determined, when thus reinforced, to quit 

The duke, not thinking himself so sue- > the mountains of the Alps (where they must 
cessful as he at first imagined he should be, ^ soon have perished, as the winter was 
greatly augmented his forces ; ordered the '< coming on), and to force the duke's army 
bands of ruffians, belonging to the monks, ( to evacuate their native valleys, 
should join him; and commanded, that a| The duke of Savoy was now tired of the 
general jail delivery should take place, pro- i war ; it had cost him great fatigue and 
vided the persons released would bear ^ anxiety of mind, a vast number of men, and 
arms, and form themselves into light com- | very considerable sums of money. It had 
panies, to assist in the extermination of the ' been much more tedious and bloody than 
Waldenses. < he expected, as well as more expensive 

The Waldenses, being informed of these I than he could at first have imagined, for he 
proceedings, secured as much of their < thought the plunder would have discharged 
properties as they could, and quitting the \ the expenses of the expedition ; but in this 
valleys, retired to the rocks and caves \ he was mistaken, for the pope's nuncio, 
among the Alps ; for it is to be understood, the bishops, monks, and other ecclesiastics, 
that the valleys of Piedmont are situated at who attended the army, and encouraged 
the foot of those prodigious mountains, the war, sunk the greatest part of the 
called the Alps, or the Alpine hills. wealth that was taken under various pre- 

The army now began to plunder and < tences. For these reasons, and the death 
burn the towns and villages wherever they | of his duchess, of which he had just re- 
came ; but the troops could not force the < ceived intelligence, and fearing that the' 
passes to the Alps, which were gallantly < Waldenses, by the treaties they had en- 
defended by the Waldenses, who always tered into, would become more powerful | 
repulsed their enemies ; but if any fell into < than ever, he determined to return to Turin 
the hands of the troops, they were sure to < with his army, and to make peace with the 
be treated with the most barbarous severity. '. Waldenses. 

A soldier having caught one of the Wal- This resolution he executed, though 

denses, bit his right ear off, saying, " I will greatly against the will of the ecclesiastics, 

\ carry this member of that wicked heretic < who were the chief gainers, and the best 

with me into my own country, and preserve I pleased with revenge. Before the articles 





of peace could be ratified, the duke himself 5 had property and a family, but valued 
died soon after his return to Turin ; but on ^ nothing so much as his soul ; nor did he 
his death-bed he strictly enjoined his son ^ think that any one had a rijrhl to detain 
to perform what he had intended, and to | him for his opinion ; that Turks and Jews 
be as favorable as possible to the Wal- 1 were suffered to vend their merchandise 
denses. < without molestation, and therefore he 

The duke's son, Charles Emanuel, sue- I thought it very hard to be denied that privi- 
ceeded to the dominions of Savoy, and i lege. 

gave a full ratification of peace to the Wal- i The bishop committed him to prison, 
denses, according to the last injunction < and the next day the secretary went to 
of his father, though the ecclesiastics did > him, and told him that unless he acknowl- 
all they could to persuade him to the con- i edged his error, his life would be in danger, 
irary. s To which he replied : " My life is in the 

Notwithstanding the peace, the monks dmnds of God, and I desire not to preserve 
and inquisitors did all they could to op- ( it to the prejudice of the glory of my Re- 
press those of the reformed religion by the i deemer : there are but a few paces in the 
most insidious means ; in particular, one j journey to heaven, and I pray that the Al- 
Bartholomew Copin, of Lucerne, going to < mighty will not suffer me once to think of 
Ast, to dispose of some merchandise, hap- 1 turning back, when I begin to travel that 
pened to sup with some Roman catholics. I way. 

One of the company, after supper, spoke < At a second examination, great persua- 
with great asperity against the Waldenses, < sions were used to induce him to recant, 
abused them in a most infamous manner, but in vain ; for he said, " If I deny Christ 
and charged them with almost every crime ( before men, Christ \vill deny me to my 
that could be committed. Copin was great- < heavenly Father." On hearing this, one 
ly enraged to hear his religion so falsely | of the priests present exclaimed in great 
vilified, and the innocent professors of it \ wrath, " Go thy ways, thou cursed heretic, 
so scandalously accused : he therefore en- \ to all the devils in hell ; and when they 
tered into a strenuous defence of both, \ torment thee, thou shall be sorry for not 
when the papist interrupting him, said, | having taken the good counsel given thee 
" Pray, sir, are you a Waldensian ?" " 1 1 here." 

am," replied Copin. " Do you believe that \ His wife and son had been sent for, that 
God is in the host ?" said the other. " I do | they might tempt him to recant ; but as 
not," said Copin. "Then your religion ', soon as he saw them, he exhorted them to 
must be false indeed ;" said the Roman j patience and perseverance in their religion ; 
catholic. " Not at all," answered Copin ; saying, " God will prove a better husband, 
" it is as true as God from whom it pro- 1 and a better father, than I could ever be." 
ceeds." > After taking a tender leave he sent them 

The papist thought this sufficient, and | home, commanding them to wait the dis- 
therefore asked no more questions that ; pensalions of Providence, and patiently to 
evening ; but the next morning laid an in- > expect the results of his fate, 
formation before the bishop. I The bishop himself, after all, was puz- 

Copin, being summ-'Lyi to attend the > zled to know what to do with Copin; for 
ecclesiastical court, confessed the expros- > if he discharged him, he was apprehensive 
sions he was charged with, when the that others would be encouraged to speak 
bishop told hira he must either recant or > their sentiments freely, thinking they might 
be punished. Copin replied, he had been / do it with imptuiity ; and, on the contrary, 
provoked to what he had said, yet he ? if he opeidy put him to death, he feared it 
would abide by it with his life ; that he \ might be deemed a violation of the treaty 




lately made between the duke and the i It evidently appeared that he had been j 

Waldenses, and that himself might suffer I strangled ; but as the murderer was un- j 

as the first infringer of it. He therefore > known, this bishop thought proper to give 

sent a messenger to the pope to know how I out that he had hanged himself. 

to proceed ; but before his return with the \ 

,. /^ • r 111- i> " Where public rage, and open malice fail, 

directions, Lopin was lound dead in prison ! i Secret assassination will prevail." 


ON, for refusing to turn 
papist, was tied by one 
leg to the tail of a mule, 
and dragged through 
the streets of Lucerne, 
amid the acclamations of an inhuman mob, 
who kept stoning him, and crying out, 
" He is possessed with the devil, so that 
neither stoning nor dragging him through 
the streets will kill him, for the devil keeps 
him alive." They they then took him to 
the river-side, chopped off his head, and 
left that and his body unburied upon the 
bank of the stream. 

Magdalen, the daughter of Peter Fon- 
taine, a beautiful child of ten years of age, 
was violated and murdered by the soldiers. ; 
Another girl, of about the same age, they 
roasted alive at Villa Nova ; and a poor wo- 
man, hearing the soldiers were coming tow- 
ard her house, snatched up the cradle in 
which her infant son was asleep, and fled 
toward the woods. The soldiers, however, 
saw and pursued her, when she lightened 
herself by putting down the cradle and 
child, which the soldiers no sooner came 
to, than they murdered the infant, and con- 
tinuing the pursuit, found the mother in a 
cave, where they first violated, and then 
cut her to pieces. 

Jacopo Michelino, chief elder of the 
church of Bobbio, and several other protes- 
tants, were hung up by means of hooks 
fixed in their flesh, and left to expire in 
the most excruciating tortures. 

" Of all the monsters that the world pollute, 
None is so savage as a human brute ; 
Man, when benevolence is once forgot, 
Is one gross error, one prodigious blot." 

Giovanni Rostagnal, a venerable prot- 
estant, upward of fourscore years of age, 
had his nose and ears cut off, and slices 
cut from the fleshy parts of his body, till 
he bled to death. 

Seven persons, viz. : Daniel Saleagio 
and his wife, Giovanni Durant, Lodwick 
Durant, Bartholomew Durant, Daniel Re- 
vel, and Paul Reynaud, had their mouths 
stuffed with gunpowder, which being set 
fire to, their heads were blown to pieces. 

Jacob Dirone, a schoolmaster of Ro- 
rata, for refusing to change his religion, 
was stripped quite naked ; and after hav- 
ing been very indecently exposed, had the 
nails of his toes and fingers torn off with 
red-hot pincers, and holes bored through 
his hands with the point of a dagger. He 
then had a cord tied round his middle, and 
was led through the streets with a soldier 
on each side of him. At every turning, the 
soldier on his right-hand side cut a gash 
in his flesh, and the soldier on his left- 
hand side struck him with a bludgeon, both 
saying, at the same instant, " Will you go 
to mass ? Will you go to mass ?" He still 
replied in the negative to these interroga- 
tories, and being at length taken to the 
bridge, they cut off his head on the balus- 
trades, and threw both that and his body 
into the river. 

Paul Garnier, a very pious protestant, 
had his eyes put out, was then flayed alive. 



and being divided into four parts, his quar- , would renounce his religion, and turn Ro- 
ters were placed on four of the principal man catholic, replied, " I would rather re- 
houses of Lucerne. He bore all his suffer- nounce life, or turn dog." To which a 
ings with the most exemplary patience, priest answered, " For that expression you 
praised God as long as he could speak, &hall both renounce life and be given to 
and plainly evinced what confidence and the dogs." They accordingly dragged him 
resignation a good conscience can in- to prison, where he continued a considera- 
gpjj.g \ ble time without food, till he was famished ; 

Daniel Cardon, of Rocappiata, being after which they threw his corpse into the 
apprehended by some soldiers, they cut street before the prison, and it was de- 
his head off, and having fried his brains, voured by dogs in a most shocking manner, 
ate them. Two poor old blind women of Margaret Saretta was stoned to death, 
St. Giovanni, were burnt alive ; and a | and then thrown into the river ; Antonio 
widow of La Torre, with her daughter, | Bertina had his head cleft asunder ; and 
were driven into the river, and there stoned Joseph Pont was cut through the middle of 
I to death. his body. 

\ Paul Giles, on attempting to run away Daniel Maria, and his whole family, 
from some soldiers, was shot in the neck : being ill of a fever, several papist ruffians 
they then slit his nose, sliced his chin, I broke into his house, telling him they were 
stabbed him, and gave his carcase to the practical physicians, and would give them 
dogs. \ all present ease, which they did, by knock- 

Some of the Irish troops having taken ing the whole family on the head, 
eleven men of Garcigliana prisoners, they Three infant children of a protestant, 
made a furnace red-hot, and forced them to named Peter Fine, were covered with snow, 
push each other in till they came to the and stifled ; an elderly widow, named 
last man, whom they pushed in themselves. < Judith, was beheaded ; and a beautiful 
Michael Gonet, a man of ninety, was \ young woman was stripped, and had a stake 
burnt to death ; Baptista Oudri, another old '' driven through her body, of which she ex 
man, was stabbed; and Bartholomew } pired 
Frasche had holes made in his heels, 
through which ropes being put, he was 
dragged by them to the jail, where his 
wounds mortified, and killed him. 

Magdalene de la Peire, being pur 

Lucy, the wife of Peter Besson, a wo-nan 
far gone in her pregnancy, who lived in 
one of the villages of the Piedmontese val- 
leys, determined, if possible, to escape 
from such dreadful scenes as everywhere 

sued by some of the soldiers, and taken, \ surrounded her : she, accordingly, took two 
was thrown down a precipice and dashed j young children, one in each hand, and set 
to pieces. Margaret Revella, and Mary ^ off toward the Alps. But on the third day 
Pravillerin, two very old women, were \ of the journey bhe was taken in labor among 
burnt alive; and Michael Bellino, with Ann the mountains, and delivered of an infant, 
Bocliardino, were beheaded. who perished through the extreme inclem- 

The son and daughter of a counsellor \ ency of the weather, as did the two other 
of Giovanni, were rolled down a steep hill ^ children ; for all three were found dead by 
together, and sufl"ered to perish in a deep J her, and herself just expiring, by the per- 
pit at the bottom. A tradesman's family, \ son to whom she related the above par- 
viz. : himself, his wife, and an infant in | ticulars. 

arms, were cast from a rock and dashed Francis Gros, the son of a clergyman, 
to pieces ; and Joseph Chairet, and Paul had his flesh slowly cut from his body into 
Carniero, were flayed alive. \ sniall pieces, and put into a dish before 

CypRiANiA Bustia, being asked if he h'im : two of his children were minced be- 



fore his sight ; and his wife was fastened to 
a post, that she might hehold all these 
cruelties practised on her husband and ofT- 
spring. The tormentors, at length, being 
tired of exercising their cruelties, cut oft" the 
heads of both husband and wife, and then 
gave the flesh of the whole family to the 

The Sieur Thomas Marcher fled to a 
cave, when the soldiers shut up the mouth, 
and he perished with famine. Judith 
Revelin, with seven children, were bar- 
barously murdered in their beds ; and a 
widow of near fourscore years of age, was 
hewn to pieces by the soldiers. 

Jacob Roseno was ordered to pray to 
the saints, which he absolutely refused to 
do : some of the soldiers beat him violently 
with bludgeons to make him comply, but 
he still refusing, several of them fired at 
him, and lodged a great many balls in his 
body. As he was almost expiring, they 
cried to him, " Will you call upon the 
saints ? Will you pray to the saints ?" 
To which he answered, " No ! No ! No !" 
when one of the soldiers, with a broad- 
sword, clove his head asunder, and put an 
end to his sufl^erings in this world ; for 
which, undoubtedly, he is gloriously re- 
warded in the next. 

A soldier, attempting to violate a beau- 
tiful young woman, named Susanna Giac- 
quin, she made a stout resistance, and in 

) the struggle pushed him over a precipice, 
J when he was dashed to pieces by the fall. 
I His comrades, instead of admiring the vir- 
\ tue of the young woman, and applauding 
I her for so nobly defending her chastity, 
/ fell upon her with their swords, and cut her 
> to pieces. 

} Giovanni Pullius, a poor peasant of 
La Torre, being apprehended as a prot- 
estant by the soldiers, was ordered, by the 
marquis of Pionossa, to be executed in a 
place near the convent. When he came to 
the gallows, several monks attended, and 
did all they could to persuade him to re- 
nounce his religion. But he told them, he 
never would embrace idolatry, and that he 
was happy in being thought worthy to suf- 
fer for the name of Christ. They then put 
him in mind of what his wife and children, 
who depended upon his labor, would suff*er 
after his decease : to which he replied, " I 
would have my wife and children, as well 
as myself, to consider their souls more than 
their bodies, and the next world before 
this : and with respect to the distress I may 
leave them in, God is merciful, and will 
provide for them while they are worthy of 
his protection." Finding the inflexibility 
of this poor man, the monks cried, " Turn 
him off, turn him off":" which the execu- 
tioner did almost immediately, and the body 
being afterward cut down, was flung into 
the river. 



5 ««SB»;st^ AUL CLEMENT, an elder 
of the church of Rossana, 
being apprehended by the 
monks of a neighboring mo- 
nastery, was carried to the 
market place of that town, 
where some protestants having just been 
executed by the soldiers, he was shown 
the dead bodies, in order that the sight 

might intimidate him. On beholding the 
shocking objects, he said, calmly : " You 
may kill the body, but you can not preju- 
dice the soul of a true believer ; but, with 
\ respect to the dreadful spectacles which 
you have here shown me, you may rest as- 
sured, that God's vengeance will overtake 
the murderers of those poor people, and 
punish them for the innocent blood they 




have spilt." The monks were so exasper- 
ated at this reply, that they ordered him to 
be hung up directly ; and while he was 
hanging, the soldiers amused themselves 
in shooting at the body as at a mark. 

Danikl Ra.mbaut, of Villaro, the father 
of a numerous family, was apprehended, 
and, with several others, committed to 
prison in the jail of Paysana. Here he 
was visited by several priests, who, with 
continual importunities, did all they could 
to persuade him to renounce the protestant 
religion, and turn papist; but this he per- 
emptorily refused, and the priests finding his 
resohition, pretended to pity his numerous 
family, and told him, that he might yet save 
his life, if he would subscribe to the be- 
lief of the following articles : — 

1. The real presence in the host. 

2. Transubstantiation. 

3. Purgatory. 

4. The pope's infallibility. 

5. That masses said for the dead will 
release souls from purgatory. 

6. That praying to saints will procure 
the remission of sins. 

M. Rambaut told the priests, that neither 
his religion, his understanding, nor his con- 
science, would suffer him to subscribe any 
of the articles, for the following reasons : — 

1. That to believe the real presence in 
the host, is a shocking union of both blas- 
phemy and idolatry. 

2. That to fancy the words of consecra- 
tion performs what the papists call transub- 
stanliulion, by converting the wafer and 
wine inlo the real and identical body and 
blood of Christ, which was crucified, and 
which afterward ascended into heaven, is 
too gross an absurdity for even a child to 
believe, who was come to the least glim- 
mering of reason, and that nothing but the 
most blind superstition could make the 
Roman catholics put a confidence in any- 
thing .'SO completely ridiculous. 

3. That the doctrine of purgatory was 
more inconsistent and absurd than a fairy 

4. That the pope's being infallible was 
' an impossibility, and the pope arroiiantly 
] laid claim to what could belong to God 
j only, as a perfect being. 

> 5. That saying masses for the dead was 
I ridiculous, and only meant to keep up a 

belief in the fible of purgatory, as the fato 
; of all is finally decided, on the departure 
I of the soul from the body. 

^ 6. That praying to saints for the remis-- 

> . . . " . . . ' 
\ sion of sins, is misplacing adoration ; as the 

; saints themselves have occasion for an in- 

j tercessor in Christ. Therefore, as God 

^ only can pardon our errors, we ought lo 

^ sue to him alone for pardon. 

! The priests were so highly offended at 

> M. Rambaut's answers to the articles lo 


which they would have had fiim subscribe, 
that they determined to shake his resolu- 
tion by the most cruel method imaginable: 
they ordered one joint of his fingers to he 
cut off every day, till all his fingers were 
gone ; they then proceeded in the same 
manner with his toes ; afterward they al- 
ternately cut off daily, a hand and a foot ; 
but finding that he bore his .sufferings with 
^ the most admirable patience, increased both 
in fortitude and resignation, and maintained 
his faith with steadfast resolution, and un- 
shaken constancy, they stabbed him to the 
heart, and then gave his body to be de- 
voured by dogs. 

Peter Gabriola, a protestant gentle- 
man of considerable eminence, being seized 
by a troop of soldiers, and refusing to re- 
nounce his religion, they hung a great 
number of little bags of gunpowder about 
^ his body, and then setting fire to them blew 
him up. 

Antho.nv, the son of Samud Catieris, a 

poor dumb lad who was extremely inofl'en- 

sive, was cut to pieces by a party of the 

troops ; and soon after the same ruflians 

entered the house of Peter Moniriat, and 

I cut off the legs of the whole family, leav- 

^ ing them to bleed to death, as they were 

< unable lo assist themselves, or lo help each 

\ other. 




HE persecutions in Germa- J 
ny having subsided many > 
years, again broke out in ' 
1630. on account of the / 
war, between the emperor, ^ 
and the king of Sweden, i 
; for the latter was a proiestant prince, and / 
i consequently the proiestants of Germany < 
,^ espoused his cause, which greatly ex- ^ 
i asperated the emperor against them. ', 

\ The imperialists having laid siege to the I 
\ town of Passewalk (which was defended ', 

> by the Swedes), took it by storm, and com- • 

I mitted the most horrid cruellies on the oc- ', 

s s 

\ casion. They pulled down the churches, 

> burnt the houses, pillaged the properties, 
s massacred the ministers, put the garrison 
i to the sword, hanged the townsmen, viola- 

l ted the women, smothered the children, \ 

> &c., &c. , I 
^ A most bloody tragedy was transacted I 
\ at Magdeburg, in the year 1631. The ^ 
s generals, Tilly and Pappenheim, having ', 
\ taken that protestant city by storm, upward > 

> of twenty thousand persons, without dis- > 
; tinction of rank, sex, or age, were slain i 
I during the carnage, and six thousand were I 
\ drowned in attempting to escape over the > 
^ river Elbe. After this fury subsided, the > 
I remaining inhabitants were stripped, se- } 
I verely scourged, had their ears cropped, I 
I and being yoked together like oxen, were ^ 
I turned adrift. 

I The town of Hoxter was taken by the 

; popish army, and all the inhabitants as 

I well as the garrison were put to the sword ; 

I when the houses being set on fire, the 

I bodies were consumed in the flames. 

I At Griphenburg, when the imperial forces ^ 

I prevailed, they shut up the senators in the 

' senate-chamber, and surrounding it by 

^ lighted straw, suffocated them. 

'' Franhendal surrendered upon articles ^ 

< of capitulation, yet the inhabitants were as 5 

cruelly used as at other piaces, and at 
Heidelburg many were shut up in prison 
and starved. 

The cruelties used by the imperial 
troops, under Count Tilly in Saxony, are 
thus enumerated : — 

Half-strangling, and recovering the per- 
sons again repeatedly. 

Rolling sharp wheels over the fingers 
and toes. 

Pinching the thumbs in a vice. 

Forcing the most filthy things down the 
throats, by which many were choked. 

Tying cords round the head so tight that 
the blood gushed out of the eyes, nose, 
ears, and mouth. 

Fastening burning matches to the fingers, 
toes, ears, arms, legs, and even tongue. 

Putting powder in the mouth and setting 
fire to it, by which the head was shattered 
to pieces. 

Tying bags of powder to all parts of the 
body, by which the person was blown up. 

Drawing cords backward and forward 
through the fleshy parts. 

Making incisions with bodkins and 
knives in the skin. 

Running wires through the noses, ears, 
lips, &c. 

Hanging protestants up by the legs, with 
their heads over a fire, by which they were 

Hanging up by one arm till it was dis- 

Hanging upon hooks by the ribs. 

Baking many in hot ovens. 

Forcing people to drink till they burst. 

Fixing weights to the feet, and drawing 
up several with pulleys. 

Hanging, Strangling, 

Stifling, Burning, 

Roasting, Broiling, 

Stabbing, Crucifying, 

Frying, Immuring, 

< 118 


Racking, Poisoninor. 

Violating, Cutting off tongue, 

Ripping open, nose, ears, &c.. 

Breaking the bones. Sawing off the limbs, 
Rasping off the flesh. Hacking to pieces. 
Tearing with wild Drawing by the heels 
horses, through the streets. 


I These enormous cruelties will be a per- 
\ petual stain on the memory of Count Tilly, 
I who not only permitted, but even corn- 
^ manded his troops to put them in practice. 
\ Wherever he came, the most horrid bar- 
l barities and cruel depredations ensued : 
J famine and conflagration marked his prog- 
; ress ; for he destroyed all the provisions 
I he could not take with him, and burnt all 
I the towns before he left them ; so that the 
I full result of his conquests were murder, 
\ poverty, and desolation. 
] An aged and pious divine they stripped, 
I tied him on his back upon a table, and 
] fastened a large fierce cat upon his bell} 
i They then pricked and tormented the cat 
\ in such a manner, that the creature, with 
; rage, tore his belly open, and gnawed his 
I bowels. 

j Another minister and his family were 
/ seized by these inhuman monsters ; when 
I they violated his wife and daughter before 
I his face, stuck his infant son upon the 
i point of a lance, and then surrounding him 
I with his whole library of books, they set fire 
\ to them, and he was consumed in the midst 
I of the flames. 

'(, In Hesse-Cassel some of the troops en- 
I tered an hospital, in which were principally 
I mad women, when stripping the poor 
I wretches, they made them run about the 
l streets for their diversion, and then put 
I them to death. 

5 In Pomerania, some of the imperial 
troops entering a small town, seized upon 
I all the young women, and girls of up- 
l ward of ten years, and then placing their 
> parents in a circle, they ordered them to 
i sing psalms, while they violated their chil- 
) dren, or else they swore they would cut 
\ them to pieces afterward. They then took 

all the married women who had young 
children, and threatened, if they did not 
consent to the gratification of their lusts, 
to burn their children before their faces in 
a large fire which they had kindled for 
that purpose. 

A band of Count Tilly's soldiers meet- 
ing with a company of merchants belong- 
ing to Basil, who were returning from the 
great market of Strasburg, they attempted 
to surround them: all escaped, however, 
but ten, leaving their properties behind. 
The te.n who were taken begged hard for 
their lives ; but the soldiers murdered them, 
saying, " You must die because you are 
heretics, and have got no money." 

The same soldiers met with two count- 
esses, who, together with some young la 
dies, the daughters of one of them, were 
taking an airing in a landau. The soldiers 
spared their lives, but treated them with 
great indecency, and having stripped them, 
bade the coachman drive on. 

By the means and mediation of Great 
Britain, peace was at length restored to 
Germany, and the protestanls remained un- 
molested for several years, till some new 
disturbances broke out in the palatinate, 
which were thus occasioned : — 

The great church of the Holy Ghost, at 
Heidelburg, had for many years been 
\ equally shared by the protcstaiits and Ro- 
man catholics, in this manner : the protes- 
tants performed divine service in the nave 
or body of the church, and the Roman 
catholics celebrated mass in the choir. 
Though this had been the custom time 
immemorial, the elector palatine, at length, 
took it into his head not to suffer it any 
longer, declaring, that as Heidelburg was 
\ the place of his residence, and the church 
', of the Holy Ghost, the cathedral of his 
s principal city, divine service ought to be 
s performed only according to the rites of the 
\ church of which he was a member. He 
;; then forbade tlie protestants to enter the 
I church, and put the papists in possession 
I of the whole. 



The aggrieved people applied to the ? reason, as he well knew the impossihility | 
protestant powers for redress, which so ? of carrying on a war ajfaiiist the powerful > 
much exasperated the elector, that he sup- I states who threatened him. He, then fore, ? 
pressed the Heidelburg catechism. The i agreed, that the use of tlie body of the > 
protestant powers, however, unanimously ? church of the Holy Ghost should be restor- l 
agreed to demand satisfaction, as the elec- ^ ed to the protestants. He restored the 
tor, by this conduct, had broke an article < Heidelburg catechism, put the protestant < 
of the treaty of Westphalia ; and the courts < ministers again into possession of the | 
of Great Britain, Prussia, Holland, &c., < churches of which they had been dispos- ;. 
sent deputies to the elector, to represent \ sessed, allowed the protestants to work on | 

\ the injustice of his proceedings, and to popish holydays ; and ordered, that no per- ; 

\ threaten, unless he changed his behavior son should be molested for not kneeling i 
to the protestants in the palatinate, that when the host passed by. 

> they would treat their Roman catholic sub- These things he did through fear ; but to 

I jects with the greatest severity. Many | show his resentment to his protestant sub- / 
; violent disputes took place between the Ejects, in other circumstances where protest- | 
\ protestant powers, and those of the elector, j aiit states had no right to interfere, he totally 
^> and these were greatly augmented by the i abandoned Heidelburg, removing all the 
I following accident : The coach of the \ courts of justice to Manheim, which was \ 
Dutch minister standing before the door ^ entirely inhabited by Roman catholics. \ 
! of the resident sent by the prince of Hesse, s He likewise built a new palace there,; 
I the host was, by chance, carrying to a sick I making it his place of residence ; and, being > 
j person; the coachman took not the least ^ followed by the Roman catholics of H,eijdek ;' 

> notice, which those who attended the host \ burg, Manheim became a ftourisliing place. | 
\ observing, pulled him from his box, and | In the meantime the proLssiants of ■ 
•. compelled him to kneel : the violence to Heidelburg sunk into poyerly, and many \ 

> the domestic of a public minister was high- ^ of them became so distressed, as to quit > 
ly resented by all the protestant deputies ; I their native country, and seek an asylum ; 
and, still more to heighten these differen- 1 in protestant states A great number of j 

J ces, the protestants presented to the depu- ^ these coming into i^ngland, in the time of 
I ties three additional articles of complaint. J Queen Anne, were cordially received, and j 
' 1. That military executions were order- ? met with a most humane assistance, both ^ 

> ed against all protestant shoemakers who \ by public and private donations. 

should refuse to contribute to the masses of ^ In 1732, about thirty thousand protestants 
I St. Crispin. \ were, contrary to the treaty of Westphalia, 

[ 2. That the protestants were forbid to I driven frora the archbishopric of Saltzburg. 
I work on popish holydaj's, even in harvest They went away in the depth of winter, 
; time, under very heavy penalties, which | v/ith scarce clothes to cover them, and with- j 
occasioned great inconveniences, and con- ■ out provisions, not having permission to | 
siderably prejudiced public business. take anything with them. The cause of | 

3. That several protestant ministers had these poor people not being publicly espous- 
been dispossessed of their churches, under | ed by such states as could obtain them re- j 
pretence of their having been originally | dress, they emigrated to various protestant | 
founded, and built by Roman catholics. countries, and settled in places where they \ 

The protestant deputies, at length, be- \ could enjoy the free exercise of their reli- / 
came so serious, as to intimate to the elec- i gion, without hurting their consciences, and | 
tor, that force of arms should compel him live free from the trammels of popish super- | 
to do the justice he denied to their repre- \ stition, and the chains of papal tyranny. | 
sentations. This menace brought him to] At the Hague, four Dutch clergymen 



suffered death for turning protestants, after 
having been confined for a very consider- 
able space of time. (See engraving.) 
Their names were, 

Rev. Arent Vas. 

Rev. Adrian Jan. 

Rev. Sybrand Janson. 

Rev. Walter Simonson. 
They were first publicly declared here- 
tics, and then degraded. The ceremony 
of degradation was performed in this man- 
ner : being clad in sacerdotal habits, they 
were brought before a bishop, and two ab- 
bots. The abbots cut off some of their 
hair, scraped the crowns of their heads with 
a knife, and likewise scraped the tips of 
the fingers, with which they had made the 
elevation at the altar. The bishop then 
pulled off their habits, saying, " I strip you 
of the robe of rigViteousness." To which 
one of the clergymen replied, " Not so, but 
rather of the robe of unrighteousness ;" and 
then looking sternly at the bishop, he went 
on thus : *' You knew the truth formerly 
yourself, but have maliciously rejected it ; 
but you must give an account of your actions 
at the day of. judgment." The bishop 
trembled, and the spectators were struck 
with amazement, as the person who uttered 
the words was a learned, pious, honest, and 
venerable man, being seventy years of age. 
When the victims were delivered over to 
the magistrate, the bishop desired him to 

be as favorable as possible to them, which 
ridiculous afliectation of kindness occasion- 
ed the clergyman who spoke the before- 
mentioned words to exclaim in Latin, 
'• Quam Pharisaice !" implying, " How 
Pharisaical !" or, " How hypocritical is 
such behavior I" At the place of execu- 
tion, Adrian Jan's father cried out: " Dear 
son, suffer courageously, a crown of eternal 
life is prepared for you." The officers 
prevented him from proceeding, but the 
martyr's sister, who was in another place 
among the crowd of spectators, exclaimed 
with a loud voice : " Brother, be courage- 
ous ; your sufferings will not last long ; the 
door of eternal life is oj)pn to you." They 
were first strangled, and then burnt, amidst 
the lamentations of some thousands of 
spectators, who would have rescued them 
but for the Spanish guards ; and could not 
but severely regret, that men of the most 
unspotted characters, and inoffensive lives, 
should be put to violent deaths, only for 
differing in opinion from their persecu- 

" But what the niariyrs here sustain, 
Is only transitory pain : 
Tortures just felt, and quickly o'er. 
That when once past torment no more ; 
While heavenly bliss rewards bestows. 
And joys eternal heal their woes. 
But what's the persecutor's fate ? 
The stings of conscience, heavenly hate ; 
A dreaded death for blood that's shed, 
With horrors planted round the bed j 
A fate in endless fire to dwell, 
A lasting residence iu hell." 


'HE persecution.s in Lithu- 
ania began in 1648, and 
were carried on with 
great severity by the 
Cossacks and Tartars. 
The cruelty of the Cos- 
i sacks was such, that even the Tartars, at; 
> last, grew ashamed of it, and rescued some' 
^ of the intended victims from their hands. 

The cruelties exercised were these 
Skinning alive. 
Cutting off hands. 
Taking out the bowels. 
Cutting the fiesh open. 
Putting out the eyes. 
Cutting off!" feet. 







Boririor the shin hones. 

Pouring nieited lead into the flesh. 


Stabbing, and 

Sending to perpetual banishment. 

< rifled the nobility, burnt the houses, en- 

< slaved the health)', and murdered the sick. 

A clergyman, who wrote an account of 
the misfortunes of Lithuania, in the seven- 
teenth century, says, " In consideration of 

] The Russians taking advantage of the \ these extremities, we can not but adore the | 

devastations which had been made in the judgment of God poured upon us for our 1 
country, and of its incapability of defence, \ sins, and deplore our sad condition. Let 5 
entered it with a considerable army, and, \ us hope for a deliverance from his mercy, J 
like a flood, bore down all before them. ' and wish for restitution in his benevolence. \ 
Everything they met was an object of de- < Though we are brought low, though we ] 
struction ; they razed cities, demolished ^ are wasted, troubled, and terrified, yet his \ 
castles, ruined fortresses, sacked towns, \ compassion is greater than our calamities, 
bvrnt villages, and murdered people. The <, and his goodness superior to our afflictions, 
r^inisters of the gospel were peculiarly j Our neighbors hate us at present, as much 
marked out as the objects of their displeas- 1 as our more distant enemies did before: 
jre, though every worthy Christian was ] they persecute the remnant of us still re- 
liable to the efl'ects of their cruelty. ^ maining, deprive us of our few churches 

Adria?? Chalinsky, a clergyman vener- \ left, banish our preachers, abuse our school- 
able for his age, conspicuous for his pieiy, ', masters, treat us with contempt, and op- 
and eminent for his learning, was suddenly < press us in the most opprobrious manner, 
seized upon in his own house, partially \ In all our afllictions the truth of the gospel 
tried, and speedily condemned. . Having \ shone among us, and gave us comfort ; and 
bis hands and legs tied behind him, he was ;. we only wished for the grace of Jesus 
roasted alive by a slow fire, only a few ) Christ (not only to ourselves, but to soften 
chips, and a little straw, being lighted at a \ the hearts of our enemies), and the sym- 
time, in order to make his death more \ pathy of our fellow Christians." 
lingering. (See engraving.) \ The reflections of this pious minister, 

A father and son, named Smolsky, both ] who imputes the sufi'erings of the Lithu- 

ministers near Vilna, had their heads saw- 
ed off. A clergyman, in the town of Haw- 

anian proteslants to their own crimes, in 
not practising the truths they understood, 

loczen, named Slawinskin, was cut piece- j and conforming to the gospel which they < 
meal by slow degrees. Some perished by | believed : and his hopes for relief from the | 
being exposed, during the frosty season, to \ merits of Jesus Christ brings to our recol- \ 
the inclemency of the weather : many were \ lection one of the finest pieces of poetry in ^ 
llayed alive, several hacked to pieces, and \ the French language, called the Repentant \ 
great numbers sent into slavery. \ Libertine, by Monsieur Barreaux, a new [ 

As Lithuania recovered itself after one '> translation df which we here present to our \ 
persecution, succeeding enemies again de- < readers : — ^ 

stroyed it. The Swedes, the Prussians, < 
and the Courlanders, carried fire and 5 
sword through it, and continual calamities, j 
or some years, attended that unhappy dis- 
trict. It was then attacked by the prince 
of Transylvania, who had in his army, ex- 
clusive of his own Transylvanians, Hun- 
garians, Moldavians, Servians, Walachians. 
&,c. These, as far as they penetrated, 
wasted the country, destroyed the churches, 

[ ( 

" Almighty Ood ! though you, as mankind's friend, 
Excuse their follies, and their joys extend, 
Yit my great faults thy vengeance must demand, 
And call for thunder even from mercy's hand : 
Yes, such my crimes, such my ofltnces are, 
They leave not Justice any room to spare ; 
Heaven's interest demands 1 should not live ; 
Thy clemency itself the stroke must give. 
Strike then the hlow. o'erwhelm me with my woes. 
Let not my tears thy equity oppose : 
Then thunders roar, and forked lightnings bla/' 
In perishing the avenging hand I'll praise ; 
For wheresoever thy dreadful thunders fail, 
The blood of Christ redeems me from them all." 

[ 124 



I '^^y'^'P^ T has been the fate of many j hazel-trees, was originally a village in Po- | 
pious people, in all ages of Hand, on the confines of the lower Silesia. | 
the world, to bear the cross ? It rose, however, to the dignity of a city, ' 
of Christ, and suffer persecu- ? and became both populous and opulent. \ 
tions on account of their opin- \ Religion was here reformed by the illus- I 
ions ; for those who are born \ trious Andrew, count palatine of Bernstein, \ 
a/'/er/Aej^ei'Z! have always been enemies to ^ according to the rights of the Bohemian 
snch as are born after the spirit. \ confession ; and so well accepted were 'he 

The protestants of Poland were perse- \ pure doctrines of the gospel, that Lei na 
cuted in a dreadful manner. The ministers \ became a kind of metropolis for prutesla'it- 
in particular were treated with the most \ ism in that part of the country, 
unexampled barbarity ; some having their \ At the time of the Bohemian persecu- 

; tion, in 1 620, many protestants fled to Po- 
land, most of whom settled at Lesna. 'J he 
number of these was greatly increased in 
A, D. 1628 and 1629, when a fierce pftr.e- 
cution raged in Bohemia and Silesia. By 
the addition of such numbers of inhabitan'3, 
Lesna became so considerable as to have 
three market-places, four churches, an.i 
twenty considerable streets, and a -/ii 
seminary of learning. 

The citizens then surrounded the cii 
by a wall, encompassed it with a trench, 

; tongues cut out, because they had preached 
\ the gospel truths ; others being deprived 
{ of their sight, on account of having read the 
j Bible ; and great numbers were cut to 
I pieces, for not recanting. 
, Private persons were put to death by 
I various methods ; the most cruel being 
I usually preferred. Women were murdered 
'; without the least regard to their sex ; and 
\ the persecutors even went so far as to cut 
< off the heads of sucking babes, and fasten 

them to the brea,sts of their mothers. 
^ Even the solemnity of the grave did not \ erected gates for ornaments, built towe'.-^ 
j exempt the bodies of protestants from the \ for its defence, and constnicted a nob 
I malice of persecutors ; for they sacrilegi- \ town-house for public proceedings. Hem 

• ously dug up the bodies of many eminent \ Lesna became a mart of trade, a seat ! 
persons, and either cut them to pieces, and \ politeness, and an asylum for the distresseu 
exposed them to be devoured by birds and \ religion flourished, manufactures thrived, 
beasts, or hung them up in conspicuous and and industry was encouraged. 

• public places. \ The Roman catholics viewing with envy 
\ Among the devastations made by the \ the thriving state of religion in Lesna, 
\ persecutions, the most important was the | strove to injure that city by every means 
\ destruction of the noble city of Lesna, in \ in their power. Their first attack was, by 

> Great Poland. A particular and circum- several accusations laid before Sigismund, 
\ stantial account of the cruel transactions | king of Poland, suggesting, that " Lesn;t 
\ attending the ruin of that city, having been \ was a confluence for men of all nations, a 
I published by some who were witnesses of, den of outlaws, an asylum for heretics, and 
\ and materially concerned in the sufferings ] a receptacle of traitors to the king and gov- 
I that ensued, we shall select such parts of ', emment." 

I the narrative as are most interesting and Luckily the king disbelieved the calum- 
consonant to the plan of our work. \ nies, and thus the Roman catholics were i 

> Lesna, which word implies a grove of) defeated in their malicious intentions. | 




127 j 


HEN the reformed ^ The most zealous of all the popish 
religion began to I monks, and those who most implicitly 
difluse the gospel \ obeyed the church of Rome, were the 
light throughout i Dominicans and Franciscans : these, there- 
Europe, Pope In- j fore, the pope thought proper to invest with 
nocent the Third .' an exclusive right of presiding over, and 
entertained great fear for the Romish < managing the different courts of inquisition, 
church. Unwilling that the spirit of free < The friars of those two orders were always 
inquiry should gain ground, or that the i selected from the very dregs of the people, 
people should attain more knowledge than i and therefore were not troubled with punc- 
the priests were willing to admit, he de- i tilios of honor : they were obliged, by the 
termined to impede, as much as possible, I rules of their respective orders, to lead very 
the progress of reformation. He accord- | austere lives, which rendered their manners 
ingly instituted a number of inquisitors, or \ unsocial and brutish, and, of course, the 
persons who were to make inquiry after, | better qualified them for the employment 
apprehend, and punish heretics, as the re- > of inquisitors. 

formed were called by the papists. 5 The pope now thought proper to give 

At the head of these inquisitors was one > the inquisitors the most unlimited powers, 
Dominic, who had been canonized by the > as judges delegated by him, and immedi- 
pope, in order to render his authority the I ately representing his person : they were 
more respectable. Dominic, and the other I permitted to excommunicate, or sentence 
inquisitors, spread themselves into various > to death, whom they thought proper, upon 
Roman catholic countries, and treated the > the most slight information of heresy, 
protestants with the utmost severity. In > They were allowed to publish crusades 
process of time, the pope not finding these > against all whom they deemed heretics, 
roving inquisitors so useful as he had im- I and enter into leagues with sovereign 
agined, resolved upon the establishment of > princes, to join those crusades with their 
fixed and regular courts of inquisition. > forces. 

After the order for these regular courts, the > In 1244 their powers were further in- 
first office of inquisition was established in I creased by the emperor Frederic the Sec- : 
the city of Thoulouse, and Dominic became 5 ond, who declared himself the protector '. 
the first regular inquisitor, as he had before I and friend of all inquisitors, and published \ 
been the first roving inquisitor. I two very cruel edicts, viz. : — j 

Courts of inqiusition were now erected | 1. That all heretics, who continued ob- 
in several countries ; but the Spanish in- | stinate, should be burnt : 
quisition became the most powerful, and > 2. That all heretics, who repented, 
the most dreaded of any. Even the kings | should be imprisoned for life, 
of Spain themselves, though arbitrary in all | This zeal in the emperor for the in- 
other respects, were taught to dread the \ quisitors, and the Roman catholic persua- 
power of the lords of the inquisition ; and '/ sion, arose from a report which had been 
the horrid cruelties they exercised compel- / propagated throughout Europe, that he in- 
led multitudes, who differed in opinion ? tended to renounce Christianity, and turn 
from the Roman catholics, carefully to con- 1 Mahometan ; the emperor, therefore, at- 
ceal their sentiments. \ tempted, by the height of bigotry, to con- 



tradict the report, and to show his attach- 5 a heretic to escape from conliuement, or 

ment to popery by cruelty. 

The officers of the inquisition are : — 

Three inquisitors, or judges ; 

A fiscal proctor ; 

Two secretaries ; 

A magistrate ; 

A messenger ; 

A receiver ; 

A jailer ; 

An agent of confiscated possessions ; 

J visiting one in confinement, are all matters 
i of suspicion, and prosecuted accordingly. 
^ Nay, all Roman catholics were commanded, 
,- under pain of excommunication, to give im- 
mediate ififormaiion, even of their nearest 
and dearest friends, if they judged them to 
be what was called heretics, or jwjywise 
inclined to heresy. 

Those who give the least countenance 
or assistance to protesiants, are called yau- 

Several assessors, counsellors, execu- < tors, or abettors of heresy, and the accusa- 
tioners, physicians, surgeons, doorkeepers, <. tions against these usually turn upon some 
familiars, and visiters, who are all sworn < of the following points : comforting such as 

to secrecy. 

the inquisition have begun to prosecute ; 

The principal accusation against those < assisting, or not in-forming against such, if 
who are subject to this tribunal is heresy, \ they should happen to escape ; concealing, 
which comprises all that is spoken, or i abetting, advising, or furnishing heretics 
written, against any of the articles of the ( with money ; visiting, writing to, or send- 
creed, or the traditions of the Romish ( ing them subsistence ; secreting, or burn- 
church. The other articles of accusation | ing books and papers, which might serve 
are, renouncing the Roman catholic per- < to convict them, 

suasion, believing that persons of any other I The inquisition likewise takes cogni- 
religion may be saved, or even admitting < zance of such as are accused of being 

that the tenets of any but papists are, in the i Magicians ; 
least, reasonable or proper. We shall > Witches ; 
mention two other things which incur the i Blasphemers, 

Soothsayers ; 
Wizards ; 
Common swearers 

most severe punishments, and show the i and of such who read, or even possess the 
inquisitors, at once, in an absurd and a < Bible in the common language, the Talmud 
tyrannical light, viz. : To disapprove of any '. of the Jews, or the Alcoran of the Mahom- j 
action done by the inquisition, or disbelieve | etans. j 

anything said by an inquisitor. 

Upon all occasions the inquisitors carry 

The grand article heresy comprises s on their processes with the utmost severity, 

I many subdivisions ; and, upon a suspicion \ and punish those who offend them with the 

\ of any of these, the party is immediately | most unparalleled cruelty. A protestanl 

apprehended : advancing an offensive prop- has seldom any mercy shown him ; and a 't 

osition ; failing to impeach others who i Jew, who turns Christian, is far from being 

may advance such contemning church cere- 1 secure ; for if he is known to keep com- 

monies ; defacing idols ; reading books con- 1 pany with another new-converted Jew, a 

demned by the inquisition; lending such 1 suspicion immediately arises that they pri- 

books to others to read ; deviating from the I vately practise together some Jewish cere- 

; ordinary practices of the church ; I monies ; if he keeps company with a per- 

\ letting a year pass without going to con- > son who was lately a protestant, but now 

I fession ; eating meat on fast-days ; neglect- ) professes popery, they are accused of plot- 

{ ing mass ; being present at a sermon '/ ting together ; but if he associates with a 

{ preached by a heretic ; not appearing when i Roman catholic an accusation is often laid 

I summoned by the inquisition ; lodging in | against him for only pretending to be a pa- 

I the house of, contracting a friendship with, I pist, and the consequence is, a confiscation 

or making a present to a heretic ; assisting \ of his effects as a punishment for his in- 





sincerity, and the loss of his life if he com- 
plains of ill usage. 

A defence in the inquisition is of little 
use to the prisoner, fof' a suspicion only is 
deemed sufficient cause of condemnation, 
and the greater his wealth the greater his 
danger. The principal part of the inquisi- 
tors' cruelties is owing to their rapacity : 
they destroy the life to possess the prop- 
erty ; and, under the pretence of zeal, plun- 
der each obnoxious individual. 

A prisoner to the inquisitors is never al- 
lowed to see the face of his accuser, or of 
the witnesses against him, but every method 
is taken, by threats and tortures, to oblige 
him to accuse himself, and by that means 
corroborate their evidence. If the jurisdic- 
tion of the inquisition is not fully allowed, 
vengeance is denounced against such as 
call it in question ; or if any of its officers 
are opposed, those who oppose them are 
almost certain to be sufferers for their temer- 
ity ; the maxim of the inquisition being, to 
strike terror, and awe those who are the I 
objects of its power, into obedience. High 
birth, distinguished rank, great dignity, or 
eminent employments, are no protections 
from its severities ; anJ the lowest officers 
of the inquisition can milse the highest 
characters tremble. 

Such are the circumstances which sub- 
ject a person to the rage of the inquisition, 
and the modes of beginning the process are 
foui in number. 

1- To proceed by imputation, or prose- 
cute on common report. 

2. To proceed by the information of any 
indifferent person who chooses to impeach 

3. To found the prosecution on the in- 
formation of those spies who are regularly 
retained by the inquisition. 

4. To prosecute on the confession of the 
prisoner himself. l 

Wlien a prisoner is summoned to appear^ 
before the inquisition, the best method (un- > 
less he is sure of escaping by flight) is im- i 
mediately to obey the summons ; for though ( 
really innocent, the least delay increases { 

his criminality in the eye of the inquisitors, 
as one of their maxims is, that backward- 
ness to appear always indicates guilt in the 
person summoned ; and if he escapes, it is 
the same as perpetual banishment, for 
should such ever return, the most cruel 
death would be the certain consequence. 

The inquisitors never forget or forgive ; 
length of time can not efface their resent- 
ments ; nor can the humblest concessions, 
or most liberal presents, obtain a pardon : 
they carry the desire of revenge to the 
grave, and would have both the property 
and lives of those Ayho have offended them. 
Hence, when a person once accused to the 
inquisition, after escaping, is retaken, he 
ought seriously to prepare himself for mar- 
tyrdom, and arm his soul against the fear 
of death. Every person, in such a situa- 
tion, ought to be composed for the awful 
occasion, without expectation of remedy ; 
and to adopt similar sentiments to the fol- 
lowing, written by a clergyman for such 
trying occasions :— 

" How shall I stand the test of fire. 
Or in the flames resign my breath ! 
Lord ! my reluctant soul inspire, 
Raise me above the Ifear of death. 

" Oh ! what a worldly mind have I, 
How indolent, how free from care ! 
In sloth and carnal eate I live, 
Averse to abstinence and prayer. 

" What if the sentence now should pass, 
That I must die within an hour! 
What paleness would o'erspread my face, 
What bitter grief my heart o'erpower. 

" How shall my pampered body bear 
The fiery furnace, or the stake ! 
Let me for Jesus' truth declare, 
And bid defiance to the rack. 

'• Recover, Lord, my strength, before 
You bring me to a martyr's death ; 
Nor let ine death's grim rage explore, 
Until I have a martyr's faith." 

When a positive accusation is given, the 
inquisitors direct an order under their hands 
to the executioner, who takes a certain num- 
ber of familiars with him to assist in the 
execution. The calamity of a man under 
such circumstances can scarce be descri- 
bed, he being probably seized when sur- 
rounded by his family, or in company with 
his friends. Father, son, brother, sister, 



husband, wife, must quietly submit ; none 
dare resist or even speak ; either would 
subject them to the punishment of the de- 
voted victim. No respite is allowed to 
settle the most important affairs, but the 
prisoner is instantaneously hurried away. 

Hence we may judge how critically dan- 
gerous must be the situation of persons who 
I reside in countries where there is an in- 

< quisitorial tribunal ; and how carefully cau- 
i tious all states ought to be who are not 
\ cursed with such an arbitrary court, to pre- 
i vent its introduction. In speaking of this 
5 subject, an eloquent author pathetically 

> says : " How horrid a scene of perfidy and 
inhumanity? What kind of community 
must that be whence gratitude, love, and a 
mutual forbearance with regard to human 

I frailties, are banished! What must that 
/ tribunal be which obliges parents not only 
^ to erase from their minds the remembrance 
] of their own children, to extinguish all those 
/ keen sensations of tenderness and affection 
j wherewith nature inspires them, but even 
to extend their inhumanity so far as to force 
I them to commence their accusers, and con- 

> sequently to become the cause of the cruel- 
'> ties inflicted upon them ' What ideas 
/ ought we to form to ourselves of a tribunal, 

> which obliges children not only to stifle 

< every soft impulse of gratitude, love, and 

> respect, due to those who gave them birth, 
J but even forces them, and that under the most 

> vigorous penalties, to be spies over their 
/ parents, and to discover to a set of merci- 
'' less inquisitors, the crimes, the errors, and 
) even the little la|)ses to which they are ex- 

! posed by human frailty ! In a word, a 
lrii)unal which will not permit relations, 
when imprisoned in its horrid dungeons, to 
give each other the succors, or perform the 
duties which religion enjoins, must be of 
an infernal stump. What disord^-r and con- 
fusion must such conduct give rise to, in a 
tenderly affectionate family! An expres- 
sion innocent in itself, and perhaps, but too 
true, shall, from an indiscreet zeal, or a 
panic I'ear, give infinite uneasiness to a 
family ; shall ruin its peace entirely, and 

perhaps cause one or more of its members 
to be the innocent unhappy victims of the 
most barbarous of all tribunals. What dis- 
tractions must necessarily break forth in a 
house where the husband and wife are at 
variance, or the children loose and wicked ! 
Will such children scruple to sacrifice a 
father, who endeavors to restrain them by 
his exhortations, by reproofs, or paternal 
corrections ? Will not they rather, after 
plundering his house to support their ex- 
travagance and riot, readily deliver up their 
unhappy parent to all the horrors of a tri- 
bunal, founded on the blackest i/ijiistice ? 
A riotous husband, or a loose wife, have an 
easy opportunity, assisted by means of the 
persecutions in question, to rid themselves 
of one who is a check to their vices, by 
delivering him or her up to the rigors of 
the inquisition." 

When the inquisitors have taken umbrage 
against an innocent person, all expedients 
are used to facilitate condemnation ; false 
oaths and testimonies, founded on perjury, 
are directed by the virulence of prejudice 
to find the accused guilty ; and all laws 
divine and human, all institutions, moral 
and political, are sacrificed to bigoted re- 

When a person accused is taken, and 
imprisoned, his treatment is deplorable in- 
deed. The jailers first begin by searching 
him for books or papers which may tend to 
his conviction, or fi)r instruments which 
might be employed in self-murder, or break- 
ing from the place of confinement. But it 
is to be observed, that the obvious articles of 
the search are not the only things taken from 
a j)risoner ; but the conscientious jailers 
make Iree with money, rings, buckles, ap- 
parel, &c., under various pretences, such 
as, that money or rings may be swallowed, 
to the great detriment of he prisoner's 
health ; the prongs of buckles may be used 
to take away life ; by means of a neckcloth 
or a pair of garters a pri?jner may hang 
himself, &c. Then he is robbed under 
the plausible pretext of humanity, and used 
ill through pretended tenderness. 



When the prisoner has been searched 
under the name of care, and robbed beneatli 
the mask of justice, he is committed to 
prison by way of security. " Here," says 
an authentic writer, " he is conveyed to a 
dungeon, the sight of which must fill him 
with horror, torn from his family and 
friends, who are not allowed access, or ( 
even to send him one consolatory letter, or | 
take the least step in his favor in order to i 
prove his innocence. He sees himself in- < 
stantly abandoned to his inflexible judges, | 
to melancholy and despair, and even often ( 
to his most inveterate enemies, quite un- 
certain of his fate. Innocence on such an 
occasicm is a weak reed, nothing being 
easier than to ruin an innocent person." 

Death is usually the portion of a prison- 
er, the mildest sentence being imprisos- 
ment for life ; yet the inquisitors proceed 
by degrees, at once subtle, slow, and cruel. 
The jailer first of all insinuates himself 
into the prisoner's favor, by pretending to i 
wish him well, and advise him well, and, < 
among other hints falsely kind, tells him < 
to petition for a hearing. < 

This is the worst thing a prisoner can ( 
do, for the mere petition is deemed a sup- I 
position of guilt, and he is persuaded to it ^ 
only with a view to entrap him. When I 
he is brought before the consistory, the first ^ 
demand is, " What is your request ?" 

The prisoner very naturally answers that 
he would have a hearing. 

One of the inquisitors replies, "Your hear- 
ing is this — confess the truth — conceal > 
nothing, and rely on our mercy." i 

If the prisoner makes a confession of any '/ 
trifling aflfair, they immediately found an in- ', 
dictment on it : if he is mute, they shut him i 
up without light, or any food but a scanty l 
allowance of bread and water till he over- ^ 
comes his obstinacy, as they call it ; and 
if he declares he is innocent, they torment 
him, till he either dies with the torment, or 
confesses himself guilty. 

Upon the re-examinations of such as con- 
fess, they continually say : " You have not ^ 
been sincere, you tell not all — you keep 'i 

many things concealed, and therefore must 
be remanded to your dungeon." When those 
who stood mute are called for re-examina- 
tion, if they continue silent, such tortures 
are ordered as will either make them speak, 
or kill them ; and when those who proclaim 
their innocence are re-examined, a crucifix 
is held before them, and they are solemnly 
exhorted to take an oath of their confession 
of faith. This brings them to the test, they 
must either swear they are Roman catholics, 
or acknovdedge they are not. If they ac- 
knowledge they are not Roman catholics 
they are proceeded against as heretics. If 
they acknowledge they are Roman catho- 
lics, a string of accusations is brought 
against them, to which they are obliged to 
answer extempore, no time being given 
even to put their answer into proper method. 
After they have verbally answered, pen, 
ink, and paper, are given them, in order to 
produce a written answer, which it is re- 
quired shall in every degree coincide with 
the verbal answer. If the verbal and the 
written answer, differ, the prisoners are 
charged with prevarication, if one contains 
more than the other with wishing to con- 
ceal certain circumstances ; if they both 
agree, they are accused with premeditated 

" But to condemn, beneath their laws, 
Reason and truth are turned to flaws ; 
Sincerity is forced to 'bey 
The inquisition's tyrant sway : 
Where void of justice or of mis^ht. 
The weak submit to lawless might." 

W^hen the person impeached is con- 
demned, he is either severely whipped, 
violently tortured, sent to the galleys, oi 
sentenced to death ; and in either case the 
effects are confiscated. After judgment a 
procession is performed to the place of 
execution, which ceremony is called, an 
auto-da-fe, or act of faith. 

The following is an account of an auto- 
da-fe, per formed at Madrid in the year 1682: 
The oflScers of the inquisition, preceded 
by trumpets, kettle-drums, and their banner, 
marched, on the 30th of May, in cavalcade, 
to the palace of the great square, where 




< they declared by proclamation, that on the Wouth : and, oh ! consider, that I atn ahout 
I 30tii of June the sentence of the prisoners / to die for professing a religion imbibed 

< would be put in execution. \ from my earliest infancy !" Her majesty 
\ There had not been a spectacle of this < seemed greatly to pity her distress, but 
\ kind at Madrid for several years before, for < turned away her eyes, as she did not dare 
\ which reason it was expected by the in- < to speak a word in behalf of a person who 
\ habitants with as much impatience as a day | had been declared a heretic. 

I of the greatest festivity. \ Now mass began, in the midst of which 

I On the day appointed, a prodigious nuin- < the priest came from the altar, placed near 
) ber of people appeared dressed as splendid the scaffold, and seated himself in a chair 

< as their respective circumstances would prepared for that purpose. 

\ admit. In the great square was raised a The chief inquisitor then descended from 
high scaffold ; and thither, from seven in the amphitheatre, dressed in his cope, and 
the morning till the evening, were brought s having a mitre on his head. After bow- 
criminals of both sexes ; all the inquisitions s ing to the altar, he advanced toward the 
in the kingdom sending their prisoners to | king's balcony, and went up to it, attended 
Madrid. > by some of his officers, carrying a cross 

Of these prisoners twenty men and s and the gospels, with a book containing the 
\ women, with one renegado Mahometan, s oath by which the kings of Spain oblige 
' were ordered to be burned ; fifty Jews and \ themselves to protect the catholic faith, to 
\ Jewesses, having never before been im- s extirpate heretics, and support, with all 
' prisoned, and repenting of their crimes, S their power, the prosecutions and decrees 

were sentenced to a long confinement, and 5 of the inquisition. 
\ to wear a yellow cap ; and ten others, in- | On the inquisitor's approach, and pre- 
dicted for bigamy, witchcraft, and other senting this book to the king, his majesty 
1 crimes, were sentenced to be whipped, and rose up, bare-headed, and swore to main- 
\ then sent to the galleys : these last wore tain the oath, which was read to him by | 
\ large paste-board caps, with inscriptions one of his counsellors : after which the 
{ on them, having a halter about their necks, king continued standing till the inquisitor 
^ and torches in their hands. was returned to his place ; when the secre- 

I The whole court of Spain was present tary of the holy office mounted a sort of 
I on this occasion. The grand iiujuisitor's ^ pulpit, and administered the like oath to the 
\ chair was placed in a sort of triliunal far i counsellors and the whole assembly. The 
I above that of the king. The nobles here | mass was begun about twelve at noon, and 
acted the part of the sheriff's officers in did not end till nine in the evening, being 
I England, leading such criminals as were protracted by a proclamation of the senten- 
\ to be burned, and holding them when fast ces of the several criminals, which were 
i bound with thick cords : the rest of the all separately rehearsed aloud one after 
< criminals were conducted i)y the familiars the other. 

' of the inquisition. After this, followed the burning of the 

\ Among those who were to suffer was a twenty-one men and women, whose in- 
\ young Jewess of exiiuisite beauty, and but trepidity in suffering that horrid death was 
\ seventeen years of age. Being on the same I truly astonishing : some thrust their hands 
side of the scaffold where the queen was j and feet into the flames with the most 
seatiMl, she addressed her, in hopes of ob- | dauntless fortitude ; and allof ihem yielded 
lainintj a pardon, in the following pathetic to tlicir fate with such resolution, that many 
speech : " dreat queen ! will not your royal of the amazed spectators lamented that such 
\ presence be of some service to me in my \ heroic souls had not been more enlightened. 
I miserable condition? Have regard to my | The king's near situation to the criminals 



rendered their dying groans very audible 
to him : he could not, however, be absent 
from this dreadful scene, as it is esteemed 
a religious one ; and his coronation oath 
obliges him to give a sanction by his pres- 
ence to all the acts of the tribunal. 

Another auto-da-fe is thus described by 
the Reverend Doctor Gedde : " At the 
place of execution there are so many stakes 
set as there are prisoners to be burned, a 
large quantity of dry furze being set about 

" The stakes of the proteslants, or, as the 
inquisitors call them, the professed, are 
about four yards high, and have each a 
small board, whereon the prisoner is to be 
seated within half a yard of the top. The 
professed then go up a ladder between two 
priests, who attend them the whole day of 
execution. When they come even with 
the forementioned board, they turn about 
to the people, and the priests spend near a 
quarter of an hour in exhorting them to be 
reconciled to the see of Rome. On their 
refusing, the priests come down, and the 
executioner ascending, turns the professed 
from off the ladder upon the seat, chains 
their bodies close to the stakes, and leaves 

" The priests then go up a second time to 
renew their exhortations, and if they find 
them ineffectual, usually tell them at part- 
ing that they leave them to the devil, 
who is standing at their elbow ready to re- 
ceive their souls, and carry them with him 
into the flames of hell fire, as soon as they 
are out of their bodies. 

" A general shout is then raised, and when 
the priests get off the ladder, the universal 
cry is : ' Let the dog's beards be made' 
(which implies, singe their beards). This is 
accordingly performed by means of flaming 
furzes thrust against their faces with long 

" This barbarity is repeated till their faces 
are burnt, and is accompanied with loud 
acclamations. Fire is then set to the 
furzes, and the criminals are consumed." 

Numerous are the martyrs who have 

borne these rigors with the most exemplary 
fortitude ; and we hope that every protestant, 
whose fate may expose him to the merciless 
tyranny of papists, will act consistent with 
the duty of a Christian, when they consider 
the great rewards that await them. 

" How great the Christian's portion is, 
What heaps of joy, what worlds of bliss, 

The Lord for them prepares ; 
Their boundless treasures who can know, 
For all above, and all below. 

And God and Christ is theirs. 

■* There's nothing round the heavenly throne, 
But what the saints may call their own, 

And at their pleasure use ; 
The angels who excel in praise. 
Attend and guard them in their ways, 

Lest they their feet should bruise. 

''The hand of God supplies their wants. 
And supersedes their deep complaints, 

With mercies still renewed ; 
Though they are hurried up and down. 
And through a sea of troubles run. 

Yet all things work for good. 

" Jesus and all in him is theirs. 
They are adopted sons and heirs 

Of God, tlirough grace divine ; 
Their sins are pardoned in his blood, 
And with his righteousness endowed. 

How glorious do they shine. 

" Why do we talk of earthly things, 
The wealth of empires, crowns of kings. 

Fine robes, or large estates ; 
Can crowns and empires be compared 
To that exceeding great reward 

Which Christian virtue waits ?" 

What we have already said may be ap- 
plied to inquisitions in general, as well as 
to that of Spain in particular. The inquisi- 
tion belonging to Portugal is exactly upon 
a similar plan to that of Spain, having been 
instituted much about the same time, and 
put under the same regulations, and the 
proceedings nearly resemble each other ; 
we shall therefore introduce an account of 
it in this place. The house or rather palace 
of the inquisition, is a noble edifice. It 
contains four courts, each about forty feet 
square, round which are about three hundred 
dungeons, or cells. 

The dungeons on the ground floor are 
allotted to the lowest class of prisoners, and 
those on the second story to persons of 
superior rank. The galleries are built of 
freestone, and hid from view both within 
and without by a double wall of about fifty 




feet high, which greatly increases the . are inhuman, cruel, and severe. They not 
gloom, and darkens them exceedingly. i only exclude the prisoners from every in- 

The whole prison is so extensive, and ( tercourse with their relations or friends, 
contains so many turning and windings, \ make them suffer every inclemency of a 
that none but those well acquainted with it ; jail, or torture them in confinement, but 
can find the way through its various avenues. J even prohibit them from making the least 
The apartments of the chief inquisitor are \ noise by speaking aloud, singing psalms or 
spacious, and elegant ; the entrance is hymns, exclaiming, or even uttering the 
throucfh a laro-e gate, which leads into a \ sighs which affliction naturally heaves from 
court-yard, round which are several cham- Uhe breast. 

bers, and some large saloons for the king, \ Guards walk about continually to listen ; 
royalfamily,andrestof the court to stand and sif the least noise is heard they call to, and 
observe the executions during an auto-da-fe. I threaten the prisoner ; if the noise is re- 

With respect to the dungeons where the I peated, a severe beating ensues, as a pun- 
prisoners are confined, they are not only ishment to what is deemed the offending 
gloomy in themselves, but as miserably party, and to intimidate others. As an 
furnished as can be imagined; the only instance of this take the following fact : a 
accommodation being a frame of wood by | prisoner having a violent cough, one of the 
way of bedstead, and a straw bed, matlrass, > guards came and ordered him not to make 
blankets, sheets, an urinal, wash-hand f a noise ; to which he replied, that from the 
basins, two pitchers, one for clean, the ( violence of his cold, it was not in his 
other for foul water, a lamp and a plate. power to forbear. The cough increasing, 

A lestoon, or seven-pence halfpenny \ the guard went into the cell, stripped the 
English money, is allowed every prisoner \ poor creature naked, and beat him so un- 
daily ; and the principal jailer, accompanied | mercifully, that he soon after died of the 
by two other officers, monthly visits every blows. 

prisoner, to inquire how he would have his This enforced silence prevents the prison- 
allowance laid out. This visit, however, \ ers from receiving any consolation, by con- 
is only a matter of form, for the jailer usual- versing and condoling with each other: 
ly lays out the money as he pleases, and some, indeed, who were lodged in contigu- 
comnionly allows the prisoner daily — \ ous cells, have contrived to make holes in 

A porringer of broth ; 
Half a pound of beef; 
A small piece of bread ; 
A trifling portion of cheese. 
The above articles are charged to uhe 

the partition, and communicate their thoughts 
through them ; but as soon as this was dis- 
covered, they were removed to cells, at a 
greater distance from each other. 

I[i this inquisition, as in that of Spain, 

prisoner at the rate of seventeen testoons if the prisoners plead their innocence, they 
in the month ; four are allowed for brandy, | are condemned as obdurate, and their effects 
or wine ; two for fruit, making in the whole embezzled ; if they plead guilty, they are 
twenty-three ; and the rest of the money, sentenced on their own confession, and 
to make up the number of testoons for the ', their effects confiscated of course ; and if 
month, are scandalously sunk in the articles j they are suffered to escape with their lives 
of sugar and soap. \ (which is but seldom the case) as penitent 

Some, who find their allowance too little, I criminals who have voluntarily accused 
petition the lords inquisitors for a greater I themselves, they dare not reclaim their 
portion, when the petition is frecjuontly j effects, as that would bring on them an 
granted ; and in this particular the only accusation of being hypocritical and relax- 
mark of humanity has been casually | ed penitents, when a most cruel death 
shown : in all other circumstances they J would be the certain consequence. 




A prisoner sometimes passes months 
without knowing of what he is accused, or 
having the least idea of when he is to be 
tried. The jailer at length informs him, 
that he must petition for a trial. This 
ceremony being gone through, he is taken 
bareheaded for examination. When they 
come to the door of the tribunal, the jailer 
knocks three times, to give the judges no- 
tice of their approach. A bell is rung by 
one of the judges, when an attendant opens 
the door, admits the prisoner, and accom- 
modates him with a stool. 

The prisoner is then ordered by the 
president to kneel down, and lay his right 
hand upon a book, which is presented to 
him close shut. This being complied with, 
the following question is put to him : " Will 
you promise to conceal the secrets of the 
holy office, and to speak the truth ?" 

If he answers in the negative, he is re- 
manded to his cell, and cruelly treated. 
If he answers in the affirmative, he is 
ordered to be again seated, and the ex- 
amination proceeds ; when the president 
asks a variety of questions, and the clerk 
minutes both them and the answers. 

After the examination is closed the bell 
is again rung, the jailer appears, and the 
prisoner is ordered to withdraw, with this 
exhortation : " Tax your memory, recollect 
all the sins you have ever committed, and 
when you are again brought here, com- 
municate them to the holy office." 

The jailers and attendants being ap- 
prized that the prisoner hath made an in- 
genuous confession, and readily answered 
every question, make him a low bow, and 
treat him with an affected kindness, as a 
reward for his candor. 

In a few days he is brought to a second 
examination, with the same formalities as 
before. It is then demanded of him, if he 
has taken a serious review of his past life, 
and will divulge its various secrets, and 
the crimes and follies into which he has 
rm at different times. If he refuses to 
confess anything, many ensnaring questions 
5 are put to him, and the arts of casuistry are 

exhausted to draw some secret from him. 
But if he accuses himself of any crimes or 
follies, they are written down by the secre- 
tary, and a process extracted from them. 
The inquisitors often overreach prisoners, 
by promising the greatest lenity, and even 
to restore their liberty, if they will accuse 
themselves. The unhappy persons, who 
are in their power, frequently fall into this 
snare, and are sacrificed to their own sim- 
plicity, and ill-placed confidence. Instances 
have been known of some, who relying on 
the faith of the judges, and believing their 
fallacious promises, have accused them- 
selves of what they were totally innocent, 

) in expectation of obtaining their liberty 
speedily ; and thus, being duped by the 
inquisitors, they became martyrs to their 
own folly, and suffer death for fictitious 

Another artifice used by the inquisitors 
is this : if a prisoner has too much resolu- 
tion to accuse himself, and too much sense 
to be ensnared by their sophistry, they pro- 
ceed thus : a copy of an indictment against 
the prisoner is given him, in which, among 
many trivial accusations, he is charged with 
the most enormous crimes, of which human 
nature is capable. This, of course, rouses 
his temper, and he exclaims against such 
falsities. He is then asked which of the 
crimes he can deny ? He naturally singles 
out the most atrocious, and begins to ex- 
press his abhorrence of them, when the 
indictment being snatched out of his hand, 
the president says: "By your denying only 
those crimes which you mention, you im- 
plicitly confess the rest, and we shall there- 
fore proceed accordingly." 

The inquisitors make a ridiculous affec- 
tation of equity, by pretending that the 
prisoner may be indulged with a counsellor, 
if he chooses to demand one. Such a re- 
quest is sometimes made, and a counsellor 
appointed, but upon these occasions, as ihe 
trial itself is a mockery of justice, so the 
counsellor is a mere cipher ; for he is not 
permitted to say anything that might offend 

\ the inquisitor, or to advance a syllable that 




might benefit the prisoner. Amazing prof- 
ligacy, to turn that to a farce which ought 
to be reverenced as a superior virtue. 

" Of all the virtues justice is the hest, 
Valor without it is a common pest ; 
Pirates and thieves too oft with courage graced. 
Show us how ill that virtue may be placed ; 
'Tis our complexion makes us chaste, or brave, 
Justice from reason and from heaven we have ; 
All other virtues dwell but in the blood. 
That in the soul, and gives the name of good." 

From what has been said, it is evident, 
that a prisoner to the inquisitors is reduced 
to the sad necessi/y of defending himself 
against accusers he does not know, and of 
answering to the evidence of witnesses he 
must not see. The only person he is per- 
l mitted to have a sight of upon his trial, ex- 
< elusive of the judges and secretary, is the 
>. fiscal, who acts officially as the ostensible 
I accuser, from the collected information of 
I others. A desire of being informed of the 
I real accuser's name, or to see the actual 
' witnesses avails nothing, those things be is 
I told are always kept secret. Thus is he 
I continued in suspense respecting his fate, 
; and frequently interrogated, perhaps, for 
\ years together, before his trial is finally 
concluded. When that fatal time comes, 
if he is condemned to die, death is deferred 
for a considerable time. To put him out 
of his misery immediately would be too 
great a favor, and prevent the inquisitors 
from indulging their sanguinary dispositions 
with other sulFeriiigs which they intend to 
\ inflict. They begin by putting him to the 
I torture, under the pretence of making the 
\ poor wretch discover his accomplices, 
j For this purpose the tortures are various, 
and the torments inflicted excruciating to 
the last degree. Well might a late writer, 
in speaking of these cruelties exclaim : 
" O, that I was able to give some faint idea 
of that variety of torturc« 'vhich the misera- 
ble victims are here forced to sufler ; but 
no language can represent such a compli- 
cated scene of horrors. It is utterly im- 
possible for any words to describe which 
of them is the most cruel and inhuman. 
\ Every one is so exquisite in its kind as to 
1 surpass all imagination. What detestable 

J monsters then must those judges be who 
? are the inventors, and perpetrators of such 
j misery ? they are shaped it is true like 
pother »)en, but surely they seem to have a 
i different kind of souls. They appear as 

i little affected with the groans and agonies 
of their iellovv-creatures as the cords, chains, 
and racks, and tortures, which are ap[)lied 
^ to their writhing limbs. The hearts of 
I these ecclesiastical butchers are grown cal- 
( lous, and, like those of com?nun butchers, are 
I so inured to the shedding of blood, and the 
horrid sight of mangled carcases, as to have 
lost all the impressions of sensibility, and 
every touch and feeling of humanity. 
Perpetual scenes of horror and distress 
become so familiar to their minds, that what 
would rend the very heart-strings of some 
men, make no more impression on theirs 
than on a rock of adamant. Indeed, with- 
out such a fiend-like temper, it would be 
impossible for any man to act the part of an 

The inquisitors allow the torture to be 
used only three times, but at those three 
it is 80 severely inflicted, that the prisoner 
either dies under it, or contirmes always 
after a cripple, and suflers the severest 
pains upon every change of weather. We 
shall give an ample description of the 
severe torments occasioned by the torture, 
from the account of one who suffered it the 
three respective times, but happily survived 
the cruelties he underwent. 

First Time of Torturing. 

On refusing to comply with the iniqui- 

', tons demands of the inquisitors, by confes- 

I sing all the crimes they thought proper to 

\ charge him with, he was immediately con- 

\ veyed to the torture-room, where no light 

appeared but what two candles gave. That 

the cries of the sufferers may not be heard 

by the other prisoners, this room is lined 

with a kind of quilling, which covers all 

the crevices, and deadens the sound. 

Great was the prisoner's horror on enter- 
ing this infernal place, when suddenly he 
was surrounded by six wretches, who, after 





I preparing the tortures, stripped hiin naked , to declare, that if he died under the torture 
to his drawers. He was then laid upon s he would be guilty, by his obstinacy, of 
his back on a kind of stand, elevated a few s self-murder. In short, at the last time of 
feet from the floor. I tlie ropes being drawn tight, he grew so 

Thev b-jgan the operation by putting an ', exceedingly weak, by the circulation of his 
iron colI?r round his neck, and a ring to blood being stopped, and the pains he en- 
each foot, which Aistened him to the stand, l dured, that he fainted away ; upon which 
His hmo.-i being thus stretched out, they s he was unloosed, and carried back to his 
wound two ropes round each arm, and two \ dungeon. 

Second Time of Torturing. 
The barbarous savages of the inquisition, 
finding that all the torture inflicted, as above 
described, instead of extorting a discovery 
from the prisoner, only served the more 
fervently to excite his supplications to 
Heaven for patience and power to persevere 
in truth and integrity, were so inhuman, 
six weeks after, as to expose him to another 
kind of torture, more severe, if possible, 
than the former ; the manner of inflicting 
which was as follows : they forced his 
arms backward, so that the palms of his 
hands were turned' outward behind him ; 
when, by means of a rope that fastened 
them together at the wrists, and which was 
turned by an engine, they drew them, by | 
degrees, nearer each other, in such a man- 
ner that the back of each hand touched, 
and stood exactly parallel to the other. In 
consequence of this violent contortion, both 
his shoulders became dislocated, and a 
considerable quantity of blood issued from 
his mouth. This torture was repeated 
thrice ; after which he was again taken to 
the dungeon, and put into the hands of the 
physician and surgeon, who, in setting the 
dislocated bones, put him to the most ex- 
quisite pain. 

Third Time of Torturing. 
Two months after the second torture, the 

round each thiuh ; which ropes being ; 
I passed under the scaffold through holes ; 
s made fur that purpose, were all drawn tight : 
\ at the same instant of time, by four of the 
I men, on a given signal, 
j It is easy to conceive that the pains 
') which immediately succeeded were in- 
) tolerable ; the ropes, which were of a small 
\ size, cut through the prisoner's flesh to the 

bone, making the blood gush out at eight 

different places thus bound at a time. As 

the prisoner persisted in not making any 

confession of what the inquisitors required, 

the ropes were drawn in this maimer four 

times successively. 

It is to be observed, that a physician and 

surgeon attended, and often felt his temples, 

in order to judge of the danger he might 

be in ; by which means his tortures were 

for a small space suspended, that he might 

have sufficient opportunity of recovering 

his spirits, to sustain each ensuing torture. 
In all this extremity of anguish, while 

the tender frame is tearing, as it were, in 

pieces, while at every pore it feels the 

sharpest pangs of death, and the agonizing 

soul is just ready to burst forth, and quit its 

wretched mansion, the ministers of the in- 
quisition have the obduracy of heart to look 

on without emotion, and calmly to advise 

the poor distracted creature to confess his 

imputed guilt, in doing which they tell him 

he may obtain a free pardon, and receive ] prisoner, being a Utile recovered, was again 

absolution. All this, however, was im-ffec- > ordered to the to.iure-room ; and there, for 

tual with the prisoner, whose mind was | the last time, made to undergo another kind 

strengthened by a sweet consciousness ofjof punishment, which was inflicted twice 

innocence, and the divine consolation of ^ without any intermission. The execntion- 


ers fastened a thick iron chain twice round 

While he was thus suffering, the physician \ his body, which crossing upon his stomach, 
I and surgeon were so barbarously unjust as \ terminated at the wrists. They then placed | 




him with his back against a thick board, 

at each extremity whereof was a pulley, < 

through which there run a rope attached ] 

to the ends of the chain at the wrists. \ 

The executioners then stretching the > 

end of this rope, by means of a roller <> 

placed at a distance behind him, pressed \ 

or bruised his stomach in proportion as the ^^ 

ends of the chain were drawn tighter. 

They tortured him in this manner to such 

a degree, that his wrists, as well as his 

shoulders, were quite dislocated. They ] 

were, however, soon set by the surgeons ; ] 

but the barbarians, not yet satisfied with \ 

this series of cruelty, made him immediately \ 

\ undergo the like torture a second time ; > 

I which he sustained (though if possible at- 

^ tended with keener pains) with equal con- 1 

I stancy and resolution. \ 

After this he was again remanded to his | 

\ dungeon, attended by the surgeon to dress \ 

\ his bruises and adjust the parts dislocated ; ? 

) and here he continued till their auto-da- 1 

> fe, or jail deliverv, when he was happily < 
/ discharged. \ 
S From the beforementioned relation, it | 
\ may easily be judged what dreadful agony i 

the sufferer must have labored under, at | 

being so frequently put to the torture. 

Most of his limbs were disjointed ; and so 

much was he bruised and exhausted as to 

! be unable, for some weeks, to lift his hand 

\ to his mouth ; and his body became greatly 

I swelled from the inflammation caused by 

I such frequent dislocations. After his dis- 

> charge he felt the effects of this cruelty for 
I the remainihir of his life, being frequently 
j seized with thrilling and excruciating pains, 
! to which he had never been subject, till after 
{ he had the misfortune to fall under the merci- 
I less and bloody lords of the inquisition. 

I Females who fall into the hands of the 
{ inquisitois, have not the least favor shown 
I them on account of the softness of their 
I sex, but are tortured with as much severity 
5 as the male prisoners, with the additional 
mortification of having the most shocking 
indecencies added to the most savage bar- 
5 barities. 

If the abovementioned modes of tortur- 
ing force a confession from the prisoner, 
he is remanded to his horrid dungeon, and 
left a prey to the melancholy of his situa- 
tion, to the anguish arising from what he 
has suffered, and to the dreadful ideas of 
future barbarities. If he still refuses to 
confess, he is, in the same manner, re- 
manded to his dungeon, but a stratagem is 
used to draw from him what the torture 
fails to do. A companion is allowed to 
attend him, under the pretence of waiting 
upon, and comforting his mind till his 
wounds are healed : this person, who is 
always selected for his cunning, insinuates 
himself into the good graces of the prisoner, 
laments the anguish he feels, sympathizes 
with him, and taking an advantage of the 
hasty expressions forced from him by pain, 
does all he can to dive into his secrets. 

Sometimes this companion pretends to 
be a prisoner like himself, and imprisoned 
for similar charges. This is to draw the 
unhapjiy person into a mutual confidence, 
and persuade him in unbosoming his grief, 
to betray his private thoughts. 

These snares frequently succeed, 'fts they 
are the more alluring by being glossed over 
with the appearance of friendship, sym- 
pathy, pity, and every tender passion. In 
fine, if the prisoner can not be found guilty, 
he is either tortured, or harassed to death, 
though a few have sometimes had the good 
fortune to be discharged, but not without 
having, first of all, sufl'ered the most dread- 
ful cruelties. If he is found guilty, all his 
effects are confiscated, and he is condemn- 
ed to be whipped, imprisoned for life, sent 
to the galleys, or put to death. These 
sentences are put in execution at an auto- 
da-fe, or jail delivery, which is not held 
annually, or at any staled periods, but 
sometimes once in two, three, or even four 

After having mentioned the barbarities 
with which the persons of prisoners are 
treated by the inquiisilors, we shall proceed 
to recount the severity of their proceedings 
against books. 



As soon as a book is published, it is care- 1 From what has been said, it is evident, 
fully read by some of the familiars belong- 1 that the inquisitors check the progress of 
ing to the inquisition. These wretched } learning, impede the increase of arts, nip 
critics are too ignorant to have taste, too / genius in the bud, destroy the national 
bigoted to search for truth, and too mali- > taste, and continue the cloud of ignorance 
cious to relish beauties. They scrutinize, / over the minds of the people, 
not for the merits, but for the defects of m ' A catalogue of condemned boi ks is an- 
5 author, and pursue the slips of his pen / nually published under the three different 
I with unremitting diligence. Hence they | heads of censures, already mentioned, and 
read with prejudice, judge with partiality, ^ being printed on a very large sheet of paper, 
pursue errors with avidity, and strain that ^ is hung up in the most public and conspicu- 
which is innocent into an offensive mean- ^ ous places. After which, people are obliged 
ing. ( to destroy all such books as come under the 

Theymisunderstand,misapply,confound,< first censure, and to keep none belonging 
and pervert the sense ; and when they have < to the other two censures, unless the ex- 
gratiiied the malignity of their disposition, \ ceptionable passages have been expunged, 
chaige their blunders upon the author, that \ and the corrections made, as in either case 
a prosecution may be founded upon their s disobedience would be of the most fatal 
false conceptions, and designed misinter- s consequence ; for the possessing or reading 
pretations. \ the proscribed books are deemed very 

The most trivial charge causes the cen- \ atrocious crimes, 
sure of a book ; but it is to be observed, \ The publisher of such books is usually 
that the censure is of a three-fold nature, ruined in his circumstances, and some- 
viz. : — I times obliged to pass the remainder of his 

1. When the book is wholly condemned, life in the inquisition. 

2. When the book is partly condemned, | 

that is, when certain passages are pointed " ^^rictures on booUs, when prejudice indites, 
' r & r > Or ignorance judges ot what genius writes ; 

out as exceptionable, and ordered to be ex- \ When blinded zeal and rage on le;irniiig lower, 
J i And bigot dulness fills the seat of power — 

pungoa. S Well may pure truth for her hard lot repine, 

3. When the book is deemed incorrect : ^nd on her hand her pensive head incline; 

, . r I • 1 • 1 c i Well may fair science mourn the galling chain, 

the meaning of which is, that a few words Candor bewail, and innocence complain. 

or expressions displease the inquisitions. Who curb the press with rigid bigot laws, 

^ 1^. ^vy .^» f Are foes professed to pure rehgion's cause : 

These, therefore, are ordered to be altered, ', And with the iron band of power would hind 

J , K • , , pi The free-born soul, and chain the human mind; 

and such alterations go under the name of crush generous sentiments before expressed, 

corrections. 1 ^'^^ fetter each eiaotion of the breasts" 


RANCIS ROMANES, a Hnto a protestant church, he was s.truck 
native of Spain, being of a 5 with the truths which he heard, and begin- 
mercantile turn of mind,<ning to perceive the errors of popery, he 
was employed by the mer- i determined to search further into the matter, 
chants of Antwerp, to s Reading the sacred Scriptures attentively, 
transact some business for ^ and perusing the writings of some protes- 
them at Breme. He had been educated in < tant divines, he plainly perceived how j 
the Romish persuasion, but going one day \ erroneous the principles were he had for- | 

\ 142 



I merly embraced ; and renounced the im- | At St. Lucar in Spain resided a carver 

! positions of popery for the doctrines of the | named Rochus, whose principal business 

reformed church, in which religion appeared was to make images of saints and other 

in all its genuine purity. 

; popish idols. Becoming, however, con- 

Determiningto give over worldly thoughts, ■: vinced of tlie errors of the Romish persua- 
and think of his eternul salvation, he studied ' sion, he eml)raced the protestant faith, left 
religious truths more than trade, and pur- ' of!" carving images, and for subsistence fol- 
chased books rather than merchandise, con- < lowed the business of a seal engraver only, 
vinced that the riches of the body are tri- I He had, however, r<t;iiiied one image of 

fling to those of the soul. 

the Virgin Mary for a sign ; when an in- 

{ He now resigned his agency to the mer- \ quisitor passing by, asked if he would sell 
; chants of Antwerp, giving them an account \ it ; Rochus mentioned a price ; the inquisi- 
\ at the same time of his conversion ; and tor objected to it, and offered half the 

< then resolving, if possible, to convert his \ money : Rochus replied : " I would rather | 

< part;nts, he went to Spain for that purpose. ^ break it to pieces than take such a trifle." ' 
\ But the Antwerp merchants writing to the ] — " Break it to pieces !"said the inquisitor, \ 
\ inquisitors, he was seized upon, imprisoned > " break it to pieces if you dare !" I 

>. for some time, and then condemned to be 
', burnt as a heretic. 

Rochus being provoked at this expres- 
sion, immediately snatched up a chisel, 

\ He was led to the place of execution in \ and cut off" the nose of the image. This > 
I a garment painted over with devils, and < was sufllcient ; the inquisitor went away in i 
\ had a paper mitre put upon his head, by < a rage, and soon after sent to have him j 
; way of derision. As he passed by a < apprehended. In vain did he plead that \ 
; wooden cross, one of the priests bade him | what he defaced was his own property, 
kneel to it; this he absolutely refused to \ and that if it was not proper to do as he 
I do, saying, " It is not for Christians to wor- would with his own goods, it was not proper 

sliip wood." 

for the inquisitor to bargain for the image 

Being placed upon a pile of wood the i j^ vhe way of trade. Nothing, however, 

I fire quickly reached him, when he lifted up availed him ; his fate was decided : he 

[ his head suddenly ; the priests thinking he ^y^g condemned to be burnt; and the sen- 

I nu.aiit to recant, ordered him to be taken ty„ee was executed accordingly. 

! down. Finding, however, that they were Doctor Cacalla, his brother Francis, and 

j mistaken, and that he still retained his con- jjjg sister Blanch, were burnt at Vallodolid, 

1 stancy, he was placed again upon the pile p^^^ having spoken against the inquisitors. 

where, as long as he had life and voice re- doctor Cacalla, who was very old, when j 

; niaining. he repealed the following selected Lj ^1,^ place of execution, ropeattid the | 

words of Solomon, which have been thus \ 

beautifully translated : — ] 

'< Boliold where age's wretched victim lies, 5 

See \us head In itil)ling, and his half-clnscd eyes ; > 

Vre(iiiiin lor hrealli ills |)aiiliiia; bosom heaves, 5 

To broKi-n slei'p liis reiiiiiaiit siiise he sjives, ' 

And only l>y liis ))iiis, awaKint;, linds he lives. < 

Loosed i)y df-vouriii^ tiiiii', the silver lord | 

l)isse\eri-d lifs. iiiilionoriMl Irniii llje l)()anl ; ( 

Th<' crystal urn, when l.roUen, is il.rown by, | 

And apier mens Is lifir place sii)<))ly : , 

These iliiiiiis and I iiiiisl share ow coinmon lot— J 

Dif, and b" lo^t ; corrii))!, and t)e lor^jol ; "■. 

While slill aniitl]>'r, anil another race, ' 

Shall now sujiply, and now t,'ive ii]) the place. i 

; From earth all lanie. to earth iiiiist all re;nrn j < 

I Frail as ihe corti, and brittle as the urn." j 

\ Al Seville, a genilewoman with her two | 


verses of the seventh -isalm :- 

" Lord, my P.od, since I have placed 
.VI y trust alone in thee, 
F'rom all my pt-rseiaitors' rage, 
Do ihou deliver me. 

" To save me from my threatening loe. 
Lord, int'-rposo thy jxiwei, 
Lest. liUe a savage lion, he 
My helpless soul devour. 

" Arise, and let thine unger, Lord, 
In my ddVnce ene;ivfie, 
Kxall' above ii.y lix'S, 
And their insulting rage. 

" Awake, awaUe in my behalf. 

Thy jndginent to disp-ose, 
Wl-.ich liionbasi riglileou^ly ordain, d, 
For inju.-ed innocence." 






daiiwhters, and her neice, were apprehend- 
ed on account, of their professing the prot- 
estant religion. They were all put to the 
torture ; and when that was over, one of the 
inquisitors sent for the youngest daughter, 
pretended to sympathize with lier, and pity 
her sufferings ; then binding himself with 
a solemn oath not to betray her, he said : 
" If you will disclose all to me, I promise 
you I'll procure the discharge of your 
mother, sister, cousin, and yourself." 

Made confident by his oaih,and entrapped 
by his promises, she revealed the whole 
of the tenets they professed ; when the 
perjured wretch, instead of acting as he 
had sworn, immediately ordered her to be 
put to the rack, saying : " Now you have 
revealed so much, I will make you reveal 

< more." Refusing, however, to say any- 

< thing further, they were all ordered to be 
^ burnt, which sentence was executed at the 

> next auto-da-fe. 

I The keeper of the castle of Triano, be- 
) longing to the inquisitors of Seville, happen- 
i ed to be of a disposition more mild and 
I humane than is usual with persons in his 
I situation. He gave all the indulgence he 
I couid to the prisoners, and showed them 
; every favor in his power with as much 

> secresy as possible. At length, however, 
5 the inquisitors became acquainted with his 
J kindness, and determined to punish him 
■ severely for it, that other juilers might be 
; deterred from showing the least traces of 
' that compassion whicti ought to glow in 
- the breast of every human being. With 
$ this view they superseded, threw him into 

< a dismal dungeon, and used him with such 
: dreadful burl)arity that he lost his senses. 

'( Ilis deplorable situation, however, procur- 

< cd him no favor, for frantic as he was, they 
; hn)uglit him from prison at an auto-da-fe to 
J the usual place of punishment with a 
j vambenito (or garment worn by criminals) 
j on, and a rope about his neck. His sen- 
( tence wa.s then read, and ran thus : that 
/ he shoiiU 1)0 placed upon an ass, led through 
' tiie city, receive two hvu)dred stripes, and 
1 llien be condemned six years to the galleys. 

The poor frantic wretch, just as they \ 
were about to begin his punishment, sud- ] 
denly sprung from the back of the ass, > 
broke the cords that bound him, snatched i 
a sword from one of the guards, and dan- ] 
gerously wounded an officer of the inquis). j 
tion. Being overpowered by multitudes, 
he was prevented from doing further mis- 
chief, seized, bound more securely to the 
ass, and punished according to his sentence. 
But so inexorable were the inquisitors, that 
for the lash effects of his madness, an ad- 
ditional four years was added to his slavery 
in the galleys. 

A maid-servant to another jailer belong- 
ing to the inquisition was accused of hu- 
manity, and detected in bidding the prison- 
ers keep up their spirits. For these heinous 
crimes, as they were called, she was pub- 
licly whipped, banished her native place 
for ten years, and, what is worse, had her 
forehead branded by means of rtd hot irons, 
with these words : " A favorer and aider of 

John Pontic, a Spaniard by birth, a gen- 
tleman by education, and protestant by per- 
suasion, was, principally on account of his 
great estate, apprehended by the inquisitors, 
when the following charges were exhibited 
against him : — 

1. That he had said he abhorred the 
idolatry of worshipping the host ; 

2. That he shunned going to mass ; 

3. That he asserted the merits of Jesus 
Christ alone was a full justification for a 
Christian ; 

4. That he declared there was no purga- 
tory ; and 

5. That he affirmed the pope's absolution 
not to be of any value. 

On these charges his effects were con- 
fiscated to the use of the inquisitors, and 
his body was burnt to ashes to gratify their j 

John Gonsalvo was originally a priest, 
but having embraced the reformed religion, 
he was now seized by the inquisitors, as 
were his mother, brother, and two sisters. 
Being condemned, they were led to execu- 



— S 


tion, where they sung part of the CVIth 
psalm, viz. : — 

" O render thanks to God above, 
The fountain of eternal love ; 
Whose mercy firm, through ages past 
Has stood, and shaJl for ever last. 

" Who can his mighty deeds e.Tpress, 
Not only vast, but numberless ; 
What mortal eloquence can raise, 
His tribute of immortal praise. 

" Happy are they, and only they. 
Who from thy judgments never stray ; 
Who know what's right— not only so, 
But always practise what they know." 

At the place of execution they were 
ordered to say the creed, which they im- 
mediately complied with, but coming to 
these words : " The holy catholic church" 
they were commanded to add the mono- 
syllables of Rome, which absolutely refu- 
sing, one of the inquisitors said : " Put an 
end to their lives directly ;" when the exe- 
cutioners obeyed, and strangled them im- 

Four protestant women, being seized 
upon at Seville, were tortured, and in pro- 
cess of time ordered for execution. On 
the way thither they began to sing psalms ; 
but the officers of the inquisition, thinking 
that the words of the psalms reflected on 
themselves, put gags into all their mouths, 
to make them silent. They were then 
burnt, and the houses where they resided 
were ordered to be razed to the ground. 

Ferdinando, a protestant schoolmaster, 
was apprehended by order of the inquisi- 
tion, for instructing his pupils in the princi- 
ples of protestantism ; and, after being 
severely tortured, was burnt. 

A monk, who had abjured the errors of 

papery, was imprisoned at the same time 

as the above Ferdinando ; but through the 

fear of death, and to procure mercy, he 

said he was willing to embrace his former 

' communion. Ferdinando, hearing of this, 

I got an opportunity to speak to him, re- j 

proached him with his weakness, and 

threatened him with eternal perdition. The 

monk, sensible of his crime, rotiirried to, 

\ promised to continue in the protestant faith. 

and declared to the inquisitors, that he 
solemnly renounced his intended recanta- 
tion. Sentence of death was therefore 
passed upon him, and he was burnt at the 
same time as Ferdinando. 

Juliano, a Spanish Roman catholic, on 
travelling into Germany, became a convert 
to the protestant religion. 

Being zealous for the faith he had em- 
braced, Juliano undertook a very arduous 
task, which was to convey from Germany 
into his own country, a great number of 
bibles concealed in casks, and packed up 
like Rhenish wine. This important com- 
mission he succeeded in so far as to dis- 
tribute the books. A pretended protestant, 
however, who had purchased one of the 
bibles, betrayed him, and laid an account 
of the whole affair before the inquisition. 

Juliano was immediately seized upon, 
and strict inquiry being made for the re- 
spective purchasers of these bibles, eight 
hundred persons were apprehended upon 
the occasion. They were all indiscrimi- 
nately tortured, and then most of them were 
sentenced to various punishments. Juiiano 
was burnt, twenty were roasted upon spits, 
several imprisoned for life, some were 
publicly whipped, many sent to the galleys, 
and a few discharged. 

John Leon, a protestant tailor of Spain, 
travelled to Germany, and thence to Gene- 
va, where, hearing that a great number of 
English protestants were returning to their 
native country, he, and some more Span- 
iards, determined to go with them. The 
Spanish inquisitors being apprized of their 
intentions, sent a number of familiars so 
expeditiously in pursuit of them, that they 
overtook them at a seaport in Zealand, one 
of the United Provinces (which was then 
under the jurisdiction of Spain) just before 
they had embarked. Having thus succeed- 
ed in their commission, the poor prisoners 
were heavily fettered, handcuflTed, gagged, 
and had their heads and necks covered 
with a kind of iron net-work. In this 
miserable condition tliey were conveyed (o 
Spain, tlirown into a dismal dungeon, al- 



most famished with hunjrer, barbarously 
tortured, and then cruelly burnt. 

A young lady, having been put into a 
convent, absolutely refused to take the veil, 
or turn nun. On leaving the cloister she 
embraced the protestant faith, which being 
known to the inquisitors, she was appre- 
hended, and every method used to draw her 
back again to popery. This proving in- 
effectual, her inexorable judges condemned 
her to the flames, and she was burnt ac- 
cording to her sentence, persisting in her 
faith to the last. 

Christopher Losada, an eminent physician, 
and learned philosopher, became extremely 
obnoxious to the inquisitors, on account of 
exposing the errors of popery, and profes- 
sing the tenets of protestantism. For these 
reasons he was apprehended, imprisoned, 
and racked ; but those severities not bring- 
ing him to confess the Roman catholic 
church to be the only true church, he was 
sentenced to the fire ; the flames of which 
he bore with exemplary patience, and re- 
signed his soul to that Creator by whom it 
was bestowed. 

Arias, a monk of St. Isidores monastery ■ 
at Seville, was a man of great abilities, but 
of a vicious disposition. He sometimes 
pretended to forsake the errors of the church 
of Rome, and become a protestant, and soon 
after turned Roman catholic. Thus he 
continued a long time wavering between 
both persuasions, till God thought proper 
to touch his heart, and show him the great 
danger of inconstancy in religious matters. 
He now became a true protestant, and be- 
wailed his former errors with contrition. 
The sincerity of h's conversion being known, 
he was seizeJ by the officers of the inquisi- 
tion, severely tortured, and afterward burnt 
at an auto-da fe. 

Maria de Coceicao, a young lady who 
resided with her brother at Lisbon, was 
taken up by the inquisitors, and ordered to 
be put to the rack. The exquisite torments 
she felt staggered her resolution, and she 
fully confessed the charges against her. 
The cords were immediately slackened. 

and she was reconducted to her cell, where 
she remained till she had recovered the 
use of her limbs, and was then brought 
again before her tribunal, and ordered to 
ratify her confession, and sign it. This 
she absolutely refused to do, telling them, 
that what she had said was forced from her 
by the excessive pain she underwent. In- 
censed at this reply, the inquisitors ordered 
her again to be put to the rack, when the 
weakness of nature once more prevailed, 
and she repeated her former confession. 
She was immediately remanded to her cell 
till her wounds were again healed, when 
being a third time brought before the in- 
quisitors, they, in a stern manner, ordered 
her to sign her fiistand second confessions. 
She answered as before, but added : " I 
have twice given way to the frailty of the 
flesh, and perhaps may, while on the rack, 
be weak enough to do so again ; but depend 
upon it, if you torture me a hundred times, 
as soon as I am released from the rack I 
shall deny what was extorted from me by 
pain." The inquisitors ordered her to be 
racked a third time ; and, during this last 
trial, she exceeded even her own expecta- 
tions ; bore the torments inflicted with the 
utmost fortitude, and could not be persuaded 
to answer any of the questions put to her. 
As her courage and constancy increased, 
the inquisitors imagined that she would 
deem death a glorious martyrdom, and 
therefore, to disappoint her expectations, 
they condemned her to a severe whipping 
through the public streets, and to a ten 
years' banishment. 

Jane Bohorquia, a lady of a noble family 
in Seville, was apprehended on the informa- 
tion of her sister, who had been tortured, 
and burnt for professing the protestant re- 
ligion. While on the rack, through the 
extremity of pain, that young lady confessed 
that she had frequently discoursed with her 
sister concerning protestantism, and upon 
this extorted confession was Jane Bohorquia 
seized and imprisoned. Being enciente at 
the beginning, they let her remain tolerably 
quiet till she was delivered, when they im- 



mediately took away the chil.1, and put it ^ having beaten a Moorish servant for steal- \ 

to nurse, that it might he brought up a Ro- | ing, was accused by him of professing \ 

man 'cTatholic. \ Judaism. Without considering the appa- ^ 

The lady was not perfectly recovered < rent malice of the servant, the inquisiiors | 
from the weakness caused by her labor, seized the master upon ihe charge. He 

when she was ordered to be racked, which \ was kept three vears in prison before he i 

was done with such severity, that she ex- s had the least intimation of what he was to ! 

pired a week after of the wounds and bruises undergo, and then suffered the following I 

she received. Upon this occasion the in- | six modes of torture : — | 

quisitors affected some remorse, and, in one ; 1. A coarse linen coat was put on him, < 
of the printed acts of the inquisition, which \ and then drawn so tight that the circulation 

they always publish at an auto-da-fe, they \ of his blood was nearly stopped, and the | 

thus mention this young lady :- 

breath almost pressed out of his body. 

Jane Bohorquia was found dead in After this the strings were suddenly loosen- 
prison ; after which, upon reviving her ed, when the air forcing its way hastily 
prosecution, the inquisitors discovered that into his stomach, and the blood rushing into 
she was innocent. — Be it therefore known, its channels, he suffered the most incredible 
I that no further prosecutions shall be carried pains. 
on against her, and that her effects, which 
were confiscated, shall be given to the 
heirs at law. Thus have the lords of the 
holy office of inquisition generously restor- 
ed to her innocence, reputation, and estate." 
Strange inconsistency ! to take the proper- 

2. His thumbs were tied with small 
cords, so hard that the blood gushed from 
under the nails. 

3. He was seated on a bench with his 
back against a wall, wherein small iron 
pulleys were fi.xed. Ropes being fastened 

ty, and torture the person before conviction to several parts of his body and limbs, were 
of guilt, and then to compliment themselves passed through the pulleys, and being sud- 
for moderation, in returning what they had | denly drawn with great violence, his whole 

frame was forced into a distorted heap. 

4. After having suffered for a consider- 
able time the pains of the last-mentioned 
position, the seat was snatched away, and 
be was left suspended against the wall in 
the most excruciating misery. 

5. A little instrument with five knobs, 
and which went with springs, being placed 
near his face, he suddenly received five 
blows on the cheek, that put him to such 

no right to seize, and forgiving one, who, 
by their own acknowledgment, had never 
offended them. One sentence, however, 
in the above ridiculous passage wants ex- 
planation, viz. : " That no further prosecu- 
tions shall be carried on against her." 
This alludes to the absurd custom of prose- 
cuting, and burning the bones of the dead : 
for when a prisoner dies in the inquisition, 
the process continues the same as if he was 

living ; the bones are deposited in a chest, p^iin as caused him to faint away. 

and if a sentence of guilt is passed, they 
are brought out at the next auto-da-fe ; the 
sentence is read against them with as much 
solemnity as against a living prisoner, and 
thev are at length committed to the flames. 

6. The executioners fastened ropes round 
his wrists, and then drew them about his \ 
body. Placing him on his back with his ^ 
feet against the wall, they pulled with the 
utmost violence, till the cords had penelra- 

In a similar manner are prosecutions car- | ted to the bone. 

ried on against prisoners who escape ; and The last torture he suffered three dif- 
when their persons are far beyond the ferent times, and then lay seventy days 
reach of the inquisitors, they are l)uriit in < before his wounds were healed. He was 


afterward banished, and in his exile 

Dr. Isaac Orobio, a learned physician, j wrote the account of his sufferings, from | 



which we have extracted the foregoing! 
particulars. i 

An excellent penman of Toledo, in Spain, ' 
and a proteslant, was fond of producing; 
line specimens of writing, and having them ■ 
framed, to adorn the different apartments ; 
of his house. Among other curious exam- ; 
pies of penmanship was a large piece, con- ; 
taining the Lord's prayer, creed, and ten ; 
commandments, thrown into verse, and; 
finely wri'ten. This piece, which hung in ; 
a conspicuous part of the house, was one ; 
day seen by a person belonging to the in- ; 
quisition, who observed that the versifica-; 
tion of the commandments was not accord-; 
ing to the church of Rome, but according; 
to the protestant church, for the protestanis ; 
retain the whole of the commandments as; 
they are found in the Bible, but the papists 
omit that part of the second commandment 
which forbids the worship of images. The 
inquisition soon had information of the 
whole, and this ingenious gentleman was 
seized, prosecuted, and burnt, ordy for orna- 
menting his house with a specimen of his 
skill and piety. The following is a transla- 
tion and specimen of the manner in which 
this curious piece of penmanship was dis- 
played : — 


" Almighty God, who art in heaven, 
To thee be endless praises given 
Let us tliy joyful i<ingdoin see, 
A kingdom ot' felicity ; 
Let us on earth thy sacred will, 
Strictly like those in heaven fulfil ; 
This day our daily bread bestow, 
Forgive, as we forgive each foe ; 
Let us not to temptation yield, 
But guard from vice, from evil shield ; 
For thine's the kingdom, glory, power ! 
And shall be to the latest hour. Amen.'' 


" In God the Father I believe. 
From whom all things did birth receive ; 
And in his only Son I place, 
My confidence of tjainiug grace : 
That Son, to whom the Holy Chost 
Conception gave from heaven's high host ; 
Then from a Virgin he had breath, 
And Pon'.ius Pilate gave him death. 
Three days he with the grave contends, 
And into hell itself descends ; 
On the third day again he rose, 
And mounts to lieaveii to seek repose ; 
On God's ristit hand he sits serene, 
Till the last judgment's awful scene. 
I in the Holy (ihost believe, 
The church as catholic receive : 
I hoM that saints comiiiune in heaven, 
And that our sins .Jiall be forgiven ; 
Tliat resurrection day shall come, 
And the soul's everlasting doom. 

" Amen." 


" 1. Xo God thou shalt adore but me, 
Nor bow to other deity. 

2. Tliou .shalt not any image made, 
Nor for a God an dol take ; 
Whether a picture it ajipear, 

Of anything in sea, earth, air, 
No confidence upon it place, 
Nor bow to anything so base : 
For I am jealous of that praise 
Which onl}' one true God slmuld raise, 
And punisli all who hate or scorn, 
E'en in their progeny unborn. 

3. Take not th' Almighty's name in vain, 
He will treat severely the profane. 

4. Labor not on the sabbath-day, 
But to th' Almighty fervent pray ; 
Six days to labor rendered due. 
Suffice your business to pursue ; 

Then thee and thine in worth may strain, 
But on the sabbath day refran ; 
For in six days, by God displayed, 
The wondrous universe was made ; 
On the seventh day he went to rest, 
And hence the sabbath-day is blest. 

5. To both thy parents honor give, 
And long in honor thou shalt live. 

6. Do not your hands in blood embrue : 

7. Nor dare adultery pursue : 

8. That thou stealst not take special care ; 

9. Nor ever perjured witness bear : 

10. Thy neighbor's house thou shalt not crave, 
His wife, his servant, or his slave, 
Or anything that he may have." 



THE LIFE OF DR. ^GiDio. ^ tuTcs and school divinity. The professor 

R. ^gidio was educated ^ of theology dying, he was elected into his 
at the uiuversityof Alcala, I place, and acted so much to the satisfaction 
where he look his several I of every one, that his reputation for learn- 
degrees, and particularly ^ ing and piety was circulated throughout 
applied himself to the I Europe, 
study of the sacred Scrip- 1 His fame, on account of his theological 




lectures, having attracted the notice of ' and many persons belonging to the bishop- 
some Spanish grandees and principals of , ric of Dortois, highly approved of the doc- 
the church, he was sent for to Seville, and ; trines of ^Egidio. which they thought per- 
made subdean of the cathedral church in fectly consonant with true religion, they 
that city. But when he came to deliver ^ immediately petitioned the emperor in his 
his probation sermon, instead of raising \ behalf. Though that monarch had been 
admiration, he created contempt. The I educated a Roman catholic, he had too 
lectures which had formerly gained him ; much sense to be a bigot ; and therefore 
fame he had composed with attention, and I sent an immediate order for his enlarge- 
read with care ; but his sermon he was ; ment. 

obliged to speak extempore. This mode j He subsequently visited the church of 
of facing an audience staggered him. He \ Valladolid, did everything he could to pro- 
stammered, hesitated, and at length became | mote the cause of religion, and returning 
so confused in his words, that his meaning < home, he soon after fell sick, and died in 
was scarce intelligible. I an extreme old age. 

This miscarriage quite disheartened him, \ The inquisitors, having been disappoint- 
and he had some thoughts of resigning his I ed of gratifying their malice against him, 
preferment and returnins to the university ; I while living, determined (as the emperor's 
when a friend pointed out the faults of his | whole thoughts were engrossed by a milita- 
preaching to him, and taught him how to j ry expedition) to wreak their vengeance 
remedy them. \ on him when dead. Therefore, soon after 

He assiduously studied his friend's rules, ; he was buried, they ordered his remains to 
and by punctually putting them in practice ', be dug out of the grave ; and a legal pro- 
so far refined his diction, and polished his cess being carried on, they were condemned 
action, that he became admired for his \ to be burnt, which was executed accord- 
elocution by those who had so lately despi- 1 ingly- 
sed him on that account. .j.^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^ constantine. 

But his friend did him a more essential > 
service than that of making him an orator, Dr. Co.vstantink, an intimate acquaint- 
by making him a protectant. A title which | ance of the already-mentioned Dr. iEgidio, 
iEgidio himself thought of all others the | was a man of uncommon natural abilities 
most honorable. > a'"' profound learning, exclusive of several 

The light of truth began to appear in his \ modern tongues ; he was acquainted with 
sermons, and his doctrines contained the i 'he Latin, Greek, and Hebrew languages, 
pure tenets of primitive Christianity. The I a"d perfectly well knew, not only the 
great emperor Charles V., hearing him < sciences called abstruse, but those arts 
preach, w;i» so pleased with the matter j which come under the denomination of 
and manner, and thought the elocution and < polite literature. 

and doctrine so simply agreeable, thai he i His eloquence rendered him a pleasing, 
constituted him bishop of Dortois. 

True merit will excite envv. 

" Envy will merit like its shade pursue, 
But like the shadow proves the substance true." 

i^gidio had his enemies, and these laid 

and the soundness of his doctrines a profita- 
ble preacher ; and he was so popular, that { 
he never preached but to a crowded assem- | 
bly. He had many opportunities of rising \ 
in the church, but never would take advan- J 

a complaint against him to the in<]uisitor3, i lage of them ; for if a livmgof greater value \ 
who sent him a citation, and when he ap- \ than his own was offered him, he would j 
peared to it, cast him into a dungeon. | refuse it, saying : " I am content with what \ 

As the greatest part of those who be- ] I have." And he frequently pre:iclied so t 
longed to the cathedral church at Seville, j forcibly against h^wdncss, that many of his | 



superiors, who were not so delicate upon young man, that he was glad these books 
the subject, took umbrage at his doctrines > and papers were produced, but nevertheless 
upon that head. \ he must fulfil the end of his commission, 

Havingbeen fully confirmed in protestant- > which was, to carry him and the goods he 
ism by Dr. ^Egidio, he preached boldly such I had embezzled before the inquisitors, which 
doctrines only as were agreeable to gospel ; he did accordingly ; for the young man 
purity, and uncontaminated by the errors J knew it would be in vain to expostulate, or 
which had, at various times, crept into the ^resist, and therefore quietly subniilled to 
Romish church. For these reasons he had i his fate. 

many enemies among the Roman catholics, The inquisitors being thus possessed of 
and some of them were fully determined J Constantino's books and writings, now found 
on his destruction. I matter sufficient to form charges against 

A worthy gentleman, named Scobario, I him. When he was brought to a re-ex- 
having erected a school for divinity lectures, ) amination, they presented one of his pa- 
appointed Dr. Constantine to be reader ; pers, and asked him if he knew the hand- 
therein. He immediately undertook the | writing ? Perceiving it was his own, he 
task, and read lectures, by portions, on the > guessed the whole manner, confessed the 
Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Canticles ; and I writing, and justified the doctrine it contain- 
was beginning to expound the book of Job, ^ ed ; saying : " In that, and all my other 
when he was seized by the inquisitors. | writings, I have never departed from the 

Being brought to examination, he an- truth of the gospel, but have always kept ; 
swered with such precaution that they could > in view the pure precepts of Christ, as he ; 
not find any explicit charge upon him, but I delivered them to mankind." 
remained doubtful in what manner to pro- 1 After being detained upward of two years 
ceed, when the following circumstances nn prison, Dr. Constantine was seized with 
occurred to determine them : — < a bloody flux, which put an end to his mise- 

Dr. Constantine had deposited with a ^ ries in this world. The process, however, 
woman, named Isabella Martin, several < was carried on against his body, which, at 
books, which to him were very valuable, < the ensuing auto-da-fe, was publicly burnt. 

but which he knew, in the eyes of the in- | " Thus death itself can not control 

. • • .-11 \ The malice of a bieot soul ; 

quisitiou, were exceptionable. Which more than forfeit life can crave, 

This woman having been informed against And seek revenge beyond the grave." 

as a protestant, was apprehended, and, after < 


a small process, her goods were ordered to I 

be confiscated. Previous, however, to the Mr. Burton was a merchant of London, 
officers coming to her house, the woman's \ who traded into Spain. Being at Cadiz, a 
son had removed away several chests full \ familiar of the inquisition called upon him 
of the most valuable articles ; and one day at his lodging, pretending that he 
these were Dr. Constantine's books. wanted to send a quantity of merchandise 

A treacherous servant giving intelligence < to London. Having asked as many ques- 
of this to the inquisitors, an officer was \ tions as he though proper, he departed, and 
despatched to the son to demand the chests. < Mr. Burton was next day taken into custody 
The son, supposing that the officer only < by one of the inquisitorial officers, 
came for Constantine's books, said: "I^ On his examination the president de- 
know whal you come for, and I'll fetch ', manded if he had, by words or writing, 
them to you immediately." He then fetch- > said or insinuated anything disrespectful to 
ed Dr. Constantine's books and papers, when the Roman catholic persuasion, 
the officer was greatly surprised to 5nd what | To this Mr. Burton replied in the nega- 
he did not look for. He, howpvor, tcld the ' live ; saying: that " he was sensible, in : 





whatever country we were, respect ought ^ At the age of twenty-six years, he was, \ 
to be paid to the religion of tha^t country : I by his master, sent to Lisbon, to act as fac- | 
that such knowledge to him was essential, \ tor. Here he applied himself to the study | 
who, as a merchant, was obliged to visit \ of the Portuguese language, executed his < 
various countries, and conform to the re- \ business with assiduity and fidelity, and \ 

ligious and civil ceremonies of all." 

behaved with the most engaging affability 

This defence, however, availed him to all persons with whom he had the least 
nothing : they proceeded to torture him, in '. concern. He conversed privately with a 
order to gain information. Failing in this, few, whom he knew to be zealous protes- 
they condemned him for invincible obstina- < tants ; and, at the same time, cautiously 

cy, and at the next auto-da fe he was burnt. 
When the flames first touched him, he bore 
the torments with such exemplary patience, 
and appeared with so smiling a counten- 
ance, that one of the priests, enraged at his 
serenity, said, with great malice and absur- 
dity : " The reason why he does not seem 

avoided giving the least offence to any who 
were Roman catholics ; he had not, how- 
ever, hitherto, gone into any of the popish 

A marriage being concluded between the 
king of Portugal's son and the infanta of 
Spain, upon the wedding-day the bride- 

to feel, is to me very evident : the devil has groom, bride, and the whole court, went to 
already got his soid, and his body is of^ihe cathedral church, attended by multi- 
course deprived of the usual sensations." I tudes of all ranks of people, and among the 

(See engraving.) 

About the time of Mr. Burton's martyr- 
dom, several others of the English in Spain 
were put to death by the iiu[uisitors ; par- 
ticularly, John Baker, William Burgate,and 
William Burgess, were burnt, and William 
Hooker was stoned to death ; freely giving 

" Jesus, who dies a wor 4 io savp, 
Revives, and rises from the grave, 

By iiis alrniglily power ; 
From sin and death, and hell, set free. 
He captive leads captivity, 

And lives to die no more. 

" The Lord, who spoke the world from naught, 
Hath for poor sinners <learly bought, 

Salvation by his blood ; 
1,0 .' how he bursts tiie bonds of death. 
And reassumes his vital breath, 
To make our title good. 

" God's church is still his joy and crown, 
He lool<s with love and pity down, 

On those he did redeem ; 
He tastes their joys, he I'eels their woes, 
Decrees that they may spoil their foes, 

And ever reign in him." 


rest William Gardener, who stayed during 
the whole ceremony, and was greatly 
shocked at the superstitions he saw. 

The erroneous worship which he had 
seen ran strongly in his mind ; he was 
miseral)le, to behold a whole country sunk 
into such idolatry, when the truth of the 

I up their lives for Him who shed his^blood | gospel might be so easily obtained. He, 
> i >r them < therefore, took the inconsiderate, though 

\ \ laudable design, into his head, of making 

a reform in Portugal, or perishing in the 
attempt ; and determined to sacrifice his 
prudence to his zeal, though he became a 
martyr upon the occasion. 

To this end he settled all his worldly 
affairs, paid his debts, closed his books, 
and consigned over his merchandise. On 
the ensuing Sunday he went again to the 
cathedral church, with a New Testament 
in his hand, and placed him.«elf near the 

Thi' king and the coirrt soon appeared, 
and a cardinal began mass : at that part of 
ih<' ceremony in which the people adore 
I the wafer, Gardener couUl hold out no 
I Wif.LTAiw Gai: DENER was born at Bristol, longer, but s|)rinoiii<r toward the cardinal, 
\ received a tolerable education, and was, at < he snatched the host from him, and trampled 
I a proper age, placed under the care of a | it under his feet. 

merchant, named Paget. 

This action amazed the whole congrega- 



153 \ 

tion, a. id one person drawing a dagoer, ^ tortured to nr.ake them confess if tbev knew <' 
wounded Gardener in the shoulder, and ' anything of the matter ; in particular, a per- \ 
would, by repeating the bio* , have finish-^ son who resided in the same house with | 
ed him, had not the king called to him to 't Gardener was treated with unparalleled | 
desist. j' barbarity to make him confess something \ 

Gardener being carried before the king, ^ which might throw a light upon the affair. 
the monarch asked him what countryman | Gardener himself was then tormented in | 
he was : to which he replied : " I am an < the most excruciating manner ; but in the < 
Englishman by birth, a protestant by re- <; midst of all his torments he gloried in the < 
ligion, and a merchant by occupation. What ^ deed. Being ordered for death, a large fire { 
I have done is not out of contempt to your I was kindled near a gibbet. Gardener was < 
person, God forbid it should, but out of an '. drawn up to the gibbet by pulleys, and then | 
honest indignation, to see the ridiculous ^ let down near the fire, but not so close as i 
superstitions and gross idolatries practised ? to touch it; for they burnt or rather roasted ] 
here." him by slow degrees. Yet he bore his \ 

The king, thinking that he had been ^ sufferings patiently, and resigned his soul ] 
stimulated by some other person to act as ;, to the Lord cheerfully. ! 

he had done, demanded who was his abettor, ; It is observable that some of the sparks I 
to which he replied : " My own conscience j were blown from the fire (which consumed <, 
alone. I would not hazard what I have '< Gardener) toward the haven, burnt one 
done for any man living, but I owe that and ;; of the king's ships-of-war, and did other ? 
all other services to God." \ considerable damage. The Englishmen | 

Gardener was sent to prison, and a gene- \ who were taken up on this occasion were, | 
ral order issued to apprehend all English- ^ soon after Gardener's death, all discharged, | 
men in Lisbon. This order was in a great i except the person that resided in the same , 
measure put into execution (some few es-s house with him, who was detained two j 
caping) and many innocent persons were s years before he could procure his liberty, j 


E shall now enter on 
an account of the 
persecutions in Ita- 
ly, a country which 
has been, and still 
is : — 

1. The centre of popery. 

2. The seat of the pontiff. 

3. The source of the various errors 
which have spread themselves over other 
countries, deluded the minds of thousands. 
and diffused the clouds of superstition and 
bigotry over the human understanding. 

In pursuing our narrative we shall iiiflude 
the most remarkable persecutions which 
happened, and the cruelties which have 
been practised : — 

1 . By the immediate order of the pope. 

2. Through the power of the inquisition. 

3. At the instigation of particular orders 
of the clergy. 

4. By the bigotry of the Italian princes. 

" A pleasant country, in whose fertile plains 

Sweet verdure smiles, and endless plenty reigns ; 
But reigns in vain, while bigotry's coatrol. 
With tyrant power enchains the human soul ; 
And superstition lords it o'er the mind, 
Deludes the sense, or keeps the reason blind. 
The haughty pope, with triple honors crowned, 
In error's clouds diffuses darl>ness round ; 
And pampered priests without remorse deceiTe, 
While bigot minds implicitly believe ; 
Credit whatever their wily teachers say, 
: And, by command, think, act, speak, fast, or pray, 
; But priests, to no austerities confined, 
; Mind not the rules by which they others bind, 
'' They leave to vassal laymen worldly cares, 
( Sharp penance, meager abstinence, and prayers ; 
) In open air for venal sins to lie, 
\ To dress in sackcloth, or 'he scourge to ply. 




Let pining anchorets in grottoes starve, 
Who from the liberties of nature swerve ; 
Who, curbed by moderation, sparing eat. 
And by false zeal tleceived, abstain from meat. 
Italian priests their appetites will please, 
And live in luxury and pampered ease ; 
But if their power enormous you'd control, 
A fury rises in the bigot soul ; 
Malicious rage strains superstition's throat, 
And blood for heresy is all the note. 
' Use every instrument they loud exclaim. 
To darken truth, and render reason tame. 
Let the inquisition rage, fresh cruelties 

Make the dire engines groan with tortured cries; 
Let Campo Flori evt-ry day be strewed 
With mangled carcases, and clotted blood ; 
Repeat again Lombardian slaughter o'er, 
And Piedmont valleys drown with floating gore. 
Swifter than murdering angels, when they fly 
On errands of avenging deity ; 
Fiercer than storms let loose, with eager haste 
Lay cities, countries, realms, whole nature waste 
Sack, ravish, massacre, destroy, burn, slay, 
Act what you will, so popery makes its way.' 
Such are the thoughts that fill each popish mind: 
And such the enmity they bear mankind." 


N the twelfth century the first 
persecutions under the papacy 
bejran in Italy, at the time that 
Adrian, an Englishman, was 
pope, being occasioned by the 
following circumstances : — 
A learned man, and an excellent orator 
of Brixia, named Arnold, came to Rome, 
and boldly preached against the corruptions 
and innovations which had crept into the 
church. His discourses were so clear, 
consistent, and breathed forth such a pure 
spirit of piety, that the senators, and many 
of the people, highly approved of, and ad- 
mired his doctrines. 

This so greatly enraged Adrian, that he 
commanded Arnold instantly to leave the 
city, as a heretic. Arnold, however, did 
not comply, for the senators and some of 
the principal people took his part, and re- 
sisted tile auth(»rily of the pope. 

Adrian now laid the city of Rome under 
an interdict, which caused the whole body 
of clergy to interpose ; and, at length, per- 
suaded the senators and people to give up 
the point, and suffer Arnold to l)e banished. 
This being agreed to, he received his sen- 
tence of exile, and retired to Germany, 
where he continued to preach against the 
pope, and to expose the gross errors of the 
church of Rome. 

Adrian, on this account thirsted for his 
I olood, and made several attempts to get him 
I into his hands ; but Arnold, for a long time, 
I avoided every snare laid for him. At length. 

Frederic Barbarossa arriving at the imperial 
dignity, requested that the pope would crown 
him with his own hand. This Adrian com- 
plied with, and at the same time asked a fa- 
vor of the emperor, which was, to put Arnold 
into his hands. The emperor very readily 
delivered up the unfortunate preacher, who 
soon fell a martyr to Adrian's vengeance, 
being hanged, and his body burnt to ashes, 
at Apulia. The same fate attended several 
of his old friends and companions. 

Encknas, a Spaniard, was sent to Rome, 
to be brought up in the Roman catholic 
faith ; but having conversed with some of 
the reformed, and read several treatises 
which they had put into his hands, he be- 
came a protestant. This, at length, being 
known, one of his own relations informed 
against him, when he was burnt by order 
of the pope, and a conclave of cardinals. 
The brother of Encenas had been taken up 
al)out the same time, for having a New 
I'esiament, in the Spanish language, in 
his possession ; but before the time ap- 
pointed for his execution, he found means 
to escape out of prison, and returned to 

Faninus, a learned layman, by reading 
controversial books, became of the reformed 
religion. An information being exhibited 
against him to tiie poj)e, he was apprehend- 
ed, andcast inioprison. His wife, children, 
relations, and friends, visited him in his 
confinement, and so far wrought upon his 
mind, that he renounced his faith, and ob- 



tained his release. But he was no sooner 
free from confinement, than his mind felt 
the heaviest of chains — the weight of a 
guilty conscience. His horrors were so 
great, that he found them insupportable, till 
he had returned from his apostacy, and de- 
clared himself fully convinced of the errors 
of the church of Rome. To make amends 
for his falling off, he now openly and 
strenuously did all he could to make con- 
verts to protestantism, and was pretty suc- 
cessful in his endeavors. These proceed- 
ings occasioned his second imprisonment ; 
but he had his life offered him if he would 
recant again. This proposal he rejected 
with disdain, saying, that he scorned life 
upon such terms. Being asked why he 
would obstinately persist in his opinions, 
and leave his wife and children in distress ; 
he replied : " I shall not leave them in dis- 
tress, I have recommended them to the care 
of an excellent trustee." — " What trustee ?" 
said the person who had asked the ques- 
tion, with some surprise : to which Fa- 
ninus answered : " Jesus Christ is the 
trustee I mean, and I think I could not com- 
mit them to the care of a better." On the 
day of execution he appeared remarkably 
cheerful, which one observing, said : " It ? 
is strange you .should appear so merry upon '. 
such an occasion, when Jesus Christ him- s 
self, just before his death, was in such J 
agonies, that he sweated blood and water." 
To which Faninus replied : " Christ sus- 
tained all manner of pangs and conflicts, 
I with hell and death, on our account ; and 
I thus, by his sufl'erings, freed those who : 
I really believe in him from the fear of them." : 
( He was then strangled, and his body being 
I burnt to ashes, they were scattered about 
by the wind. 

DoMiNicus, a learned soldier, having 
V read several controversial writings, became 
i a zealous proiestant, and retiring to Placen- 
\ tia, he preached the gospel in its utmost 
] purity, to a very considerable congregation. 
' At the conclusion of his sermon one day, 
; he said : " If the congregation will attend 
! to-morrow, I will give them a description 

of anti-Christ, and paint him out in his 
proper colors." 

A vast concourse of people attended the 
next day ; but just as Dominicus was be- 
ginning his sermon, a civil magistrate went 
up to his pulpit, and took him into custody. 
He readily submitted ; but as he wentalo'ig 
with the magistrate, made use of this ex- 
pression : " I wonder the devil hath let me 
alone so long." When he was brought to 
examination, this question was put to him : 
" Will ycu renounce your doctrines V To 
which he replied : " My doctrines ! I 
maintain no doctrines of my own ; what I 
preach are the doctrines of Christ, and for 
those I will forfeit my blood, and even think 
myself happy to suffer for the sake of my 
Redeemer." Every method was taken to 
make him recant from his faith ; but when 
persuasions and menaces were found in- 
effectual, he was sentenced to death, and 
hanged in the market-place. 

Galeacius, a protestant gentleman, was 
apprehended on account of his faith. Great 
endeavors being used by his frie-nds, he 
recanted, and subscribed to several of the 
superstitious doctrines propagated by the 
church of Rome. Becoming, however, 
sensible of his error, he publicly renounced 
his recantation. Being apprehended for 
this, he was condemned to be burnt ; and, 
agreeably to the order, was chained to a 
Slake, where he was left several hours be- 
fore the fire was put to the fagots, in order 
that his wife, relations, and friends, who 
surrounded him, might induce him to give 
up his opinions. Galeacius, however, now 
retained his constancy of mind, and en- 
treated the executioner to put fire to the 
wood that was to burn him. This, at 
length, he did, and Galeacius was soon 
consumed in the flames. 

Soon after this gentleman's death, a 
great number of protestants were put to 
death in various parts of Italy, on account 
of their faith, giving a sure proof of their 
sincerity in their martyrdoms : — 

" Resigning freely transitory brfath, 
To sljun the shades of everlasting death." 




N the fourteenth century, many 5 Pope Pius the Fourth, he determined to 
of the Waldenses of Pragela | exterminate them from Calabria. 

trM and Dauphinv emigrated to ^ To tliis end he sent Cardinal Alexandrine, 

Fnl Calabria, and settling in some j a man of a very violent temper, and a furi- 

^jjjJj^^C waste lands, by the permission j ""s bigot, together with tw o monks, to 

. y^ of the nobles of that country, j Calabria, where they were to act as in- 

l they soon, by the most industrious cultiva-U"i«il'>'"s. These authorized persons came 

J tioii, made several wild and barren spots ! ^o St. Xist, one of the towns built by the 

appear with all the beauties of verdure and \ Waldenses, and having assembled the 

) fertility. { people, told tliem, that they should receive 

The Calabrian lords were highly pleased [ "« manner of injury, or violence, if they 

< with their rvew subjects and tenants, as | would accept of preachers appointed by the 

I they were honest, quiet, and industrious : ' Pope ; but if they would not, they should 

i hut the priests of the country exhibited ) ^e deprived both of their property and 

j several negative complaints against them ; \ li^^es ; and that their intentions might be 

I for not being able to accuse them of any- 1 known, mass sbould be publicly s:<id that 

thing bad which they did do, they founded afternoon, at which they were ordered to 

^ accusations on what thei/ did not do, and | attend. 

charged them : > 'he people of St. Xist, instead of at- 

Wilh not being Roman catholics ; | tending mass, fled into the woods with their 

making anyof their boys priests;! faipilies, and thus disappointed the cardinal 

making any of their girls nuns; /and his coadjutors. The cardinal then 

goinw to mass ; < proceeded to La Garde, the other town be- 

giving wax tapers to the priests ponging to the Waldenses, where, not to 

as offerings ; 

— going on pilgrimages ; 

— bowing to imas^ea. 

, be served as he had been at St. Xist, he 
\ ordered the gates to be locked, and all the 
I avermes guarded. The same proposals 
The Calabrian lords, however, quieted were then made to the people of La Garde 
the priests, by telling them, that these ^ as had been made to the inhabitants of St. 
people were extremely harndess ; that they Xist, but with this additional piece of arti- 
gave no offence to the Roman catholics, fioe : the cardinal assured them, that the 
andchcerfully paid the tithes to the priests, inhabitants of St. Xist had immediately 
whose revenues were ccuisi lerai)ly in- 1 come into his proposals, and agreed, that 
creased by their coming into the country ; phe pope should appoint them preachers, 
and who, of conse(ju<iic.', oii^ht to be the j This hilseliooJ succeeded ; for the people 
last persons to comj)laiii ol ih. in. j of La Garde thinking what the cardinal had 

Things went on tolerai)ly well after this | told them to be truth, said they " would 
for a few years, during which the Walden- ] exactly follow the example of their brethren 
ses formed themselves into two corporate > of St. Xist." 

towns, annexing several villages to the I The cardinal having gained his point by 
jurisdiction of them. At length, they sent 5 deluding the people of one town, sent for 
to Geneva for two clergymen; one to s two troops of soldiers, with a view to mnr- 
preach in each town, as they determined ^ d(^r those of the other. He, accordingly. 
i to make a public profession of their faith. 1 despatched the soldiers into the woods, to 
\ Intelligence of this affair being carried to | hunt down the inhabitants of St. Xist like 


157 I 

i wild beasts, and gave them strict orders to i embrace the Roman catholic persuasior., ] 
I spare neither asie nor sex, but to kill all they I themselves and tamilies should not be in- \ 

> came near. The troops entered the woods, nured, but their houses and property should 

I and many fell a prey to their ferocity, be- < be restored, and none would be permitted , 
I fore the Waldenses were properly apprized \ to molest iliem ; but, on the contrary, if j 

> of their design. At lengtli, however, they ; they refused this mercy (as it was termed) | 
^ determined to sell tiieir lives as dear as ^ the utmost extremities would be used, and 5 
\ possible, when several conflicts happened, • the most cruel deaths the certain conse- | 
; in which the half-armed Waldenses per- ^ quence of ibeir non-compliance. 

I firmed prodigies of valor, and many were j Notwitlistandingthepromises ononeside, 
I slain on b(ilh sides. The greatest part of j and menaces on the other, these worthy ( 
i the troops being killed in the different ^ people unanimously refused to renounce i 

rencounters, the rest were compelled to < iheir religion, or embrace the errors of 
^ retreat, which so enraged the cardinal, that ^popery. This exasperated the cardinal j 

\ he wrote to the viceroy of Naples for rein- ] 
I forcements. 

and viceroy so much, that thirty of them 
were ordered to be put immediately to the 

\ The viceroy immediately ordered a pro- \ rack, as a terror to the rest. 

I clamalion to be made throughout all the \ Those who were put to the rack were 

\ Neapfditan territories, that all outlaws, Ureated with such severity, that several died | 

] deserters, and other proscribed persons, ;' under the tortures ; one Charlin, in pariicu- i 

'( should be freely pardoned for their respec- < lar, was so cruelly used, ttiat his belly burst, 

I tive ofliences, on condition of making a I his bowels came out., and he expired in the ^ 

I campaign against the inhabitants of St. ^ greatest agonies. These barbarities, how- i 

i Xist, and continuing under arms till those | ever, did not answer the purposes for which i 

people were exterminated. 

they were intended ; for those who remain- 

Many persons, of desperate fortunes, came ^ ed alive after the rnck, and those who had ^ 
in upon this proclamation, and being formed \ not felt the rack, remained equally constant ] 
into light companies, were sent to scour the hn their faith, and boldly declared, that no / 
woods, and put to death all they could meet / tortures of body, or terrors of mind, should ^ 
with of the reformed relitjion. The vice- ; ever induce them to renounce their God, or 
roy himself likewise joined the cardinal, at; worship iiuuges. 

the head of a body of regular forces ; and,) Several were then, by the cardinal's 
in conjunction, they did all they could to-order, stripped siark naked, and whipped 
harass the poor peojile in the woods. Some '■' to death with iron rods ; some were hack- 
ihey caught, and hunged up upon trees, cut ] ed to pieces with hirge knives; others were 
down bou^ihs, and burnt them, or ripped \ thrown down from the top of a large tower; 
them open, and left their bodies to be de- ^ and many were covered over with pitch, and 
voured by wild beasts, or birds of prey. < burnt iilive. 

Many they shot at a distance, but the ^ One of the monks who attended the car- 
irfeaiest number they hunted down by way ' dinal, being naturally ol' a savage and cruel 
of sport. A few hid themselves in caves ;• disposition, requested of him, that he might 
but famine destroyed them in their retreat ; j shed some of the blood of these poor people 
and thus all these poor people perished, by | with his own hands ; when his request be- 
various means, to glut the bigoted malice \ ing granted, the barbarous man took a large, 

o\ their merciless persecutors. 

\ sharp knife, and cut the throats of four- 

The inhabitants of St. Xist were no ^ score men, women, and children, with as 
sooner exterminated, than those of La Garde | little remorse as a butcher would have killed 
engaged the attention of the cardinal and { so many sheep. Every one of t.hese bodies 
viceroy. It was offered, that if they would ^ were then ordered to be quartered, the 

5L___^ ^...-^^^ ^ S 



quarters placed upon stakes, and then fixed 
in different parts of the country, within a 
circuit of thirty miles. 

The four principal men of La Garde 
were hanged, and the clergyman was thrown 
from the top of his church steeple. He was 
terribly mangled, but not quite killed, by 
the fall ; at which time the viceroy passing 
by, said : " Is the dog yet living ? Take 
him up, and give him to the hogs ;" when, 
brutal as this sentence may appear, it was 
executed accordingly. 

Sixty women were racked so violently, ] 
that the cords pierced their arms and legs i 
quite to the bone : when, being remanded I 
to prison, their wounds mortified, and they > 
died in the most miserable manner. Many ] 
others were put to death by various cruel > 
means ; and if any Roman catholic, more | 
compassionate than the rest, interceded for 
any of the reformed, he was immediately 
apprehended, and shared the same fate. 

The viceroy being obliged to march back 
to Naples, on some affairs of moment which ] 
required his presence, and the cardinal hav- 
ing been recalled to Rome, the marquis of 
Butiane was ordered to put the finishing 
stroke to what they had began ; which he, 
at length, affected, by acting with such I 
barbarous rigor, that there was not a single \ 
person of the reformed religion left living \ 
in all Calabria. > 

Thus were a great number of inoffensive 
and harmless people deprived of their pos- 
sessions, robbed of their property, driven 
from their homes, and, at length, murdered, 
by various means, only because they would 
not sacrifice their consciences to the super- 
stitions of others, embrace idolatrous doc- 
trines which they abhorred, and accept of 
teachers whom they could not believe. 
Tyranny is of three kinds, viz. : that which 
enslaves the person, that which seizes the 
property, aYid that which prescribes and 
dictates to the mind. The first two sorts 
may be termed civil tyranny, and have been 
practised by arbitrary sovereigns in all ages, 
who have delighted in tormenting the per- 
sons, and stealing the property of their un- 
happy subjects. But the third sort, viz., 
prescribing and dictating to the mind, may 
be called ecclesiastical tyranny ; and this is 
the worst kind of tyranny, as it includes 
the other two sorts ; for the Romish clergy 
not only torture the bodies, and seize the 
effects of those they persecute, but take the 
lives, torment the minds, and, if possible, 
would tyrannize over the souls of the un- 
happy victims. 

" Thus rage, by siipprstition led, 
Strikes innocence and virtue dead ; 
While bitfolry would reason blind, 
Enthrall the sense, and chain the mind ; 
Its errors fix in bloody streams, 
And spread, with fire, its fatal dreams." 


, OHN MOLLIUS was born 

at Rome, of reputable 

parents. At twelve years 

of age they placed him in 

the monastery of Gray 

Friars, where he made 

such a rapid progress in arts, sciences, and 

languages, that at eighteen years of age he 

was permitted to take priest's orders. 

He was then sent to Ferrara, where. 

I after pursuing his studies six years longer, 
( he was made theological reader in the uni- 
> versity of that city. He now, unhappily, 
; exerted his great talents to disguise the 
; gospel truths, and to varnish over the errors 
\ of the church of Rome. After some years' 
! residence at Ferrara, he removed to the 
university of BonoTiia, where he became a 
[ professor. Having read some treatises ;: 
I written by ministers of the reformed re- ;: 





ligion, he grew fully sensible of the errors i The year after FfiANciis GAMnA, a Lom- 
of popery, and soon became a zealous prot- j hard, of liie protestaiil persuasiun, was ap- 
estant in his heart. / prehended, and condemned to death by the 

He now determined to expound, accord- j senate of Milan. At the place of execu- 
ing to the purity of the gospel, St. Paul's i tion, a moidv presented a cross to him ; to 
Epistles to the Romans, in a regular course \ whom he said : " My mind is so full of the 
of sermons. The concourse of people that | real merits and goodness of Christ, that I 
continually attended his preaching was sur- < want not a piece of senseless stick, to put 
prising ; but when the priests found the < me in mind of him." For this expression 
tenor of his doctrines, they despatched an | his tongue was bored through, and he was 
account of the affair to Rome ; when the s afterward burnt. (See engraving.) 
pope sent a monk, named Cornelius, to s A. D. 1555, Algerihs, a student in the 
Bononia, to expound the same epistles ac- \ university of Padua, and a man of great 
cording to the tenets of the church of Rome, s learning, having embraced the reformed re- 
The people, however, found such a dis- 1 ligion, did all he could to convert others, 
parity between the two preachers, that the I For these proceedings he was accused 
audience of Mollius increased, and Corne- ) of heresy to the pope, and being appre- 
lius was forced to preach to empty ben- I hended, was committed to the prison at 
ches. 5 Venice, where being allowed the use of 

Cornelius wrote an account of his bad I pen, ink, and paper, he wrote to his con- 
success to the pope, who immediately sent I verts at Padua the following celebrated 
an order to apprehend Mollius, who was | epistle : — 

seized upon accordingly, and kept in close > " Dear Friends : I can not omit this 
confinement. The bishop of Bononia sent i opportunity of letting you know the sincere 
him word, that he must recant, or be burnt: pleasures I feel in my confinement ; to suf- 
hut he appealed to Rome, and was removed for for Christ is delectable, indeed ; to un- 
thither. dergo a little transitory pain in this world. 

At Rome he begged to have a public i for his sake, is cheaply purchasing a rever- 
trial, but that the pope absolutely denied him, S sion of eternal glory, in a life that is ever- 
and commanded him to give an account of lasting. 

his opinions in writing, which he did under " Hence, I have found honey in the. 
the following heads : — - entrails of a lion ; a Paradise in a prison ; 

Original sin. Mass. s tranquillity in the house of sorrow : where 

Free-will. Auricular confession. I others weep I rejoice ; where others trem- j 

The infallibility of Prayers for the dead. I ble and faint, I find strength and courage. 

the churchof Rome. The host. The Almighty alone confers these favors 

The infallibility of Prayers to saints, | on me ; be his the glory and the praise. 

the pope. Going on pilgrimages. I "How different do I find myself from 

Justification by faith. Extreme unction. what I was before I embraced the truth 

Purgatory. Performing service in in its purity : I was then dark, doubtful, 

Transubstanliation. an unknown tongue, and in dread ; I am now enlightened, cer- 

&;c. I tain, and full of jo3^ He that was far from 

And all these he confirmed from scrip \ me is now present with me ; he comforts 
lure authority. The pope, upon this occa- my spirits, heals my griefs, strengthens my 
sion, for political reasons, spared him for mind, refreshes my heart, and fortifies my 
the present, but soon after had him appre- < soul. Learn, therefore, how merciful and 
hended, and put to death; he being first amiable the Lord is, who supports his ser- 
hanged, and his body burnt to ashes, A. D. vants under temptations, expels their sor- 
1553. I rows, lightens their afiiictions, and even 





visits them with his glorious presence, in | to judge of my sensations upon the occa- 

ihe gloom of a dismal dungeon. 

" Your sincere friend, 

" Algerius.' 

; sion ; my tears now wash the paper upon 
which I give you the recital. Another 
thing I must mention, the patience with 

The pope, being informed of Algerius's J which they met death : they seemed all 
great learning, and surprising natural abili- ( resignation and piety, fervently praying to 
lies, thought it would be of infinite service < God, and cheerfully encountering their fate, 
to the church of Rome, if he could induce j I can not reflect, without shuddering, how 

him to forsake the protestant cause. He, | the executioner held the bloody knife be- | 
therefore, sent for him to Rome, and tried, ^ tween his teeth; what a dreadful figure heap- | 
J by the most profane promises, to win him ^ peared, all covered with blood, and with what j 
i to his purpose. But finding his endeavors | unconcern he executed his barbarous office." 
I ineffectual, he ordered him to be burnt, < A young Englishman, who happened to 
which sentence was executed accordingly, be at Rome, was one day passing by a 
JoHNALLOYsius,beingsentfromGeneva church, when the procession of the host 
I to preach in Calabria, was there apprehend- was just coming out. A bishop carried 
ed as a protestant, carried to Rome, and the host, which the young man perceiving, 
I burnt by order of the pope; and James ^ he snatched it from him, throw it upon the 
t Bovellus, for the same reason, was burnt at i ground, and trampled it under his feet, cry- 
I Messina. | ing out : "Ye wretched idolators, that neg- 

A.D. 1560, Pope Pius the Fourth order- 5 lect the true God to adore a morsel of 
I ed all the protcstants to be severely perse- bread." This action so provoked the 
culed throughout the Italian stales, when people, that they would have torn him to 
I great numbers of every age, sex, and con- 1 pieces upon the spot ; but the priests per- 
dition, suffered martyrdom. Concerning ^ suaded them to let him abide by the sentence 
! the cruellies practised upon this occasion, | of the pope. 

\ a learned and humane Roman catholic thus' "When the affair was represented to the 
I speaks (.f them, in a letter to a noble lord : pope, he was so greatly exasperated that | 
I •' I can not. my lord, forbear disclosing my | he ordered the prisoner to be burnt imme- | 
I sentiments, with respect to the persecution diately ; but a cardinal dissuaded him from | 
now carrying on : I think it cruel and un- 1 this hasty sentence, saying, it was belter 
necessary; 1 tremble at the manner of | to punish him by slow degrees, and to tor- j 
I pulling to death, as it resembles more the lure him, that ihe.y might find out if he had { 
j slaughter of calves and sheep, than the j been instigated by any particular person to 

execution of human beings. I will relate j commit so atrocious an act. 
'. to your lordship a dreadful scene, of which This being approved, he was tortured 
jl was mv.self an eyewitness: seventy 5 with the most exemplary severity, not with- 

proleslanls were cooped up in one filthy standing which they could only get these j 
i dungeon together; tlie executioner went I words from him : " It was tlu; will of God ^ 
in among them, picked out one from among \ that I should do what I did." 
the re«t, blindlobled him, led him oui to an j The pope then pa.ssed this sentence upon 
open plaee before the prison, and cut his < him : — 

throat with the greatest composure. He j 1. That he shouM be led l)y the execu- 
Ihen calmly walked into the prison again, j tioner, naked to the middle, through the 
bloodv as he was. and with the knife in his > streets of Rome ; 

2. That he should wear the image of the 

j hand selected another, and despatched him 

! in the same manner; and iliis, my lord, he 

' repeated, till llie whole number were put to 

i death. I Icavi- it to your lordship's feelings \ with the representation of llames ; 

in the same manner ; and lliis, my lord, he ;; devil upon his head ; | 

repeated, till llie whole number were put to J 3. That his breeches should be painted | 



163 ) 

4. That he should have his right hand 
cut off ; 

5. That after having been carried about 
thus in procession, he should be burnt. 

When he heard his sentence pronounced, 
he implored God to give him strength and 
fortitude to go through it. As he passed 
through the streets he was greatly derided 
by the people, to whom he said some severe 
things respecting the Romish superstition. 
But a cardinal, who attended the proces- 
sion, overhearing him, ordered him to be \ 

When he came to the church door, where 
he trampled on the host, the hangman cut 
off his right hand, and fixed it on a pole. 
Then two tormentors with flaming torches, 
scorched and burnt his flesh all the rest of 
the way. At the place of execution he 
kissed the chains that were to bind him to 

the stake. A monk presenting the figure 
of a saint to him, he struck it aside, and 
then being chained to the stake, fire was put 
to the fagots, and he was soon burnt to ashes. 
A little after the last-mentioned execu- 
tion, a venerable old man, who had long 
been a prisoner in the inquisition, was con- 
demned to be burnt, and brought out for 
execution. When he was fastened to the 
stake a priest held a crucifix to him, on 
wViich he said : *' If you do not take that 
idol from my sight, you will constrain me 
to spit upon it." The priest rebuked him 
for this with great severity ; but he bade 
him remember the first and second com- 
mandments, and refrain from idolatry, a.s 
God himself had commanded. He was 
then gagged, that he should not speak any 
more, and fire being put to the fagots, he 
suffered martyrdom in the flames. 


HE marquisate of Saluces, 
on the south side of the 
valleys of Piedmont, was 
in A. D. 1561, princi- 
pally inhabited by prot- 
estants ; when the mar- 
quis, who was proprietor of it, began a 
prosecution against them at the instigation 
of the pope. He began by banishing the 
ministers, and if any of them refused to 
leave their flocks they were sure to be im- 
prisoned, and severely tortured ; however, he 
did not proceed so far as to put any to death. 
Soon after the marquisate fell into the 
possession of the duke of Savoy, who sent 
circular letters to all the towns and villages, 
that he expected the people should all con- 
form to go to mass. 

The inhabitants of Saluces, upon re- 
ceiving this letter, returned fur answer the 
following general epistle : — 

*• May it please your highness : We 
humbly entreat your permission to continue 

in the practice of the religion which we 
have always professed, and which our 
fathers have professed before us. In this 
we shall acquit our consciences, without 
offending any ; for we are sensible that our 
religion is founded on the Holy Scriptures, 
by whose precepts we are commanded not 
to injure our neighbors. 

" We likewise implore your protection ; 
for as Jews, infidels, and other enemies to 
Christ, are suffered to live in your dominions 
unmolested, we hope the same indulgence 
may be granted to Christians, whose very 
faith obliges them to be harmless, honest, 
inoffensive, and loyal. 

" We remain your highness's respectful, 
obedient, and faithful subjects, 

" The Protestant Inhabitants of 
the Marquisate of Saluces." 

The duke, after reading this letter, did 
not interrupt the protestants for some time : 
but, at ',ength, he sent them word, that they 
must either conform to go to mass, oi leave 




his dominions in fifteen days. The prot- ^ in order to avoid banishment, and preserve 
estants, upon this unexpected edict, sent a | their property ; others removed, with all 
deputy to the duke to obtain its revocation, > their eflecis, to different countries ; and 
or at least to have it moderated. But their | many neglected the time so long, ihut they 
remonstrances were in vain, and they were ^ were obliged to abandon all they were 
given to understand that the edict was ab-^ worth, and leave the marquisate in havi*e 

^ solute. 

i Those, who unhappily stayed behind, w« 

Some were weak enough to go to mass, i seized, plundered, and put to death. 


^HIS fine district belonged 
to the Grison lords, who, 
as pretty sovereigns, had 
granted several decrees in 
favor of the protestants. 
The papists, however, of! 
the Valtoline, bore them great malice, which | 
first appeared publicly at the village of< 
Tell, where they broke into a protestant 
congregation while the minister was preach- 
ing, and murdered several of the people. 

They afterward surrounded the village, 
and guarded all the avenues : then parading 
the streets, if any protestants made their 
appearance, they were shot immediately. 
Many that were sick were strangled in 
their beds ; others had their brains beat out 
with clubs : and several were drowned in 
the river Alba. 

A nobleman, who had hid himself, being 
discovered, he implored their pity on ac- 
count of his family, having a number of! 
children. This papists, however, told him, 
that '' • was no time for mercy, unless he 
woui enounce his faith. To which he 
replieu . " God forbid, that to save this 
temporary life, I should deny my Redeem- 
er, and perish eternally." These words 
were scarcely out of his mouth, when they 
fell upon him, and cut him to pieces. 

The chief magistrate of the village being 
a protestant, they broke into his house, and 
murdered him and his whole family. Wo- 
men and girls they put to death by various 
means, viz.: — 

Hanging. Frying in a dry pat 

Broiling. Stabbing. 

Ripping open. Beheading. 

Cutting the throat. Stoning. 
Worrying with dogs. Boiling in oil. 
Worrying, by fasten- Pouringhotleaddow 

ing cats to several the throat. 

parts of the body. Racking, &c., &c. 

In short, in Tell and its neighborhood 
there only escaped, with their lives, threi 
persons, who happily passed the Alps, ani 
secured themselves in Rhelia. 

The papists, having thus exterminated 
the protestants at Tell, now marched in 
triumph to a town at some miles' distance 
and persuading the popish inhabitants to 
join them, they determined to repeat the 
same bloody tragedy. Being informed, by 
two friars, that a protestant congregation 
was then assembled in the town, they went 
to the place, surrounded it, shot many 
through the windows, knocked others on 
the head who attempted to run out, and 
then setting the place on fire, burnt the rest. 

After thus destroying those who had 
met together to serve God, they visited the 
private houses of protestants, and having 
murdered all they could find, proceeded 
with drums beating, and colors flying, to 
the town of Sondress. On their approach, 
the papists of the town pretended, they did 
not approve of the proceedings of those 
who were coming; and, therefore, if the 
protestants thought proper to put confidence 

in them, they would guard them from the 
impending danger. Most of the protestants 
indiscreetly believed them, and the papists 
arming themselves, surrounded the intended 
victims, under the pretence of protecting 
them ; but no sooner did their bloody breth- 
ren appear, than they treacherously murder- 
ed those whom they had promised to de- 
fend. However, eighteen men, who sus- 
pected the sinister designs of the Roman 
catholics, had well armed themselves, and 
taking their wives and children with them, 
they determined to attempt an escape. They 
marched with great regularity, and were 
frequently attacked by the papists, but they 
repulsed them with great bravery, and kept 
in so compact a body, that the papists 
could not break them. They proceeded 
in this manner till they came to a church, 
where they found seventy-three men armed, 
who were all protestants. This body they 
joined, and both proceeded together through 

the valley of Malone, where the papists 
made several unsuccessful attacks upon 
them ; for, by the providence of God, they 
passed the Alps, and arrived in a place of 

The property of those who were mur- 
dered, or made their escape, became the 
plunder of the papists who had committed 
these cruelties ; and they paid themselves 
for their inhumanity, by stealing the effects 
of those they had destroyed. 

DoMiMco Berto, a protestant youth of 
sixteen, was set upon an ass with his face 
to the tail, and the tail in his hand for a 
bridle. In this manner he was led round 
the town for the derision of the populace ; 
when being taken to the market-place, they 
cut off his nose and ears, bored holes in 
his cheeks, and scarified his body with 
red-hot pincers ; so that he expired under 
the excess of his torments. 


POPISH bishop, of a very ^ tion with malice, preached against them in 
cruel nature, presided over | the pulpit with fury, and treated them, 
a considerable diocese in | whenever they fell into his hands, with 
Hungary. This prelate I cruelty. Innumerable appear to have been 
^^^ was superficially learned, } the persons who, by his order, were par- 
and habitually morose. His Mially tried, condemned unheard, a; V ex- 
superstition made him give a ready ear to j ecuted without remorse. Shooting, i .vn- 
any tale which might be told him against j ing, hanging, beheading, &c., he d^^med 
those whom he called, and considered as ? favors, and thought them too mild for her- 
heretics. His bigotry caused him to mis- ? etics : a long imprisonment in a loathsome 
take malice for zeal, and his sanguinary | dungeon, personal ill-usage, scorn, con- 
I disposition inflamed him to the greatest / tempt, derision, a scanty allowance of pro* 
I barbarities. A character of this kind is | visions, that made life labor under a linger- 
I certainly more proper for the office of a | ing famine, were the mildest modes of 
I jailer than the mission of a preacher, or ^ treatment that he thought a protestant de- 
) for the business of an executioner than the i served, and the dreadful torments that he 
trust of a prelate. In consequence of such | made many of them suffer, 
a temper, joined to so much power, this | Being informed that a protestant clergy- 
; bishop spoke of the protestants in conversa- ( man had arrived from some distan part to 




one of the towns wiihin his jurisdiction, | 
the bishop sent some of his dependants to | 
apprehend him, and gave them sirict orders j 
to bring what books he had, to search for < 
his papers, and to take particular notice of 
what he was about when they apprehended 
him. They came accordingly to the house, 
and waited at the door for some time, when 
they burst into the place, and seized him : 
they then packed up his books and papers, 
and brought him to the bishop. The 
haughty prelate examined him with great 
ferocity, and treated him with much inso- 
lence. The accusations formed against 
him were as follow : — 

1. Professing the reformed religion. 

2. Keeping by him the Bible in the 
vulgar tongue. 

3. Having in his possession several 
manuscript sermons, apparently written by 
himself, and several books in favor of the 
protestant persuasion. 

To these charges he answered, that 
the profession of the reformed religion was 

agreeable to his conscience ; that the Bible 
was a precious book in all tongues ; that 
the sermons of his writing were consonant 
to the precepts of the gospel ; and the 
books found in his lodgings were truly 
orthodox, and written by learned and pious 

His defence being deemed insufficient 
for his justification, he was condemned to 
death, and by a mode of punishment as 
singular as it was cruel ; which was by 
having geese, hens, ducks, &c., tied about 
his body. 

He was then compelled to run, and 
dogs set after him, who, in attempting to 
catch at and tear the fowls, tore him in 
a most shocking manner. Jaded with run- 
ning, and fatigued with the weight of the 
feathered creatures tied to him, he sunk to 
the ground, and fell a victim to the wounds 
he received from the devouring jaws of the 
dogs, who, in biting and snapping at what 
they thought their prey, worried and tore 
him to death. (See engraving.) 


T the commencement of 
the reign of Uladislaus, 
king of Bohemia, a learn- 
ed pastor drew up an apol- 
ogy for the Picards, and 
having inscribed it to the 
king made it public. 

As this work caused many to embrace 
the opinions of the Picards, it gave the 
Romish clergy great offence. To coun- 
teract its effects, they contrived one of the 
most artful and at the same time infamous 
schemes that could enter into the imagina- 
tion. This was to suborn a cunning and 
abandoned villain to pretend he was a 
Picard, and had been an elder among the 
people of that denomination, but shocked 
with their abominable practices, had quitted 
both their religion and rocks, and came to 

Prague to embrace the Roman catholic 

This impostor made a pretended abjura- 
tion of protestantism in the cathedral church 
of Prague, and then inveighed bitterly against 
the Picards, pretending great contrition for 
having been one of their sect. The priest 
likewise published his cure, containing his 
reasons for leaving the Picards, and his 
charges against 'them, which were as fol- 
low : — 

1. That they were guilty of blasphemy ; 

2. Prayed not to the Virgin Mary ; 

3. Abused the saints ; 

4. Traduced the sacraments ; 

5. Mingled themselves incestuously ; 

6. Committed fornication ; 

7. Were guilty of adultery ; 

8. Thought murder no crime ; 






9. Were thieves ; i Immediately after the public;uion of the 

10. Practised lying ; ( edict, six proteslaiits were seized at Pra</ue, 

11. Encouraged perjury; | and condemned to the flames. When tliey 

12. Took a pride in drunkenness I came to the place of execution, the presi- 
To add to the atrociousness of the trans- < ding officer, having a friendship for one of 

} action, this scandalous impostor was con- ', the prisoners, entreated him to recant, and 
i ducted through most of the cities and towns, offered to give him a year's time to consider i 
and his case read in all the popish churches i of it, if he would promise his endeavors to \ 
'•f Bohemia. This scheme might have had I abjure protestantism. The prisoner, hov- | 
i dangerous effect, had not its contrivers $ ever, nobly refused his offer, and exclaimed, > 
'•^fealed themselves. Happily for the Pi- I " A year's time ! It is too much, too much > 
t urds, neither the priest who drew up the ; by such delay, to lose the company of these \ 
] jase, nor the impostor himself, knew any- ] worthy companions." Then walking bold- \ 
hing of the country people they pretended 5 ly up to the slake, he was fastened with the \ 
•() describe and abuse : so tliat the publica- '/ rest, and they were all burnt together. > 

)n of a modest answer to the case, by a | A gentleman of opulence, who resided \ 
Picard pastor, undeceived the public, and \ at a beautiful villa, in a town on the con- J 
even convinced the most prejudiced that \ fines of Bohemia, made his house an asy- 
( the whole was a fiction, fabricated by the \ lum for distressed protestants. Some pa- 
{ priests, to answer the most cruel and in- ^ pists hearing of this, broke in, and murder- 
I famous purposes. i ed all the concealed protestants and ser- 

' The impostor himself was, at length, so < vanls ; after which, five of the ruffians 
J tormented by his conscience, that he open- \ found the gentleman in a room to which he | 
\ ly recanted his pretended abjuration, turned ; had retired, when they suddenly twisted a 
j protestant in reality, confessed all he had ' rope round his neck, and strangled him. ( 
] said to be a forgery, and publicly declared, < A venerable and learned man, with his 
1 "he had never been among the rocks where uandlady, a widow of sixty, were both I 
j the Picards resided, or conversed with a \ burnt together, with all their books. Many 
j Picard in his life." | were tortured to death upon the rack, some 

I This affair, instead of injuring, served \ hanged, and others drowned. 
I the cause of protestantism ; for many pa- < A man and his wife being sentenced to 
\ pists, perceiving what engines were set at \ death, were condemned to suffer by ex- 
{ work against the Picards, began to inquire ^tremes ; that is, the one was ordered to be 
I minutely into their tenets, when finding the \ burnt, and the other drowned : so that the 
purity of the doctrines they professed, it i two who were joined by marriage might 
induced several to renounce the Roman \ perish by different elements,_^Ve and water. 
catholic persuasion, and embrace their opin- s Many of the nobles and senators, who 
ions. \ had signed the edict for the persecution of 

In the year 1510, an edict was prepared \ the protestants, meeting with fatal accidents, | 
for ordering an immediate and general \ and untimely deaths, those occurrences • 
massacre of all the protestants that could \ were deemed very singular, and, at length, > 
be found in Bohemia. This edict was pre- \ by their frequency, became so particularly 
sented to the assembly of states at Prague remarked, that they gave birth to a proverb 
by two bishops, but several of the Bohe- \ which still subsists, not only in Bohemia, 
mian nobility opposing it, eighteen months but most other parts of Germany ; and 
expired before it could be brought to a ^ implies : — 
determination. At length, the chancellor^ «< If some evil you'd know, 

carried it through the assembly, and it was To ihe Picards turn foe." 

signed by the king for publication. { The emperor Charles V., in the year 





1547, ordered, that all the decrees of the 
council of Trent, against the protestants, 
should be put in force with the utmost rigor, 
in every part of his extensive dominions. 

This severe order occasioned a most 
dreadful persecution throughout the great- 
est part of Europe ; for, as the emperor's 
power was very extensive, so the cruelties 
practised were almost innumerable. None, 
however, suffered more than the })rotestants 
of Bohemia ; for the nobles hud their 
estates sequestered ; the rich merchants 
and traders were fined so heavily, that their 
ruin ensued ; and the poor, who had no 
money to pay by way of mitigation, for 
thinking and acting right, were — 
Racked, Hanged, 

Burnt, Drowned, 

Sawed asunder, Stabbed, 

Thrown from rocks. Boiled in oil. 
Torn by wild horses. Cut to pieces, 
Immured and starved, Beheaded, 
had boiling lead poured down their throats, 
were thrown on spears, hung up by the ribs, 
or crucified with their heads downward. 

The king of Bohemia, to complete what 
the emperor Charles V. had begun, issued a 
proclamation, containing four clauses, viz: — 

1. To shut up all protestant churches ; 

2. To banish all protestant nobles; 

3. To burn all protestant clergymen; 

4. To hang all protestant schoolmasters. 

Upon this proclamation, several protes- 
tants, who had escaped the persecution by 
hiding themselves, determined to withdraw 
from Bohemia, and seek an asylum in some 
other country. An uninhabited part of 
Poland was fixed upon as the place of re- 
treat, and they removed to it, with all possi- 
ble secrecy, in three bands ; (putting the 
place of their nativity to enjoy their reli- 
gion in quiet, and follow the dictates of their 
consciences without molestation. 

" But oh ! when from our country we depart, 
The native Ibiulness clings around the heart ; 
That charm that seems where'er we drew our breath, 
And makes our birthplace haunt us e'en lo death." 

But when these worthy wanderers arri- 
ved in Pcdand they were greatly disap- 
pointed ; for though the spot they had fixed 

upon for their residence was uninhabited, 
and uncultivated, yet the bishop of that part 
of the country, who deemed it in his diocese, 
procured an order from the king to drive 
them thence. This mandate he executed 
with rigor, and the poor protestants pro- 
ceeded to ducal Prussia, where Albert, 
duke of Brandenburg, to whom that country 
belonged, appointed them a district to in- 
habit in the diocese of a protestant bishop, 
named Paul Speratus, who very kindly re- 
ceived them, and assisted them till they had 
built houses for their residence, and cultiva- 
ted lands for their, subsistence. 

Several protestants, however, still re- 
mained in the rocks, woods, and caves of 
Bohemia, which the king well knowing, 
ordered rewards to be set upon their heads, 
but more particularly for apprehending the 
clergy. But his endeavors were so little 
successful, that in the course of several 
months he could only procure three clergy- 
men, and seven or eight of the laity, to be 
taken. One of the clergymen escaped, in 
a most singular manner, from a strong dun- 
geon in the castle of Prague, and got safe 
to Prussia, where he joined the protestants 
who had emigrated to that country. Anoth- 
er was three times racked, and then having 
been imprisoned seventeen years, fell a mar- j 
tyr to the hardships of his confinement ; and i 
the third was burnt for refusing to recant. | 

The baron of Scanaw was apprehend- \ 
ed, and charged with being a heretic, | 
and with having a treasonable design to ( 
subvert the government. Being condemn- '( 
ed to the rack, before the executioners had i 
time to fasten the cords, he suddenly cut j 
out his own tongue, and then wrote upon | 
a piece of paper these words : " 1 did this '. 
extraordinary acti(m, because I would not, | 
by means of any tortures, be brought to 
accuse myself,or others, as I might, through 
the excruciating torments of the rack, be 
impelled to utter falsehoods." This singu- 
lar occurrence surprised all present, but 
did not save the baron from the rack, who 
was tormented with such severity, that he 
soon expired. (See engraving.) 







HE emperor Ferdinand, 
whose hatred to the Bo- 
hemian protestants was 
ing he had sufficiently 
oppressed them, institu- 
ted a High Court of Reformers upon the 
plan of the inquisition, with this difference, 
that the reformers were to remove from 
place to place, aTid always to be attended 
by a body of troops. 

These reformers consisted chiefly of; 
Jesuits, and from their decisions there was 
no appeal, by which it may b.e easily con- 
jectured, that it was a dreadful tribunal 

This bloody court, attended by a body of J 
troops, made the tour of Bohemia, in which ; 
they seldom examined or saw a prisoner, : 
suffering tlie soldiers to murder the protes- 
tants as they pleased, and then to make a 
report of the matter to them afterward. 

The first victim of their cruelty was an 
aged minister, whom they killed as he lay 
sick in bed ; the next day they robbed and 
murdered another, and soon after shot a 
third, as he was preaching in his pulpit. 

A nobleman and a clergyman, who re- 
sided in a protestant village, hearing of the 
approach of the high court of reformers 
and the troops, fled from the place, and 
secreted themselves. The soldiers, how- 
ever, on their arrival, seized upon a school- 
niaste,. and asked him where the lord of 
that place and the minister were conceal- 
ed, and wheie they had hid their treasures. 
The schoolmastei plied, he could not 
answer either of the questions. They \ 
then stripped him naked, bound him with | 
cords, and beat him most unmercifully with < 
cudgels. This cruelty, not extorting any | 

confession from him, tliey scorched him in ' 


various parts of his body ; when, to gain 
a respite from his torments, he promised to 
show them where the treasures were hid. 
The soldiers gave ear to this with pleasure, 
and the schoolmaster led them to a ditch 
f'jll of stones, saying, " Beneath (hose stones 
are the riches ye seek for." Eager after 
money, they went to work, and soon re- 
moved those stones, but not finding what 
they sought after, beat the schoolmaster to 
death, buried him in the ditch, and covered 
him with the very stones he had made them \ 
remove. < 

Some of the soldiers ravished the daugh- \ 
ters of a worthy protestant before his face, ] 
and then tortured him to death. A minister 
and his wife they tied back to back, and 
burnt. Another minister they hung upon 
a cross beam, and making a fire under him. 
broiled him to death. A gentleman they 
hacked into small pieces ; and they filled a 
young man's mouth with gunpowder, and 
setting fire to it, blew his head to pieces. 

As their principal rage was directed 
against the clergy, they took a pious prot- 
estant minister, and tormented him daily 
for a month together, in the following man- 
ner, making their cruelty regular, systematic, 
and progressive: — 

1. They placed him amidst them, and 
made him the subject of their derision and 
mockery, during a whole day's entertain- 
ment, trying to exhaust his patience, but in 
vain, for he bore the whole with a true 
Christian fortitude. 

2. They spit in his face, pulled his nose, 
and pinched him in most parts of his body. 

3. He was hunted like a wild beast, till 
ready to expire with fatigue. 

4. They made him run the gantlope be- 
tween two ranks of them, each striking him 
with a twisj. 



5. He was beat with their fists. 

6. He was beat with ropes. 

7. They scourged him with wires. 

8. He was beat with cudgels. 

9. They tied him up by his heels with 
his head downward, till the blood started 
out of his nose, mouth, &c. 

10. They hung him up by the right arm till 
it was dislocated, and then had it set again. 

11. The same was repeated with his 
left arm. 

12. Burning papers, dipped in oil, were 
placed between his fingers and toes. 

13. His flesh was torn with red hot pin- 

14. He was put to the rack. 

15. They pulled off the nails of his 
right hand. 

16. The same repeated with his left hand. 

17. He was bastinadoed on his feet. 

18. A slit was made in liis right ear. 

19. The same repeated on his left ear. 

20. His nose was slit. 

21. They whipped him through the town 
upon an ass. 

22. They made several incisions in his 

23. They pulled oflT the toenails of his 
right foot. 

24. The same repeated with his left foot. 

25. He was tied up by the loins, and 
suspended for a considerable time. 

26. The teeth of his upper jaw were 
pulled out. 

27. The same was repeated with his J 
lower jaw. s 

28. Boiling lead was poured on his > 
fingers. i 

29. The same repeated with his toes. \ 

30. A knotted cord was twisted about 
his forehead in such a manner, as to force 
out his eyes. 

During the whole of these horrid cruel- 
ties, particular care was taken that his 
wounds should not mortify, and not to in- 
jure him mortally till the last day, when the 
forcing out his eyes proved his death. 

Innumerable were the other murders and 
depredations committed by these unfeeling 
brutes, and shocking to humanity were the 
cruelties which they inflicted on the poor 
Bohemian protestants. The winter being 
far advanced, however, the high court of 
I reformers, with their infernal band of mili- 
tary rufiians, thought proper to return to 
Prague ; but on their way meeting with a 
protestant pastor, they could not resist the 
temptation of feasting their barbarous eyes 
with a new kind of cruelty, which had just 
suggested itself to the diabolical imagina- 
tion of one of the soldiers. This was to 
strip the minister naked, and alternately to 
cover him with ice and burning coals. This 
novel mode of tormenting a fellow-creature 
was immediately put in practice, and the 
unhappy victim expired beneath the tor- 
ments, which seemed to delight his inhu- 
man persecutors. 


I HE general persecutions in 
Germany were principally 
occasioned by the doctrines 
and ministry of Martin Lu- 
ther. Indeed, the pope was 
so terrified at the success 
of that courageous reformer, that he deter- 
mined to engage the emperor, Charles the 
Fifth, at any rate, in the scheme to attempt 
their extirpation. 


To this end : — 

1. He gave the emperor two hundred 
thousand crowns in ready money. 

2. He promised to maintain twelve thou- 
simd fools, and five thousand horses, for the 
space of six numllis, or during a campaign. 5 

3. He allowed the (MUperor to receive I 
one half of the revenues of the clergy of | 
the empire, during the war. | 

4. He permitted the emperor to pledge | 




the abbey-lands for five hundred thousand 
crowns, to assist in carrying on hostilities 
against the protestants. 
I Thus prompted and supported, the em- 
I peror undertook the extirpation of the prot- 
j estants, against whom, indeed, he was par- 
( ticularly enraged himself; and, for this 
I purpose, a formidable army was raised in 
\ Germany, Spain, and Italy. 
I The protestant princes, in the niean- 
'. time, formed a powerful confederacy, in 
I order to repel the impending blow. A 
I great army was raised, and the command 
I given to the elector of Saxony, and the 
landgrave of Hesse. The imperial forces 
were commanded by the emperor of Ger- 
many in person, and the eyes of all Europe 
were turned on the event of the war. 

At length their armies met, and a despe- 
rate engagement ensued, in which the 
protestants were defeated, and the elector 
of Saxony, and landgrave of Hesse, both 
taken prisoners. This fatal blow was suc- 
ceeded by a horrid persecution, the sever- 
ities of which were such, that exile might 
be deemed a mild fate, and concealment in 
a dismal wood pass for happiness. In such 
times a cave is a palace, a rock a bed of 
down, and wild roots delicacies. 

Those who were taken experienced the 
most cruel tortures that infernal imagina- 
tions could invent ; and, by their constancy 
evinced, that a real Christian can surmount 
every difficulty, and despise every danger, 
to acquire a crown of martyrdom. 

Henry Voes and John Esch, being ap- 
prehended as protestants, were brought to 
examination ; when Voes, answering for 
himself and the other, gave the following 
answers to some questions asked by a 
priest, who examined them by order of the 
magistracy: — 

Priest. Were you not both, some years 
ago, Augustine friars ? 
Voes. Yes. 

Priest. How came you to quit the bosom 
of the church of Rome ? 

Voes. On account of her abominations. 
Priest. In what do you believe ? 

Voes. In the Old and New Testaments. \ 

Priest. Do you believe in the writings | 

of the fathers, and the decrees of the \ 

councils ? > 

Voes. Yes, if they agree with scripture. ( 

Priest. Did not Martin Luther seduce s 
you both ? 

Voes. He seduced us even in the very 
same manner as Christ seduced the apostles; 
that is, he made us sensible of the frailty 

of our bodies, and the value of our souls. \ 

This examination was sufficient ; they | 

were both condemned to the flames, and, \ 

soon after, suffered with that manly forti- . 

tude which becomes Christians, when they } 

receive a crown of martyrdom. ^ 

Henry Sutphen, an eloquent and pious \ 

preacher, was taken out of his bed in the { 

middle of the night, and compelled to walk \ 

barefoot a considerable way, so that his \ 

feet were terribly cut. He desired a horse, \ 

but his conductors said, in derision, " A ^ 

horse for a heretic ; no, no, heretics may \ 

go barefoot." When he arrived at the > 

place of his destination, he was condemned ^ 

to be burnt ; but, during the execution, ^ 

many indignities were offered him, as those \ 

who attended, not content with what he \ 

suffered in the flames, cut and slashed him | 

in a most terrible manner. > 

Many were murdered at Halle ; Middle- f 

burg being taken by storm, all the protes- | 

tants were put to the sword, and great num- > 

bers were burned at Vienna. ] 

An officer being sent to put a minister to > 

death, pretended, when he came to the \ 

clergyman's house, that his intentions were c 

only to pay him a visit. The minister, not \ 

suspecting the intended cruelty, entertained | 

his supposed guest in a very cordial man- < 

ner. As soon as dinner was over, the j 

officer said to some of his attendants, i 

" Take this clergyman, and hang him." < 

The attendants themselves were so shock- < 

ed, after the civility they had seen, that < 

they hesitated to perform the commands of | 

their master ; and the minister said, "Think i 

what a sting will remainon your conscience, l 

for thus violating the laws of hospitality." j 




The officer, however, insisted upon being 
obeyed, and the attendants, with reluctance, 
performed the execrable office of execu- 

Peter Spengler, a pious divine, of the 
town of Schalet, was thrown into the river, 
and drowned. Before he was taken to the 
banks of the stream, which was to become 
his grave, they led him to the market-place, 
that his crimes might be proclaimed ; which 
were, not going to mass, not making con- 
fession, and not believing in transubstantia- 
tion. After this ceremony was over, he 
made a most excellent discourse to the 
people, and concluded with a kind of hymn 
of a very edifying nature, which it would 
be unnecessary to translate, as the follow- 
ing poem, in the English language, on the 
same subject, and from the same text, per- 
fectly preserves the sentiments : — 


" That they all may become as thou. Father, art in me, and 
I in thee ; that they also may become in US." — John, 
xvii. 21. 

" Jesus, thy name is sweet to me, 
For worlds 1 would not part from thee ; 
Of all the names in heaven above, 
There's none replete like thine with love. 

" In THKK, immortal beauties shine, 
111 THKK, th' uiiitrd brethren join ; 
In TIIKK, all raii.'somed souls delight, 
In THK1<2, thy people's hearts unite. 

" Thou art our God, and thou alone, 
May we in spirit all be one : 
One with each other let us be. 
And one with Christ eternally. 

" Thy people, Lord, are of one mind, 
And each to each in hearts conjoined ; 
Nor earth, nor hell, nor depth, nor height, 
Their fellowship can disunite. 

" Jesus, Jehovah's only Son, 
With God the Father thou art one ; 
So are thy children one with Ihee, 
In sweet and endless unity. 

" The world may all to pieces break, 
The earth and seas endure a rack ; 
'I'he church of Christ for ever stands, 
Immoveable in Jesus' hands." 

A protestant gentleman being ordered to 
lose his head for not renouncing his religion, 
went cheerfully to the place of execution. 
A friar came to him, and said these words 
in a low tone of voice: " As you have a 
great reluctance publicly to abjure your 
faith, whisper your confession into my ear, 
and I will absolve your sins." To this 
the gentleman loudly replied: " Trouble me 
not, friar, I have confessed my sins to God, 
and obtained absolution through the merits 
of Jesus Christ." Then turning to the ex- 
ecutioner, he said: " Let me not be pester- 
ed with these men, but perform your duty." 
On which his head was struck off at a 
single blow. 

Wolfgang Scuch and John Huglin, two 
worthy ministers, were burned, as was 
Leonard Keyser, a student of the university 
of Werlemburgh : and George Carpenter, 
a Bavarian, was hanged for refusing to re- 
cant protestantism. 


>HAT we may not lead the 
reader into confusion, or 
perplex his memory, we 
shall defer what we have 
to say concerning the 
persecutions in Scotland 
and Ireland, till we have treated of those 
in England. And here it is necessary to 
take notice of some things, without the 
knowledge of which the reader will not 
be able to comprehend the nature of this 

It is an established maxim, that those 

who acquire fortunes by cruelty or any act 

of injustice, enjoy those fortunes with pain 

; rather than with pleasure. Whatever a 

: man obtains by honest industry, he spends 

: it under the smiles of a sincere conscience ; 

whereas the person who either cheats or 

I robs his neighbor has two things to fear: 

: first, the vengeance of civil power, under a 

; variety of different shapes ; and secondly, 

the torturing agonizing pains of a guilty 





\ This leads to the commission of new ^ not approve of the revolution that had taken 'i 

i crimes ; for as the man who has once told place, especially as Henry was of a sour, | 

5 a lie generally tells a hundred more to i morose, and cruel disposition \ 

\ support the assertions in the first, so ill- The crown sat tottering on his head, and I 

I gotten riches, power, or honor, stand in need ;. many conspiracies were formed against his >. 

\ of the same support, and guilt being the government. Some pretended that Richard i 

I foundation, the superstructure is raised by < was still alive, although nothing can be 5 

an accumulation of crimes. 

/ more certain than that he had been mur- 

These observations will in some measure > dered some time before, and undoubtedly 
apply to the subject we are now upon ; and soon after his impi isonment. 

here we must have recourse to history to , Henry was now in a dismal situation 
explain that bloody act, by which many I indeed, there were few of the nobility he 

pious Christians suffered death. 

could place any trust in, and his temper 

> Richard H. of England was a weak ^ was noi, such as to induce them to esteem s 
I prince, and governed by favorites, many of/ and obey him from motives of love. His I 
I whom were foreigners : he had disgusted mind was tinctured with superstition, and i 
J the ancient nobility, who, by the nature of) he had recourse to the clergy, that dead 
I the feudal law, were impatient of control, i weight to the constitution, and at all times 
I He had given to some of these foreigners j the friends of arbitrary power. 
i the wardships of the young nobility, and l The followers of Wickliffe, then called 
I this was sufficient in itself to create a vast / Lollards, were become extremely numer- 
i number of enemies. A restless nobility, / ous, and the clergy were vexed to see them 
; endowed with greater, powers than is con- 1 increase, whatever power or influence they 
^ sistent with the state of a free government, \ might have to molest them in an underhand 
I entered into cabals among themselves, and < manner, they had no authority by law to 
\ invited over from France, Henry, son of ^ put them to death. However, the clergy 
^ John of Gaunt, and made him an of!er of | embraced the favorable opportunity, and 
< the crown, upon condition he would redress < prevailed upf)n the king to suffer a bill to 

\ those grievances they complained of. Rich- < be brought into parliament, by which all j 

> ard was then in Ireland, but landing soon $ Lollards who remained obstinate, should I 
I afterward, in Wales, he was taken prisoner >' be delivered over to the civil power and \ 
^ and brought up to London. j burnt as heretics. This act was the first \ 
$ A parliament met at Westminster, in s in this island for the burning of people for | 

> which Richard signed a formal revocation i their religious sentiments ; it passed in \ 

> of all pretensions to the crown; and Henry, ] the year 1401, and was soon after put into I 
] duke of Lancaster, was crowned under the , execution. j 
I title of Henry I V. This happened in 1399, The first person who suffered in conse- | 
) and the captive king was sent prisoner to quence of this cruel act was William San- 

\ the castle of Pomfret, in Yorkshire : that \ tree or Sawtree (for he is called by both . 

he was murdered in that castle can not be ^ names), formerly parish priest of the church | 
■ doubted, but the time is uncertain. The > <»f St. Margaret, in the parish of Lynn, in \ 

generality of our historians make him a Norfolk, but afterward of St. Osyth, in 
J prisoner above two years; but this is in London. It appears from Dr. Fuller's \ 
j our opinion improbable, for as Charles I. church history, that he had formerly abjur- | 
/ said : " There are but few steps between I ed those articles (for which he suffered | 
} the prisons and the graves of princes." death), before the bishop of Norwich. | 

I Richard had always been much favored Therefore, he was adjudged to be degraded | 
i by the nobility of Yorkshire, and of the > and deprived, which was done in ihe fol- i 

\ other northern counties, so that they did J lowing manner : — | 

tji 12 -t 

! 178 


First, from the order of priest, by taking i this synod, said to contain heresy. The \ 
from him the paten, chalice, and plucking I persons who made any use of them were I 

the chasule from his back ; 

denoMiitiaied heretics, or Lollards, a term , 

Secondly, deacon, by taking from him I we have already explained. The bishops i 

\ the New Testament, and the stole ; I and dignified cleryy looked upon the doc- j 

? Thirdly, subdeacon, by taking from him | trines and practices of the Lollards as i 

l the alb and maniple; \ destructive of church power ; and tht^refore 5 

\ Fourthly, acolyte, by taking from him I they found themselves under the necessity j 
,. . . , > „r .i„; II .1 1,1 .„ .1 ( 

the candlestick and taper ; 

of doing all they could to suppress them. 

Fifthly, exorcist, by taking from him the I In order thereunto there were twelve i 

' priests chosen out of the university of Ox- i 

book of constitutions ; 

Sixthly, sexton, by taking from him the \ ford, who were to make diligent search ! 
key of the church-door and surplice. | after, and apprehend all such heretics as 

To all these indignities this pious man | they could lay hold of. 

\ submitted with patience, and sealed his Arundel, the archbishop, already men- | 

i testimony with his blood, at a stake erected tioned, was of such a haughty disposition, | 

for that purpose in Smithfield, where he and so much in love with religious popidar j 

\ was burnt to death with many circumstan- ( applause, that he ordered that the bells of j 

i ces of cruelty, to the no small pleasure of London should not be rung for one whole j 

\ the corrupted clergy. \ week ; however, he was not treated with ) 

- It is necessary in this place to observe, that respect bethought his dignity becoming j 

j that although this cruel act continued in when he came into that city. Such acts of j 

force till the year 1732, yet it was not, exorbitant clerical power were common j 

properly speaking, a law binding on the enough in that age, but even those acts | 

> subject. That it never passed through the < paved the way for that reformation uuder ^ 

I house of commons the author of this can which we now live. 

1 assert, from the records now in the British It is impossible, in a proper manner, to 
Museum. The commons entered a protest form a"y ji'st idea of the corrupt state of 
against it, and so did several of the liege the clergy at this time. There were three 
nobility ; but as there were no less than popes together, which occasioned the call- 
twenty-six mitred abbots in parliament, be- ii'g 'he council of Constance, to consider | 
, sides the bishops, the king gave his assent, of these abuses. Happy would it have 1 
1 which in violent times was not much at- been, had this council confined themselves 

\ tended to. 

: to those duties that became theircharacters; 

Historical integrity obliges us to take but this was not to take place. It would 

noliceofall the consequences of this bloody I have been meritorious in them to have 

act, down as far as our account of the pe- deposed all the three popes, and appointed 

! hod mentioned in this chajjter reaches, and a new one: but what laughing-stocks would 

\ therefore we are led to mention the fate of 

\ Sir John Oldcastle, Lord Cobham. 

) Soon after the bloody statute already 

mentioned had passed, Thomas Arundal, 
' archbishop of Canterbury, convened a gen- 
j eral assembly of the clergy in the church 
I of St. Paul's, in London, to consult of mat- 
i ters relating to the church, and more equally 

how to suppress the Lollards, who follow 

they then liave made themselves to the 
people ! 

About this time thirty-six persons, de- 
nominated Lollards, suffered death in Si. 
Giles', for no other reason than j)rofes8ing 
their attachment to the doctrines of VVick- 
lifTe. They were hung on gibbets, and 
fagots being placed under them, as soon 
as they were suspended, fire was set to 

\ ed the doctrines of Wickline ; and their j them, so that they were burnt while hang- j 
J opinions and books of Wickliffe were, by j ing. (See engraving.) 







stition. However, the unafTected j)ipty of 
Mr. Bilney, and the cheerful and natural 
eloquence of honest Latimer, wrought great- 
ly upon the junior students, and increased 
the credit of the protestants so much, that 
the papist clergy were greatly alarmed, 
and, according to their usual practice, called 
I aloud for the secular arm. 
/ Under this arm Bilney suffered at Nor- 
/ wich : but liis sufTerings, far from shaking 

> the reformation at Cambridge, inspired the 
^ leaders of it with new courage. Latimer 
I began to exert himself more than he had 

< yet done ; and succeeded to that credit with 
^ his party, which Bilney had so long sup- 

< ported. Among other instances of his zeal 

> and resolution in this cause, he gave one 

< which was very remarkable : he had the 
■, courage to write to the king (Henry VIII.) 
\ against a proclamation, then just publislied, 

UGH LATIMER was forbidding the use of the Bible in Enghs'u, 
born of mean parents at | and other books on religious subjects. He 
Tiiirkeston, in Leices- > had preached before his majesty once or 
tershire, about the year > twice at Windsor ; and had been taken 
1475, who gave him a $ notice of by him in a more affable manner, 
good education, and sent | than that monarch usually indulged towarf' 
him to Cambridge, where he showed him- 1 his subjects. But whatever hopes of pre- 
self a zealous papist, and inveighed much I ferment his sovereign's favor might have 
against the reformers, who, at that time, I raised in him, he chose to put all to the 
began to make some figure in England. I hazard, rather than omit what he thought 
But conversing frequently with Thomas > his duty. His letter is the picture of an 
Bilney, the most considerable person at > honest and sincere heart : he concludes in 
Cambridge of all those who favored the I these terms : " Accept, gracious sovereign, 
reformation, he saw the errors of popery, ; without displeasure, what I have written ; 
and became a zealous protestant. 1 1 thought it my duty to mention these things 

Latimer being thus converted, labored, | to your majesty. No personal quarrel, as 
both publicly and privately, to promote the i God shall judge me, have I with any man : 
reformed opinions, and pressed the neces- \ I wanted otdy to induce your majesty to 
sity of a holy life, in opposition to those ^ consider well, what kind of persons you 
outward performances, which were then i have aliout you, and the ends for which 
thought the essentials of religion. This | they counsel. Indeed, great prince, many 
rendered him obnoxious at Cambridge, then ^ of ihcm, or they are much slandered, have 
the seat of ignorance, bigotry, and super- ^ very private ends. God grant your majesty 




may see through all the designs of evil 
men, and be in all things equal to the high 
office, with which you are intrusted. Where- 
fore, gracious king, remember yourself; 
have pity upon your own soul, and think 
that the day is at hand, when you shall give 
account of your office, and the blood which 
hath been shed by your sword : in the 
which day, that your grace may stand stead- 
fastly, and not be ashamed, but be clear 
and ready in your reckoning, and have your 
pardon sealed with the blood of our Savior 
Christ, which alone serveth at that day, is 
my daily prayer to him, who suffered death 
for our sins. The spirit of God preserve 

Lord Cromwell was now grown up into 
power, and being a favorer of the reforma- 
tion, he obtained a benefice in Wil shire for 
Latimer, who immediately went thither and 
resided, discharging his duty in a very con- 
scientious manner, though persecuted much 
at the same time, by the Romish clergy ; 
who, at length, carried their malice so far 
as to obtain an archiepiscopal citation for 
his appearance in London. His friends 
would have had him fly ; ^but their persua- 
sions were in vain. He set out for London 
in the depth of winter, and under a severe 
fit of the stone and colic ; but he was most 
distressed at the thoughts of leaving his 
parish exposed to the popish clergy. On 
his arrival at London, he found a court of 
bishops and canonists ready to receive him ; 
where, instead of being examined, as he 
expected, about his sermons, a paper was 
put into his hands, which he was ordered 
lo subscribe, declaring his belief in the 
efficacy of masses for the souls in purgatory, 
of prayers to the dead saints, of pilgrimages 
to their sepulchres and reliques, the pope's 
power to forgive sins, the doctrine of merit, 
the seven sacraments, and the worship of 
images ; which, when he refused to sign, 
the archbishop, with a frown, begged he 
would consider what he did. " We intend 
not," said he, " Mr. Latimer, to be hard 
upon you ; we dismiss you for the present ; 
take a copy of the articles ; examine them 

5 carefully, and God grant, that at our next 
I meeting we may fine each other in better 
^ temper." 

I The next, and several succeeding meet- 

\ ings, the same scene was acted over again. 

; He continued inflexible, and they continued 

< to distress him. Three times every week 

they regularly sent for him, with a view 

either to draw something from him by cap- 

^ tious questions, or to teaze him at length 

into compliance. Tired out with this usage, 

after he was summoned at last, instead of 

going he sent a letter to the archbishop, in 

which, with great freedom, he told him : 

" That the treatment he had lately met with 

\ had fretted him into such a disorder as 

\ rendered him unfit to attend that day ; that 

I in the meantime he could not help taking 

\ this opportunity to expostulate with his 

^ grace fur detaining hiin so long from his 

\ duty ; that it seemed to him most unac- 

\ countable, that they, who never preached 

> themselves, should hinder others ; that, as 
I for their examination of him, he really 

> could not imagine w-hat they aimed at; 
\ they pretended one thing in the beginning, 
\ and another in the progress ; that if his 
\ sermons were what gave offence, which he 
'/ persuaded himsell were neither contrary to 
^ the truth, nor to any canon of the clmrch, 

> he was ready to answer whatever might be 
I thought exceptionable in them ; that he 

> wished a little more regard might be had 

> to the judgment of the people ; and that a 
distinction might be made between the or- 
dinances of God and man ; that if some 
abuses in religion did prevail, as was then 
commonly supposed, he ihoughl preaching 
was the best means to discountenance 

I them ; that he wished all pastors might be 
obliged to perform their duty ; but, 
however, liberty might be given to those 
who were willing ; that as to the articles 
proposed to him, he begged to be excused 
subscribing to them ; while he lived, he 
never would abet superstition ; arid that, 
lastly, he hoped the archbishop would ex- 
cuse what he had written ; he knew his 
duty to his superiors, and would practise it; 



183 t 

but in that case, he thought a stronger ob- 
ligation laid upon him.'' 

the rest, the bishop of Worcester, being ; 
then in town, waited upon the king, with i 

The bishops, however, continued their | his offering ; but instead of a purse of gold, \ 
i persecutions, but their schemes were frus- < wliich was the common oblation, he pre- 

j trated in an unexpected manner. Latimer sentedaNewTestament,with a leaf doubled I 

being raised to the see of Worcester, in the down in a very conspicuous manner, to this \ 

year 1533, by the favor of Ann Boleyn, passage : "Whoremongers and adulterers > 

then the favorite wife of Henry, to whom, I God will judge." I 

most probably, he was recommended by ^ In 1539 he was summoned again to at- i 

Lord Cromwell, he had now a more exten- 1 tend the parliament : the bishop of Win- j 

sive field to promote the principles of the ? chester, Gardiner, was his great enemy ; | 

reformation, in which he labored with the I who, upon a particular occasion, when the '. 

utmost pains and assiduity. All the histo- ^ bishops were with the king, kneeled down J 

rians of those times mention him as a per- > and solemnly accused Bishop Latimer of a i 

son remarkably zealous in the discharge ^ seditious sermon preached at court. Being { 

of his new office ; and tells us, that in | called upon by the king, with some stern- | 

overlooking the clergy of his diocese, he > ness, to vindicate himself, Latimer was so j 

was uncommonly active, warm, and resolute, ^ far from denying and palliating what he had | 

and presided in his ecclesiastical court with ,' said, that he boldly justified it ; and turning > 

the same spirit. In visiting, he was fre- '/ to the king, vvitli that noble unconcern, > 

quent and observant ; in ordaining, strict ? which a good conscience inspires : " I | 
and wary ; in preaching, indefatigable ; \ never thought myself worthy," said he, 
and in reproving and exhorting, severe and | " nor did I ever sue to be a preacher before 

j your grace ; but I was called to it, and 


} In 1536 he received a summons to at- ( would be willing, if you mislike it, to give 
I tend the parliament and convocation, which \ place to my betters : for I grant, there may 
! gave him a further opportunity of promoting ] be a great many more worthy the room than I 
> the work of reformation, whereon his heart < I am. And if it be your grace's pleasure ^ 
\ was so much set. Many alterations were '. to allow them for preachers, I can be con- ^ 
I made in religious matters, and a few months I tent to bear their books after them. But > 
I after the Bible was translated into English, | if your grace allow me for a preacher, I \ 
and recommended to a general perusal, in would desire you to give me leave to dis^ | 

October, 1537. 

charge my conscience, and to frame ray 

Latimer, highly satisfied with the pros- { doctrine according to my audience. I had 
pectof the times, now repaired to his diocese, been a very dolt, indeed, to have preached ') 
having made a longer stay in London than i so at the borders of your realm, as I preach | 
was absolutely necessary. He had no tal- before your grace." The greatness of his ) 
ents, and he pretended to have none forU^swer bafiled his accuser's malice; the i 
state affairs. His whole ambition was to | severity of the king's countenance changed | 
discharge the pastoral functions of a bishop, into a gracious smile, and the bishop was '< 
neither aiming to display the abilities of a | dismissed with that obliging freedom, which ! 
statesman, nor those of a courtier. How i this monarch never used but to those he ! 
veryunqualified he was lo support the latter esteemed. 

of these characters, the following story will •> However, as the bishop could not give 
prove : it was the custom in those days J his vote for the act of the six papistical J 
for the bishops to make presents to the | articles, drawn up by the duke of Norfolk, < 
king on new-year's day, and many of them / he thought it wrong to hold any office in a < 
would present very liberally, proportioning / church where such terms of communion \ 
their gifts to their expectances. Among l were required, and therefore he resigned ] 




his bishopric, and retired into the country, 
where he purposed to live a sequestered 
life. But in the midst of his security, an 
unhappy accident carried him again into 
ihctempestuous weather, which was abroad : 
he received a bruise by the fall of a tree, 
and the contusion was so dangerous, that 
he was obliged to seek out for better as- 
sistance than could be afforded him by the 
unskilful surgeons of those parts. With 
this view he repaired to London, where he 
had the misfortune to see the fall of his 
patron, the lord Cromwell : a loss which 
he was soon made sensit)le of; for Gar- 
diner's emissaries quickly found him out in 
his concealment, and something, which 
somebody had somewhere heard him say, 
against ihe six articles, being alleged 
against him, he ^was sent to the* tower ; 
where, without any judicial examination, 
he sufl'ered, through one pretence or another, 
a cruel imprisonment for the remaining six 
years of Kitig Henry's reign. 

On the death of Henry, the protestant 
interest revived under his son Edward ; 
and Laiimer, immediately upon the change 
of the government, was set at liberty. An 
address was made by the protector, to re- 
store him to his bishopric : the protector 
was very willing to gratify the parliament, 
and proposed the resumption of his bishop- 
ric to Mr. Latimer; who now thinking him- 
self unequal to the weight of it, refu.-sed to re- 
sume it, choosing rather to accept an invi- 
tation AoMi his friend, Archbishop Crannier, 
and to take up his residence with him at 
Lainl)elh ; where his chief employment was 
to hciir the complaints, and redress the 
grievances of the poor people ; and his 
character, for services of tliis kind, was so 
universally krunvn, that strangers from every 
part of England would resort to him. 

In these empl«)yinenis he spent more 
than two years, during which time he as- 
sisted tlio Jirchbiahop in composing the 
homilies, which were set forth by authori- 
ty, in the first year »)f King Edward : he 

was also appointed to preach the Lent 
sermons before his majesty, which office 
he also performed during the first three 
years of his reign. 

Upon the revolution, which happened at 
court after the death of the duke of Somer- 
set, he retired into the country, and made 
useofthe king's licensftus a general preach- 
er in those parts, where he thought his la- 
bors might be most serviceable. 

He was thus employed during the re- 
mainder of that reiijn, and continued the 
same course, for a short lime, in the begin- 
ning of the next ; but as soon as the re- 
introduction of popery was resolved on, 
the first step toward it was the prohibition 
of all preaching, and licensing only such 
as were known to be popishly inclined. 
The bishop of Winchester, who was now 
prime-minister, having proscribed Mr. Lat- 
imer from the first, sent a message to cite 
him before the council. He had notice 
of this design some hours before the mes- 
senger's arrival, but he made no use of the 
intelligence. The messenger found him 
equipped for his journey, at which, ex- 
pressing his surprise, Mr. Latimer told 
him, that he was ready to attend him to Lon- 
don, thus called upon to answer lor his 
faith, as he ever was to take any journey 
in his life ; and that he doubted not but 
that God, who had enabled him to stand 
before two princes, would enable him to 
stand before a third. The messenger then 
acquai[iling him, that he had no orders to 
seize his person, delivered a letter and 
departed. However, opening ihe h-tier, 
' and finding it a citation from the council, 
/ he resolved to obey it, and set out iinme- 
i diatcly. As he j)assed through .Suiiihfield, 
^ he said, cheerfully : "This place of burn- 
l ing hath long groaned for me." 'i'lie next 
I morning he wailed upon the cotincil, who 
I having loaded him with many severe re- 
^ proaches, sent him to the Tower, whence, 
< after some time, ho was removed lo Ox- 
$ ford. 








catholic religion, but was brought over to 
that of the reformed by means of reading 
Bertram's book on the Sacrament ; and he 
pvas confirmed in the same by frequent 
conferences with Cranmer and Peter Mar- 
tyr, so that he became a zealous promoter 
of the reformed doctrines and discipline 
during the reign of King Edward. 

On the accession of Queen Mary he shar- 
ed the same fate with many others who 
professed ihe truth of the gospel. Being 
accused of heresy, he was first removed 
from his bishopric, then sent prisoner to 
ihe Tower of London, and afterward to 
Bocardo prison, in Oxford ; whence he 
was committed to the custody of Mr. Irish, 
mayor of that city, in whose house he re- 
mained till the day of his execution. ^ 

On the 30th of September, 1555, these \ 
two eminent prelates were cited to appear I 
before the divinity-school at Oxford. | 

Agreeable to this citation, they both ap- I 
peared on the day appointed. < 

Dr. Ridley was first examined, and severe- [ 
ly reprimanded by the bishop of Lincoln, 

bishop of London, re- 
ceived the earliest part 
of his education at 
whence he was remov- 
l ed to ihe university of Cambridge, where 
j his great learniii", and distinguished abili- 
5 ties, so recommended him, that he was 
') made master of Pembroke-hall, in that uni- 
; versity. 

I After being some years in this oHlce he 

left CambfiJife, and travelled into various 

I parts of Europe for the advancement of 

'■; knowledge. On his return to England he 

i was made chaplain to King Henry VI 11., 

;■ and bishop of Rochester, from which he 

was translated to the see of London by 

King Edward VI. 

f In private life he was pious, humane, 

\ and affable ; in public he was learned, 

I sound, and eloquent ; diligent in his duty, 

I and very popuhir as a preacher. 

( He had been educated in the Roman 

because, when he heard the cardinal's grace, | 
■ and the pope's holiness mentioned in the I 
commission, he kept on his cap. The words 
of the bishop were to this effect: "Mr. 
Ridley, if you will not be uncovered, in 
respect to the pope, and the cardinal his 
legate, by whose authority we sit in com- 
mission, your cap shall be taken off." 

The bishop of Lincoln then made a 
formal harangue, in which he entreated Rid- 
ley to return to the holy mother-church, 
insisted on the antiquity and authority of 
the see of Rome, and of the pope, as the 
immediate successor of St. Peter. 

Dr. Ridley, in return, strenuously oppo- 
sed the arguments of the bishop, and boldly ^ 
vindicated the doctrines of the reformation. 

After much debate, the five following | 




articles were proposed to him, and his im- 
mediate and explicit answers required : — 

1. That he had frequently affirmed, and 
openly maintained and defended, that the 
true natural body of Christ, after consecra- 
tion of the priest, is not really present in 
the sacrament of the altar. 

2. That he had often publicly affirmed, 
and defended, that in the sacrament of the 
altar remaineth still the substance of bread 

I and wine. 

i 3. That he had often openly affirmed, 

I and obstinately maintained, that in the mass 

> is no propitiatory sacrifice for the quick and 

( the dead. 

: 4. That the aforesaid assertions have 

/ been solemnly condemned by the scholasti- 

j cal censure of this school, as heretical, and 

I contrary to the catholic faith, by the pro- 

I locutor of the convocation-house, and sundry 

I learned men of both universities. 

I 5. That all and singular the premises 

\ are true, and notoriously known, by all 

J near at hand, and in distant places. 

' To the first of these articles Mr. Ridley 

' replied, that he believed Christ's body to 

I be in the sacrament, really, by grace and 

I spirit effectually, but not so as to include a 

\ lively and moveable body under the forms 

I of bread and wine. 

} To the second he answered in the af- 

\ firmative. 

5 Part of the fourth he acknowledged, and 

I part he denied. 

I To the fifth, he answered, that the premi- 

I ees were so far true, as his replies had set 

\ forth. Whether all men spake evil of them 

5 he knew not, because he came not so much 

< abroad to hear what every man reported. 

5 He was then ordered to appear the fol- 

\ lowing day in St. Mary's church, in Ox- 

I ford, to give his final answer ; after which 

1 he was committed to the custody of the 

I mayor. 

When Latimer was brought into court, 
the bishop of Lincoln warmly exhorted him 
to return to the unity of the church, from 
which he had revolted. 

The same articles which were proposed 

to Dr. Ridley were read to Mr. Latimer, 
and he was required to give a full and 
satisfactory answer to each of them. 

His replies not being satisfactory to the 
court, he was dismissed ; but ordered to 
appear in St. Mary's church, at the same 
time with Dr. Ridley. 

On the day appointed the commissioners 
met, when Dr. Ridley being first brought 
before them, the bishop of Lincoln stood 
up, and began to repeat the proceedings of 
the former meeting, assuring him that he 
had full liberty to make what alterations he 
pleased in his answers to the articles pro- 
posed to him, and to deliver the same to the 
court in writing. 

After some debate, Dr. Ridley took out 
a paper, and began to read ; but the bishop 
interrupted him, and ordered the beadle to 
take the writing from him. The doctor 
desired permission to read on, declaring the 
content were only his answers to the arti- 
cles proposed ; but the bishop and others, 
having privately reviewed it, would not per- 
mit it to be read in open court. 

When the articles were again admin- 
istered, he referred the notary to his wri- 
ting, who set them down according to the 

The bishop of Gloucester affecting much 
concern for Dr. Ridley, persuaded him not 
to indulge an obstinate temper, but recant 
his erroneous opinions, and return to the 
unity of the holy catholic church. 

Mr. Ridley coolly replied, he was not 
vain of his own understanding, but was 
fully persuaded, that the religion he pro- 
fessed was founded on God's most holy and 
infallible church ; and, therefore, he could 
not abandon or deny the same, consistent 
with his regard for the honor of God, and 
the salvation of his immortal soul. 

He desired to declare his reasons, where- 
fore he could not, with a safe conscience, 
1 admit of the popish supremacy, but his re- 
/ quest was denied. 

j The bishop finding him inflexible in the 
\ faith, according to the doctrine of the ref- 
\ ormation, thus addressed him : " Dr. Rid- 




ley, it is with the utmost concern that I 
observe your stubbornness and obstinacy, in 
persisting in damnable errors and heresies ; 
but unless you recant, I must proceed to 
the other part of my commission, though 
very much against my will and desire." 

Mr. Ridley not making any reply, sen- 
tence of condemnation was read ; after 
which he was carried back to confinement. 

When Mr. Latimer was brought before 
the court, the bishop of Lincoln informed 
him, that though they had already taken 
his answers to certain articles alleged 
against him, yet they had given him time 
to consider on the same, and would permit 
him to make what alterations he should 
deem fit, hoping, by that means, to reclaim 
him from his errors, and bring him over to 
the faith of the holy catholic church. 

The articles were again read to him, 
but he deviated not, in a single point, from 
the answers he had already given. 

Being again warned to recant, and re- 
voke his errors, he refused, declaring, that 
he never would deny God's truth, which 
he was ready to seal with his blood. Sen- 
tence of condemnation was then pronounced 
against him, and he was committed to the 
custody of the mayor. 

A few days after this they were both 
solemnly degraded by the bishopof Glouces- 
ter, and the vice-chancellor of Oxford; after 
which they were delivered over to the secu- 
lar power. 

The 16th of October, 1555, was the day 
appointed for their execution, and the place 
Townditch, behind Baliol college. 

Mr. Latimer went to the stake in an 
humble plain lay-dress, and Dr. Ridley in 
his ecclesiastical iiabit, which he wore 
when a bishop. They embraced each 
other on the melancholy occasion ; and 
Dr. Ridley encouraged his fellow-laborer, 
and fellow-suflerer, in the cause of Christ, 
to be of good cheer, assuring him that God 
would either assuage the fury of the flames, 
or enable them to endure them. 

Our martyrs then kneeled down, and, 
with great earnestness, prayed to Almighty 

God to enable them to sustain the fiery trial 
that awaited them. 

When they arose from prayer, one of the 
popish priests, in an occasional sermon, 
upbraided them with heresy and departure 
from the church of Christ. Dr. Ridley 
was desirous of vindicating himself from 
the aspersion of the priest, but was denied 
that liberty, and commanded to prepare 
immediately for the fire, unless he would 
recant, and abjure his heretical opinions ; 
without hesitation, therefore, he took off his 
clothes, distributed them among the popu- 
lace, and, together with Latimer, was 
chained to the stake. 

Latimer soon expired, crying: "O Father 
of heaven receive my soul." But Ridley, 
by reaeon of the fire burning low, and not 
flaming about his body, endured the most 
exquisite torture, leaping in the fire, and 
begging, for Christ's sake, that the flames 
might surround him ; till, at length, some 
of the spectators having taken off" part of 
I the fagots, the fire had vent, and the bag 
of gunpowder that was fastened to his neck 
exploded, after which he was not seen to 
move, but fell down at the feet of his fel- 
low-sufferer. (See engraving.) 

Thus did these two pious divines, and 
steadfast believers, testify, with their blood, 
the truth of the everlasting gospel, upoo 
which depends all the sinner's hopes of 
salvation ; to suffer for which was the joy, 
the glory of many eminent Christians, who, 
having followed their dear Lord and Mas- 
ter, through much tribulation in this vale 
of tears, will be glorified for ever with 
him, in the kingdom of his Father and our 
Father, of his God and our God. 

Mr. Latimer, at the time of his death, 
was in the eightieth year of his age, and 
preserved the principles he had professed 
with the most distinguished magnanimity. 
He had naturally a happy temper, formed 
on the principles of ^rue Christianity. Such 
was his cheerfulness, that none of the ac- 
cidents of life could discompose him: such 
was his fortitude, that not even the severest 
trials could unma il him ; he had a collected 




spirit, and on no occasion wanted a re- ! distressed. He persevered, to the last, in ;. 

source ; he coidd retire witliin himself, and that faith he had professed, and cheerfully I 

hold the world at defiance. resigned up his life in defence of the irulh < 

Mr. Ridley was no less indefatigable in of the gospel. | 

promoting the reformed religion, than his A few days after Latimer and Ridley \ 

fellow-sufferer Mr. Latimer. He was nat- suffered, John Webb, George Roper, and '. 

urallyof a very easy temper,and distinguish- Gregory Parke, shared the like fate, for ' 

ed for his great piety and humanity to the | professing the truth of the gospel. | 



he became celebrated for his great learning 
and abilities. 

In 1521 he married, by which he for- 
feited the fellowship of Jesus college ; but \ 
his wife dying in child-bed within the year, < 
he was re-elected. This favor he most 1 
gratefully acknowledged, and chose to de- j 
cline an offer c<f a much more valuable fel- | 
lowship in Cardinal Wolsey's new semina- | 
ry at Oxford, rather than relinquish friends t 
who had treated him with the most dis- 
tinguished respect. 

In 1523 he commenced doctor of divini- 
ty; and being in great esteem for theologi- 
cal learning, he was chosen divinity lecturer 
in his own college, and appointed, by the 
university, one of the examiners in that 
science. In this office he principally in- 
culcated the study of the Holy Scriptures, 
then greatly neglected, as being indispensa- \ 
bly necessary for the professors of that di- < 
vine knowledge. i 

The plague happening to break out at | 
Cambridge, Mr. Cranmer, with some of his < 
pupils, removed to Wallham abbey, where, '. 
falling into company with Gardiiier and ( 
Fox, one the secretary, the other almoner I 
of King Henry VIII., that monarch's in- 
tended divorce of Catharine his queen, the 
common subject of discourse in those days, 
came upon the carpet : when Cranmer ad- 
vising an application to our own, and to the 
foreign universities, for their opinion in the 
case, and giving these gentlemen much { 

(HIS eminent prelate was 
born at Aslacton, in Nol- 
tingham.shire, on the 2d of 
July, 1489. His family 
was ancient, and came in 
with William the Con- 
queror. He wasearlydeprivedof his father 
Thomas Cranmer, Esq., and after no ex- 
traordinary education, was sent by his moth- 
er to Cambridge, at the age of fourteen, 
according to the custom of those limes. 

Having completed his studies at the uni- 
versity, he took the usual degrees, and 
was so well beloved that he was chosen 
fellow of Jesus college ; soon after which 



191 \ 

satisfaction, they introduced him to the i 
king, who was so pleased with him, that ;- 
he ordered 1 im to write his ihouohts on tlie ', 
subject, made him his chaplain, and admit- i 
ted him into that favor and esteem, which I 
he never afterward forfeited. 

In 1530 he was sent by the king, with 
a solemn embassy, to dispute on the sub- 
ject of the divorce at Paris, Rome, and 
other foreign parts. At Rome he delivered 
his book, which he had written in defence .; 
of the divorce, to the pope, and ofl'ered ( 
to justify it in a public disputation : but ^ 
after various promises and appointments i 
none appeared to oppose hiui ; while in | 
private conferences he forced them to con- 1 
fess that the marriage was contrary to the ^ 
law of God. The pope constituted him'> 

penitentiary general of Englatid, and dis- < 
missed him. In Germany he gave full < 
satisfaction to many learned men, who were ] 
before of a contrary persuasion : and pre- < 
vailed on the famous Osander (whose niece J 
he married while there) to declare the king's ', 
marriage unlawful. < 

During the time he was abroad, the great \ 
Archbishop Warham died : Henry, con- 
vinced of Cranmer's merit, determined that { 
he should succeed him : and commanded I 
him to return for that purpose. He sus- 
pected the cause, and delayed : he was 
desirous, by all means, to decline this high 
statien ; for he had a true and primitive 
sense of the office. But a spirit so different 
from that of the churchmen of his times ] 
stimulated the king's resolution ; and the > 
more reluctance Cranmer showed, the ^ 
greater resolution Henry exerted. He was \ 
consecrated on March 30, 1533, to the of- \ 
fice ; and though he received the usual i 
bulls from the pope, he protested, at his < 
consecration, against the oath of allegiance, < 
&c., to him. For he had conversed freely \ 
with the reformed in Germany, had read 
Luther's books, and was zealously attached ( 
to the glorious cause of reformation. \ 

The first service he did the king, in his | 
archiepiscopal character, was, pronouncing > 
the sentence of his divorce from Queen ' 


Catherine : and the next in joining his 
hands with Aime Boleyn, the conseiiuonce 
of which marriage was the birih of the 
glorious Elizabeth, to whom he stood god- 

As the queen was greatly interested in 
the reformation, the friends to that good 
work began to conceive high hopes ; and, 
indeed, it went on with desirable success. 
But the fickle disposition of the king, and 
the fatal end of unhappy Anne, for a while, 
alarmed their fears, though, by God's provi- 
dence, without any ill effects. The pope's 
supremacy was universally exploded; mon- 
asteries, &c., destroyed, upon the fullest de- 
tection of the most abominable vices and 
inordiiiances : that valuable bowk of the 
erudition of a Christian man was set forth 
by our i>reat archbishop, with public authori- 
ty : and the Sacred Scriptures, at length, to 
the infinite joy of Cnmmer, and the worthy 
Lord Cromwell, his constant friend and 
associate, were not only translated, but in- 
troduced into every parish. The transla- 
tion was received with inexpressible joy : 
every one, that was able, purchased it, and 
the poor fiocked greedily to hear it read : 
some persons in years learned to read on 
purpose, that they might peruse it : and 
even little children crowded with eager- 
ness to hear it ! We can not help reflect- 
ing, on this occasion, how much we are 
bound to prize this sacred treasure, which 
we enjoy so perfectly : and how much to 
contend against every attempt of those 
enemies and that church, which would de- 
prive us of it, and again reduce us to legends 
and schoolmen, to ignorance and idolatry! 

Cranmer, that he might proceed with 
true judgment, made a collection of opinions 
from the works of the ancient fathers and 
later doctors ; of which Bishop Burnet saw 
too volumes in folio ; and it appears, by a 
letter of Lord Burleigh's, that there were 
then six volumes of Cranmer's collections 
in his hands. A work of incredible labor, 
but vast utility. 

A short time after this, he gave a shining 
proof of his sincere and disinterested con- 



stancy, by his noble opposition to what are ? suffered him to wait in the lobby among 
commonly called King Henry's six bloody I the footmen, treated him on his admission 
articles. However, he weathered the < with haughty contempt, and would have \ 
storm ; and published, with an incompara- i sent him to the Tower. But he produced \ 
ble preface written by himself, the larger < the ring ; and gained his enemies a severe 
bible ; six of which, even Bonner, then < reprimand from Henry, and himself the 
newly consecrated bishopof London, caused ^ highest degree of security and favor, 
to be fixed, for the perusal of the people, | On this occasion he showed that lenity 
in his cathedral of St. Paul's. I and mildness for which he was always so 

The enemies of the reformation, how- \ much distinguished : he never persecuted 
ever, were restless : and Henry, alas! was \ any of his enemies ; but on the contrary, 
no protestant in his heart. Cromwell fell \ freely forgave even the inveterate Gardiner, 
a sacrifice to them ; and they aimed every s on his writing a supplicatory letter to him 
possible shaft at Cranmer. Gardiner in \ for that purpose. The same lenity he 
particular was indefatigable : he caused \ showed toward Dr. Thornton, the suffragan 
him to be accused in parliament, and sev- | of Dover, and Dr. Barber, who, though 
eral lords of the privy council moved the I entertained in his family, and intrusted with 
king to commit the archbishop to the Tow- ^ his secrets, and indebted to him for many 
er. The king perceived their malice; and $ favors, had ungratefully conspired with 

Gardiner to take away his life. 

When Cranmer first discovered their 

one evening, on pretence of diverting him- 
self on the water, ordered his barge to be 

rowed to Lambeth side. The archbishop, ^ treachery, he took them aside into his > 

being informed of it, came dovvn to pay his | study, and telling them, that he had been > 

respects, and was ordered, by the king, to / basely and falsely accused by some, in \ 

come into the barge and sit close by him. :; whom he had always reposed the greatest j 

Henry made him acquainted with the ac- ^ confidence, desired them to advise him how \ 

cusations of heresy, faction, &.c., which pie should behave himself toward them? ] 

were laid against him; and spoke of his pfhey, not suspecting themselves to be coo- i 

opposition to the six articles; the arch- j cerned in the question, replied that "such \ 

bishop modestly replied, that he could not/ vile, abandoned villains, ought to be prose- > 

but acknowledge himself to be of the same ^ cuted with the greatest rigor; nay, deserved < 

oi)inion, with respect to them ; but was not ^ to die without mercy." At this the arch- < 

conscious of having offended against them, i bishop, lifting up his hands to heaven, cried I 

The king then putting on an air of pleasant- j out : "Merciful God! whom may a man j 

ry, asked him, if his bed-chamber could > trust ?" And then taking out of his bosom ^ 

stand the test of these articles ? the arch- < the letters, by which he had discovered | 

bishop confessed, that he was married in s their treachery, asked them, if they knew s 
Germanv, before his promotion ; but assur- 1 those papers ? When they saw their own 
ed the king, that on passing that act, he had I letters produced against them, they were in 
parted with his wife, and sent her abroad ;; the utmost confusion ; and falling down 
to her friends. His majesty was so charm- \ upon their knees, humbly sued forgiveness, 
ed with his openness and integrity, that he \ The archbishop told them that " he for- 
discovored the whole plot that was laid j gave them, and would pray for them ; but 
against him ; and gave him a ring of great | that they must not expect him ever to trust 

value to produce upon any future emcr- them for the future." j 

gency. As we are upon the subject of the arch- | 

A few days after this, Cranmer's enemies bishop's readiness to forgive and forget in- ,' 
summoned him to appear before the coun- j juries, it may not be improper here to 

cil. He accordingly attended, when they \ relate a pleasant instance of it, which hap- ' 




pened some time before the above circum- 

The archbishop's first wife, whom he 
married at Cambridge, was kinswoman to 
the hostess at the Dolphin-inn, and boarded 
there ; and he often resorting thither on 
that account, the popish party had raised a 
story, that he was ostler to that inn, and 
never had the benefilof a learned education. 
This idle story a Yorkshire priest had, with 
great confidence, asserted, in an alehouse 
which he used to frequent ; railing at the 
archbishop, and saying, that he had no 
more learning than a goose. Some people 
of the parish informed Lord Cromwell of 
this, and the priest was committed to the 
Fleet prison. When he had been there 
nine or ten weeks, he sent a relation of his 
to the archbishop to beg his pardon, and to 
sue for a discharge. The archbishop in- 
stantly sent for him, and, after a gentle 
reproof, asked the priest, whether he knew 
him. To which he answering. No, the 
archbishop expostulated with him, why he 
should then make so free with his charac- 
ter. The priest excused himself, by say- 
ing he was disguised with liquor : but this 
Cranmer told him was a double fault. He 
then said to the priest, if he was inclined 
to try what a scholar he was, he should 
have liberty to oppose him in whatever 
science he pleased. The priest humbly 
asked his pardon, and confessed himself to 
be very ignorant, and to understand nothing 
but his mother-tongue. "No doubt, then," 
said Cranmer, " you are well versed in the 
English Bible, and can answer any ques- 
tions out of that; pray tell me, who was 
David's father ?" The priest stood still 
for some time to consider ; but, at last, 
told the archbishop he could not recollect 
his name. " Tell me, then," says Cranmer, 
•' who was Solomon's father ?" The poor 
)riest replied, that he had no skill in 
genealogies, and could not tell. The arch- 
)ishop then advising him to frequent ale- 
louses less, and his study more, and ad- 
monishing him not to accuse others for 

want of learning, till he was master of some 

himself, discharged him out of c4Jstody, and 
sent him home to his cure. 

These may serve as instances of Cran- 
mer's clement temper. Indeed, he was 
I much blamed by many for his too great 
< lenity ; which, it was thought, encouraged 
I the popish faction to make fresh atteuipts 
I against him : but he was happy in giving 
I a shining example of that great Christian 
I virtue which he diligently taught. 

The king, who was a good discerner of 
I men, remarking the implacable haired of 
Cranmer's enemies toward him, changed 
his coat-of-arms from three cranes to three 
pelicans, feeding their young with their 
own blood : and told his grace that " these 
birds should signify to him, that he ought 
to be ready, like the pelican, to shed his 
blood for his young ones, brought up in the 
faith of Christ ; for, said the king, you are 
like to be tried, if you will stand to your 
tackling at length." The event proved the 
king to be no bad prophet. 

In 1546, King Henry experienced the 
impartiality of death ; and left his crown 
to his only son Edward, who was godson 
to Cranmer, and had imbibed all the spirit 
of a reformer. This excellent young prince, 
influenced no less by his own inclinations 
than by the advice of Cranmer, and the 
other friends of reformation, was diligent, 
in every endeavor, to promote it. Homilies 
were composed by the archbishop, and a 
catechism : Erasmus's notes on the New 
Testament translated, and fixed in church- 
es ; the sacrament administered in both 
kinds ; and the liturgy used in the vulgar 
tongue. Ridley, the archbishop's great 
friend, and one of the brightest lights of 
the English reformation, was equally zeal- 
ous in the good cause : and with him the 
archbishop drew up the forty-two articles 
of religion, which were revised by other 
bishops and divines ; as, through him, he 
had perfectly conquered all his scruples, 
respecting the doctrine of the corporeal 
presence, and published a much esteemed 
treatise, entitled : " A Defence of the True 
and Catholic Doctrine of the Sr.crament 

\ ]94 


of the Body and Blood of our Lord, Jesus '> His friends, who foresaw the storm, had ; 
Christ." 5 advised him to consult his safety by retiring 

But this happy scene of prosperity was i beyond sea ; but he chose rather to con- 
not to continue : God was pleased to de- \ tinue steady to the cause, which he had so 
prive the nation of King Edward, in 1553, ? nobly supported hitherto; and preferred 
designing, in his wise providence, to per- \ the probability of sealing his tesiimotiy with 
feet the new-born church of his son Jesus i his blood, to an ignominious and dishonor- 
Christ in England, by the blood of martyrs, | able flight. | 
as at the beginning he perfected the church < The Tower was crowded with prisoners; \ 
in general. \ insomuch that Cranmer, Ridley, Latimer, \ 
^ Anxious for the success of the reforma- ^ and Bradford, were all put into one cham- 5 
J lion, and wrought upon by the artifices of|ber ; which they were so far from thinking t 
\ the duke of Northumberland, Edward had ^ an inconvenience, that, on the contrary, ( 
\ been persuaded to exclude his sisters, and \ they blessed God for the opportunity of \ 
\ to bequeath the crown to that duke's amiable < conversing together ; reading and compar- \ 

and every way deserving daughter, the Lady I ing the Scriptures, confirming themselves 
\ Jane Gray. The archbishop did his utmost in the true faith, and mutually exhorting \ 
\ to oppose this alteration in the succession ; s each other to constancy in professing it, | 
\ but the king was overruled ; the will was 5 and patience in suffering for it. Happy \ 
< made, and subscribed by the council and s society ! blessed martyrs ! rather to be \ 
j the judges. The archbishop was sent for \ envied, than the purpled tyrant, with the \ 
] last of all, and required to subscribe ; but ^ sword deep-drenched in blood, though in- 
\ he answered, that he could not do it with- \ circled with all the pomp and pageantry of 
J out perjury ; having sworn to the entail s power. 

j of the crown on the two princesses Mary ^ In April, 1554, the archbishop, with 
'• and Elizabeth. To this the king replied : ) Bishops Ridley and Latimer, was removed 

> " that the judges, who being best skilled in \ from the Tower to Windsor, and thence to 
i the constitution, ought to be regarded in \ Oxford, to dispute with some select per- 
? this point, had assured him, that notwith- 1 sons of both universities ! But, alas! what 
'i standing that entail, he might lawfully be- \ farces are disputations, where the fate of 
j queath the crown to Lady Jane." The > men is fixed, and every word is iniscon- 
\ archbishop desired to discourse with them \ strued ! And such was the case here : for 

> himself about it; and they all agreeing, > on April the 20th, Cranmer was brought to 
1 that he might lawfully sul)scribe the king's \ St. Mary's, before the queen's commis- 
I will, he was at last prevailed with to resign ; sioners, and refusing to subscribe to the 
{ his own private scruples to their authority, \ popish articles, he was pronounced a 

and set his hand to it. \ heretic, and sentence of condemnation was 

Having done this, he thought himself | passed upon him. Upon which he told 

obliged in conscience to join the Lady Jane: I them, that he appealed from their unjust 

but her short-lived power soon expired, \ sentence to that of the Almighty ; and that 

when Mary and persecution mounted the ^ he trusted to be received into his presence 

I throne, and Cranmer could expect nothing \ in heaven for maintaining the truth, as set 

\ less than what ensued: attainder, imprison- \ forth in his most holy gospel. 

' ment, deprivation, and death. | After this his servants were dismissed 

I He was condemned for treason, and par- \ from their attendance, and himself closely 

I doned ; but to gratify Gardiner's malice, \ confined in Bocardo, the prison of the city 

\ and her own implacable resentment against s of Oxford. But this sentence i)eing void ) 

him for her mother's divorce, Mary gave | in law, as the pope's authority was wanting, 
i orders to proceed against him for heresy. \ a new commission was sent from Rome in 






1555 ; and in St. Mary's church, at the 
high altar, the court sat, and tried the al- 
ready-condemned Cranmer. He was here 
well nigh too strong for his judges ; and if 
reason and truth could have prevailed, there 
would have been no doubt, who should 
have been acquitted, and who condemned. 

The February following, a new com- 
mission was given to Bishop Bonner and 
Bishop Thirlby, for the degradation of the 
archbishop. When they came down to 
Oxford he was brought before them ; and 
after they had read their commission from 
the pope (for not appearing before whom 
in person, as they had cited him, he was 
declared contumacious, though they them- 
selves had kept him a close prisoner) Bon- 
ner, in a scurrilous oration, exulted over 
him in the most unchristian manner, for 
which he was often rebuked by Bishop 
Thirlby, who wept, and declared it the 
most sorrowful scene he had ever beheld 
in his whole life. In the commission it 
was declared, that the cause had been im- 
partially heard at Rome; the witnesses on 
both sides examined, and the archbishop's 
counsel allowed to make the best defence 
for him they could. 

At the reading this, the archbishop could 
not help crying out, '' Good God ! what 
lies are these ; that I, being continually in 
prison, and not suffered to have counsel or 
advocate at home, should produce witnes- 
ses, and appoint my counsel at Rome ! 
God must needs punish this shameless and 
open lying !" 

When Bonner had finished his invective, 
they proceeded to degrade him ; and that 
they might make him as ridiculous as they 
could, the episcopal habit which they put 
on him was made of canvass and old rags. 
Bonner, in the meantime, by way of triumph 
and mockery, calling him Mr. Canterbury, 
and the like. 

He bore all this treatment with his wonted 
fortitude and patience ; told them, " the de- 
gradation gave him no concern, for he had 
long despised those ornaments :" but when 
they came to take away his crosier, he held 

it fast, and delivered his appeal to Thirlby, 
saying : " I appeal to the next general 

When they had stripped him of all his 
habits, they put on him a poor yeoman- 
beadle's gown, thread-bare and ill-shaped, 
and a townsman's capj and in this manner 
delivered him to the secular power to be 
carried back to prison, where he was kept 
entirely destitute of money, and totally se- 
cluded from his friends. Nay, such was 
the iniquity of the times, that a gentleman 
was taken into custody by Bonner, and 
basely escaped a trial, for giving the poor 
archbishop money to buy him a dinner. 

Cranmer had now been imprisoned al- 
most three years, and death should have 
soon followed his sentence and degradation: 
but his cruel enemies reserved him for 
greater misery and insult. Every engine 
that could be thought of was employed to 
shake his constancy ; but he held fast to 
the profession of his faith. Nay, even when 
he saw the barbarous martyrdom of his dear 
companions Ridley and Latimer, he was 
so far from shrinjiing, that he not only 
prayed to God to strengthen them, but also, 
by their example, to animate him to a patient 
expectation and endurance of the same fiery 

The papists, after trying various severe 
ways to bring Cranmer over without effect, 
at length determined to try what gentle 
methods would do. They accordingly re- 
moved him from prison to the lodgings of 
the dean of Christ church, where they urged 
every persuasive and affecting argument to 
make him deviate from his faith ; and, in- 
deed, too much melted his gentle nature, 
by the false sunshine of pretended civility 
and respect. 

• The unfortunate prelate, however, with- 
stood every temptation, at which his enemies 
were so irritated, that they removed him 
from the dean's lodgings to the most loath- 
some part of the prison in which he had 
been contined, and then treated him with 
unparalleled severity. This was more than 
the infirmities of so old a man could sup- 



port : the frailty of human nature prevail- I At length, being called upon by Cole to i 
ed ; and he was induced to sign six differ- I declare his faith and reconciliation with \ 
ent recantations, drawn from him by the ^ the catholic church, he rose with all possi- < 
malice and artifices of his enemies. ', ble dignity ; and while the audience was | 

This, however, did not satisfy them : s wrapped in the most profound expectation, j 
they were determined not to spare his life, s he kneeled down, and repeated the follow- 
Nothing less than his death could satiate s ing prayer : — 

the gloomy queen, who said, that, " as he > " O Father of heaven ! Son of God, 
had been the promoter of heresy, which i Redeemer of the world ! O Holy Ghost ! 
had corrupted the whole nation, the ab- 1 proceeding from them both; three persons, | 
juration, which was sufficient in othercases, j and one God, have mercy upon me, most ^ 
should not serve his turn ; for she was re- I wretched and miserable siimer ! I, who , 
solved he should be burned." According- I have offended both heaven and earth, and , 
ly, she sent orders to Dr. Cole to prepare I more grievously than any tongue can ex- > 
a sermon on the occasion of his death, I press, whither then may I go, or where > 
which was fixed to be on the 21st of March, s shall I fly for succor ? To heaven I may j 

The archbishop had no suspicion thafj be ashamed to lift up mine eyes, and in \ 
such would be his fate, after what he had I earth I find no refuge : what shall I then \ 
done ; but he soon found his mistake. > do ? shall I despair ? God forbid ! O good | 

The papists, determined to carry their > God, thou art merciful ! and refusest none \ 
resentment to the most extravagant length, | who come to thee for succor: to thee, there- \ 
thought to inflict a further punishment on fore, do I run : to thee do I humble myself, | 
him, by obliging him to read his recantation / saying, O Lord God, my sins be great, but S 
publicly in St. Mary's church ; and on this yet have mercy upon me, for thy great nier- 5 
they proposed to triumph in his death: but ; cy ! O God, the Son, thou wast not made > 
their base intentions were happily frustrated. I man, this great mystery was not wrought. 

On the morning of the day apjjointed for < for few or small ofl'ences ! nor thou didst 
his execution, he was conducted between ^ give thy Son unto death, God the 
two friars to St. Mary's church. As soon i Father, for our little and small sins only, 
as he entered. Dr. Cole mounted the pidpit, f but for all the greatest sins of the world, 
and the archbishop was placed opposite to I that the sinner may return unto thee with a 
it on a low scaffold, a spectacle of contempt ( penitent heart, as I do here at this present ; 
and scorn to the people ! < wherefore have mercy upon me, O Lord ! 

Cole magnified his conversion as the < whose properly is always to have mercy : 
immediate work of God's inspiration ; ex- ^ for although my sins be great, yet thy mercy 
horted him to bear up with resolution s is greater ! I crave nothing, Lord ! for 
against the terrors of death; and by the s my own merits, l)ut for thy name's sake, that 
example of the thief on the cross, encour- s it may be glorified thereby, and for thy deai 
aged him not to despair, since he was re- s Son, Jesus Christ's sake. And now, l\u 
turned, though late, into the bosom of the I fore. Our Father," &.c. 
church. lie also assured him, that dirges I He then rose up, exhorted the people to 
and masses should be said for his soul in ', a contempt of this world, to obedience to 
all the churches of Oxford. their sovereign, and to mutual love and 

As soon as the archbishop perceived, charity. He told them, that being now on 
from Cole's sermon, what was the feloody | the brink of eternity, he would declare unto 
decree, struck with horror at the base in- them his faith, without reserve or dissimula- 
humanity of such proceedings, he gave, by lion: hethe.nrcpeatedtheapoGile'screed,and 
all his gestures, a full proof of the deep professed his belief thereof, and of all ihingB 
anguish of his soul. i contained in the Old and New T(rs.<Miicnt 

.MUil 1 i:iiOM Oy AKtllBlSHOl' CRANMER. I'age I'Jl ■ 




By speaking thus in general terms, the 
attention of the audience was kept up ; but 
amazement continued that attention, when 
they heard him, instead of reading his re- 
cantation, declare his great and unfeigned 
repentance, for having been induced to 
subscribe the popish errors ; he lamented, 
with many tears, his grievous fall, and de- 
clared that the hand which had so offended, 
should be burned before the rest of his body. 

He then renounced the pope in most ex- 
press terms, and professed his belief con- 
cerninf, the eucharist to be the same, with 
what he had asserted in his book against 

This was a great disappointment to the 
papists : they made loud clamors, and 
charged him with hypocrisy and falsehood : 
to which he meekly replied, that " he was 
a plain man, and Tever had acted the hypo- 
crite, but when he was seduced by them to 
a recantation." 

He would have gone on further, but Cole 
cried, " Slop the heretic's mouth, and take 
him away." 

Upon this the monks and friars rudely i 
pulled liim from the scaffold, and hurried: 
him away to the stake (where Ridley and ; 
Latimer had before been offered up), which 
was at the north side of the city, in the 
ditch opposite Baliol college. 

But if his enemies were disappointed by i 
his behavior in the church, they were doubly : 
so by that at th stake. He approached it 

with a cheerful countenance ; prayed and 
undressed himself; his shirt was made long 
down to his feet, which were bare, as was 
his head, where a hair could not be seen. 
His beard was so long and thick that it 
covered his face with wonderful gravity ; 
and his reverend countenance moved the 
hearts both of friends and enemies. 

The friars tormented him with their ad- 
monitions ; vvhile Cranmer gave his hand 
to several old men, who stood by, bidding 
them farewell. 

When he was chained to the stake, and 
the fire kindled, he seemed superior to all 
sensation but of piety. He stretched out 
the offending hand to the flame, which was 
seen burning for some time before the fire 
came to any other part of his body ; nor 
did he draw it back, but once to wipe his 
face, till it was entirely consumed : saying 
often, "This unworthy hand, this hand haih 
offended ;" and raising up his eyes to 
heaven, he expired with the dying prayer 
of St. Stephen in his mouth, " Lord Jesus, 
receive my spirit !" (See engraving.) 

He burned, to all appearance, without 
pain or motion ; and seemed to repel the 
torture by mere strength of mind, showing 
a repentance and a fortitude, which ought to 
cancel all reproach of timidity in his life. 

Thus died Archbishop Cranmer, in the 
sixty-seventh year of his age, and the 
twenty-third of his primacy ; leaving an 
only son, of his own name, behind him. 


The Martyrdoms of Agnes Potten, and\\.\o\\ of heresy, they were brought before 
Joan Trunchfield, Wio iwere iofA ftwrnf I the bishop of Norwich; who examined 
together at Ipswich in Suffolk. \ them concerning their religion in general, 

\ and their faith in the corporeal presence of 
jHESE two advocates and \ Christ, in the sacrament of the altar in par- 
sufferers for the pure gospel ? ticular. 

of Christ, lived in the town \ With respect to the latter article, they 
of Ipswich, in the county | both delivered it as their opinion, that in 
of Suffolk. Being both ap- < the sacrament of the Lord's supper, there 
prehended on an inforraa- < was represented the memorial only of 



Christ's death and passion, sayin?, that, ? succeeded to the chancellorship, two of 
according to the Scriptures, he was ascend- these persecuted brethren, namely, Richard 
ed np into heaven, and sat on the right | Spurg and John Cavill, weary of their 
hand of God the Father ; and therefore his , tedious confinement, presented a peiiiion 
body could not be really and substantially j to the lord chancellor, subscribing their 
in the sacrament. | names, and requesting his interest for their 

A few days after this they were again | enlargement, 
examined by the bishop, when both of them A short time after the delivery of thi? 
still continuing steadfast in the profession \ petition, Sir Richard Read, one of the ofli- 
of their faith, sentence was pronounced cers of the court of chancery, was sent by 
against them as heretics, and they were the chancellor to the Marshalsea, to ex- 
delivered over to the secular power. amine them. 

On the day appointed for their execution, Richard Spurg, the first who passed 
which was in the month of March, 1556, examination, being asked the cause of hi.<» 
they were both led to the stake, and burnt ? imprisonment, replied, that he, with several 
in the town of Ipswich. Their constancy ^ others, being complained of by the minister 
was admired by the multitude who saw ^ of Rocking for not coming to their parish 
them sull'er ; for as they undressed, and < church, to liOrd Rich, was thereupon sent 
prop ircd themselves for the fire, they earn- ^ up to London by his lordship, to be ex- 
estly exhorted the people to believe only ^ amined by the late chancellor. 
in the unerring word of the only living and / He acknowledged that he had not been 
true God, and not regard the devices and ] at church since the English service was 
inventions of men. \ changed into I>atin (except on Christmas 

They both openly declared that they < day twelvemonth) because he disliked the 
despised the errors and superstitions of the \ same, and the mass also, as not agreeable 
church of Rome, and most patiently sub- < to God's holy word. 

milled to the acute torments of devouring < He then desired that he might be no 
(lames, calling upon the God of their salva- further examined concerning this matter, 
tion, and triumphing in being deemed wor- 1 until it pleased the present chancellor to 
thy to snlTer for ihe glorious cause of Jesus \ inquire his faith concerning the same, which 
Christ, their lord and master. \ he was ready to deliver. 

< John Cavii.l likewise agreed in the 

<. chief particulars with his brethren ; but 

The Persecutions and Martijr Jams of Rich- \f^^J^[^^^J jjaj,]^ ll,e ^ause of his absenting 

Ann Si'URG, John Cavii.l, Robert U,i,„y^.if fr,„n church was, that the minister 

DRAKr;, and William Tims. | thero 'lad advanced two doctrines contrary 

Tmksi: four pions Christians resided in | lo each othcir ; for first, in a sermon he 
the couniv of Essex, and dincese of Lon- s delivered when the queen came to the 
don. Being accused of heresy, they were | crown, he exhorted the people to believe 
ull ap[)relieiided, and sent by Lord Rich, l the gospel, declaring it to be the truth, and 
and oilier commissioners, at different limes, \ that if they believed it not, they would be 
to Bisliop Gardiner, lord chancellorof Eng- ;; damned ; and thai, secondly, in a future 
land : who, after a short examination, sent' discourse, he declared that the New Testa- 
the fIr^t two to the Marshalsea prison in / menl was false in forty places, which eon- 
the Borough, and the last two to the King's 'i irariety gave him much disgust, and was. 
Bench, where they conliniKsd during the / among «)lher things, the cause of his ab- 
space of a whole year, till the death of ' senling himself from church. 
Bishop Gardiner. \ Robkrt Drakk was minister of Thi.n- 

When ])r. Heath, archbishop of York, ^ dersly, in Essex, lo which living he hail 



20 J 


I been presented by the Lord Rich in the? The bishop began his examination with ^ 

i reign of Edward VI., when he was ordain- ] Tims, whom he called the ringleader of the \ 

, ed priest by Dr. Ridley, then bishop of/ others: he told him, that he had taught } 

'iondon, according to the reformed English Mhem heresies, confirmed them in their J 

ervice for ordination. /erroneous opinions, and endeavored, as far ; 

On the accession of Queen Mary to the | as in him lay, to render them as abominable ; 

hrone of Kngland, he was sent for by | as himself; with many other accusations ! 

Gardiner, bishop of Winchester, who de- < equally false and opprobrious. > 

nanded of him v\^ether he would conform, | He was then asked by the bishop what $ 

ike a good subject, to the laws of the realm I he had to say in his own vindication, in / 

hen in force. He answered, that he would | orderto prevent him from proceeding against < 

ibide by those laws that were agreeable to ( him as his ordinary. To which he replied 
the laws of God ; upon which he was im- < as follows: — 

mediately committed to prison 

" My lord, I am astonished that ymi 

William Tims was a deacon and curate should begin your charge with a falsehood ; 
of Hockley, in Esse.v, in the reign of Ed- 1 you aver that I am the ringleader of the ( 
I ward VI., but being deprived of his living I company now broiight before you, and have | 
I soon after the death of that monarch, he | taught them principles contrary to tlie Rom- 
I absconded, and privately preached in a < ish church, since we have been in confine- | 
neighboring wood, whither many of his | merit ; but the injustice of this declaration ; 
I flock attended to hear the word of God. will soon ajjpear, if you will incjnire of j 

In consequence of these proceedings he | ihese my brethren, whether, when at liber- \ 
I was apj)rehended by one of the constables, < ty, and out of prison, they dissented not > 
i and sent up to the bishop of London, by \ from popish principles as much as they do | 

iwhom he was referred to Gardiner, bishop ^ at present ; such inquiry, I presume, vvilj j 
of Winchester, and lord-chancellor, who s render it evident, that they learned not their ] 
committed him to the King'.s Bench s religion in prison. ; 

, prison. s " For my own part, I declare I never | 

I A short time after his confinement, he \ knew them, till such time as I became their \ 
(with the others beforementioned), was or- > fellow-prisoner, how then could I be iheir | 
dered to appear before the bishop of Lon- > ringleader and teacher? Willi respect to \ 
don, who questioned them in the usual man- > the charge alleged against me, a charge \ 
ner, concerning their faith in the sacrament \ which yon endeavor to aggravate to the ' 

of the altar. 

highest degree, whatever opinion you main- 

Mr. Tims answered, that the body of tain concerning me, I am well as.sured I 
Christ was not in the sacrament of the altar, hold no other religion than what Christ 
really and corporeally, after the words of | Jesus preached, the aposiles wiimssed, 
consecration spoken by the priest; and the primitive church received, ;in 1 of late 
that he had been a long time of that opinion, I the apostolical and evangelical j;reachers | 
ever since it had pleased God, of his in- 1 of this realm have fuiihfully tanjiht, and 
finite mercy, to call him to the true knowl- < for which you have cruelly caused them to 

edge of the gospel of his grace. 

be burnt, and now seek to troai us wiih the 

On the 28ih of March, 1556, these four like inhuman soveriiy. I acknouled-e you 
persons were all brought into the consistory | to be my ordinary." 
j court, in St. Paul's church, before the bishop \ The bishop, finding it necessary to come 
of London, in order to be examined, for the s to a point wiih him, demnnded, if he would 
last time ; who assured them, that if they j submit himself to the hoi) moilii r < iiurch, 
did not submit to the church of Rome, they s promising, that if he did, he sliouM bi,' kind- 
should be condemned for heresy. > ly received ; and threatening, at ilie s^jme 


J 202 



time, that if he did not, judgment should be I death : but that since the queen's happy \ 
pronounced against him as an heretic. I accession to the throne, they might boldly 1 

In answer to this, Tims told his lordship ) speak the dictates of their consciences ; { 
he was well persuaded that he was within \ and further reminded him, that as my lord \ 
the pale of the catholic church, whatever | of Winchester was not ashamed to recant J 
he might think ; and reminded him, that his errors at St. Paul's cross, and that he 
he had most solemnly abjured that very S himself had done the same, every inferior i 
church to which he since professed such I clergyman should follow the example ot j 
strenuous allegiance; and that, contrary > their superiors. 

to his oath, he again admitted, in this realm, I Mr. Tims, still persisting in the vindica- 
the authority of the pope, and was, there- I tion of his own conduct, and reprehension 
fore, perjured and forsworn in the highest l of that of the bishop, again replied, " My 
degree. He also recalled to his memory, ? lord, that which you have written against 
that he had spoken with great force and > the supremacy of the pope may be well 
perspicuity against the usurped power of ? proved from Scripture to be true; that which 
the pope, though he afterward sentenced ^ you now do is contrary to the word of God, 
persons to be burnt, because they would | as I can sufficiently prove." 
not acknowledge the pope to be the supreme | Bonner, after much further coni^ersation, 
head of the church. proceeded to form of law, causing his arti- 

To this Bonner sternly demanded, what ( cles, with the respective answers to each, 
he had written against the church of Rome? < to be publicly read in court. 

Mr. Tims pertinently answered : " My | Mr. Tims acknowledged only two sacra- 
lord, the late bishop of Winchester wrote a ments. Baptism and the Lord's Supper; com- \ 
very learned treatise, entitled, De vera | mended the bishop of Winchester's book Z)e \ 
Oie(/2en^ia, which contains many solid argu- I vera Obedientia, and the bishop of London's > 
ments against the papal supremacy: to this i preface to the same. He declared that the \ 
book you wrote a preface, strongly inveigh- i mass was blasphemy of Christ's passion and ) 
ing against the bishop of Rome, reproving I death ; that Christ is not corporeally but ? 
his tyranny and usurpation, and showing I spiritually present in the sacrament, and i, 
that his power was ill-founded, and contrary ] that as they used it, it was an abominable I 
both to the will of God, and the real interest I idol. < 

jf mankind." | Bonner exhorted him to revoke his errors i 

The bishop, struck with the poignancy ^ and heresies, conform to the church of ' 
)f this reproof, evasively told him, that the I Rome, and not abide so strenuously by the \ 
)i8hop of Winchester wrote a book against I literal sense of the Scriptures, but use the 
he supremacy of the pope's holiness, and I interpretation of the fathers, 
le wrote a preface to the same book, tend- > Our martyr frankly declared he would 
ng to the same purpose : but that the cause / not conform thereunto, notwithstanding ilie 
f the same arose not from their disregard to ? execrations denounced against him by the 
is holint 6S, but because it was then deem- > church of Rome, and demanded of the 
d treason by the laws of the realm to main- \ bishop what he had to support the doctrine 
lin -he pope's authority in England. | of the real presence of Christ in the sacra- | 

He also observed, that at such time it ] ment of the altar, but the bare letter of | 
as dangerous to profess to favor the church \ scripture. ^ 

" Rome, and therefore fear compelled them \ On the bishop's replying, the auihority i 
I comply with the prevailing opinions of ^ of the holy catholic church, Tims informed | 
18 times : for if any person had conscien- | him that he had the popish church, for ^ 
Dusly acknowledged the pope's authority I which he was perjured and forsworn, de- | 
I those days, he would have been put to ' daring that the see of Rome was the see \ 




of antichrist, and therefore he would never 
CO isent to yield obedience to the same. 

The bishop, finding Mr. Tims so inflexi- 
ble in his adherence to the faith he pro- 
fessed, that every attempt to draw him from 
it was vain and fruitless, read his definitive 
sentence, and he was delivered over to the 
secular power. 

Bonner then used the same measures 
with Drake as he had done with Tims ; 
but Drake frankly declared, that he denied 
the church of Rome, with all the works \ 
thereof, even as he denied the devil, and 
all his works. 

The bishop, perceiving all his exhorta- 
tions fruitless, pronounced sentence of con- 
demnation, and he was immediately deliver- 
ed into the custody of the sheriffs. 

After this, Richard Spurg, and John 
Cavill, were separately asked, if they would 
forsake their heresies, and return to the 
catholic church. They both refused con- 
senting to the church of Rome ; but said, 
they were willing to adhere to the true 
catholic church, and continue in the same. 

Bonner then read their several definitive 
sentences, after which he committed them 
to the custody of the sheriffs of London, by 
whom they were conducted to Newgate. 

On the 14th of April, 1556, the day ap- 
pointed for their execution, they were all 
led to Smithfield, where they were chained 
to the same stake, and burnt in one fire, 
patientlysubmittingthemselves to the flames, 
and resigning their souls into the hands of 
that glorious Redeemer, for whose sake they 
delivered their bodies to be burned. 

The Examinations and Martyrdoms of Joan 
Beach, Widow,ofTvyBRiDGE,and John 
Harpole, of the City q/" Rochester. 

Information being laid against these 
\ two persons for heresy, they were appre- i 
hended, and by the magistrates of the re- < 
spective places where they lived, commit- i 
ted to prison. After being some time in 
confinement, they were separately examined ^ 

before Maurice, bishop of Rochester, their 

Joan Beach was first taken before the 
bishop for examination, when the following 
articles were exhibited against her : — 

1. That living in the parish of Tunbridge 
she belonged to the diocese of Rocliester. 

This she granted. 

2. That all people who preach, teach, 
believe, or say otherwise, or contrary to 
their mother, the holy catholic church, are 
excommunicated persons and heretics. \ 

This she acknowledged to be true, but \ 

added withal, that nevertheless, she be- \ 

lieved not the holy catholic church, to be ) 

her mother, but believed only the father of | 

heaven to be her father. \ 


3. That she had affirmed, and did affirm, 
maintain, and believe, contrary to the said 
mother-church of Christ, that in the blessed 
sacrament of the altar, under form of bread 
and wine, there is not the very body and 
blood of our Savior Christ in substance, 
but only a token and memorial thereof, and 
that the very body and blood of Christ is 
in heaven, and not in the sacrament. 

4. That Christ, being in heaven, could 
not be in the sacrament. 

To this she answered, that she had, and 
did verily believe, hold, and afBrm, that, in 
the sacrament of the altar, under the forms 
of bread and wine, there was not the very 
body and blood of our Savior in substance, 
but only a token and remembrance of his 
death to the faithful receiver, and that his 
body and substance is only in heaven, and 
not in the sacrament. 

5. That she had been, and then was, 
among the parishioners of Tunbridge, noted 
and strongly suspected of being a sacra- 
mentary and a heretic. 

To this she answered, that she did not 
know how she had been, or was reputed 
among the parishioners of Tunbridge, nor 
was their opinion of any avail to her im- 
mortal state. 

The bishop finding her inflexible in the 
faith she professed, strongly urged her to 
preserve her life by renouncing her errors ; 

\ 204 


which she peremptorily refusing, he pro- , the faith and belief of the catholic church, 
nounced sentence on her, and she was | and that their godfathers and godmothers 
delivered over to the secular power. ) had promised and professed for them, as 

John Harpole, being next examined ] contained in the article administered. | 

before the same bishop, articles of a similar > 4. To the fourth article, concerning their ) 
nature were exhibited against him as his I continuance in that faith and profession into \ 
fellow-sufferer, Joan Beach. > which they were baptized, they agreed that | 

His answers to all of them were much | they did so continue ; Nichols observed 
to the same import with hers ; upon which \ that he had more plairdy learned the truth 
the bishop pronounced sentence of death of his profession, by the doctrine set forth 
on him in the usual form. j in the days of King Edward the sixth, that 

These two faithful followers of Christ ( thereupon he had built his faith, and would 
were burnt together in one fire, in the city ^ continue in the same by the grace of God 
of Rochester, about the latter end of April, < to his life's end. 

1556. They embraced each other at the < 5. Concerning swerving from the cath- 
stake, and cheerfully resigned their souls ^olic faith, they declared that they had not 
into the hands of their Redeemer; after | swerved, nor departed in the least from the \ 
repeatedly singing hallelujahs to the praise < faith of Christ. | 

and glory of his name. I They unanimously confessed that they \ 

<, had disapproved of and spoken against the 

l sacrifice of the mass, and the sacrament of 
The Persecutions and Sufferings •/ Chris- uhe altar, affirming, that they would not 
TOPHER Lister, John MArE, John come to hear, nor be partakers thereof; 
Spencer. Simon Jovn, Richard Nich- ; that they had believed and then did believe, \ 
oi.s, and John Hammond ; v^ho v^ereU]ia,i they were set forth and used contrary 
all burnt together at Colchester in Uq God's word and glory > 

Essex, for professing the truth of the \ They granted also that they had spoken | 


against the usurped authority of the bishop > 

These six persons being all apprehend- of Rome, who was an oppressor of the holy 
ed on a charge of heresy, were brought church of Christ, and ought not to have any 
before Bishop Bonner at his palace at Ful- power in England. 

ham ; where articles were exhibited against 6. Concerning their reconciliation to the 
them of the same nature, and in the usual U'<ity of the church, they said, that they 
form, as those against others on the like "ever refused, nor did then refuse to be 
occasion. | reconciled to the unity of Christ's catholic 

1. To the first article, namely, that there I church ; but declared they had, and then 
was one holy catholic church on earth, in ^ did, and would for ever hereafter, refuse 
which the religion and faith of Christ is to come to the church of Rome, or to ac- 
truly professed, they all consented and | knowledge the authority of the papal see ; 
agreed ; but John Spencer added, that the but did utterly abhor the same for rejecting \ 
church of Rome was no part of Christ's the book of God, the Bible, and setting up | 
catholic church. | the mass, with other ridiculous and anli- v 

2. To the second, concerning the seven ^christian ceremonies. j 
sacranients, they answered, that in the true I 7. That disapproving the mass and sacra- 
catholic church of Christ, there are but | ment of the altar, they had refused to come | 
two sacraments, Bajiiism, and the Lord's ^ to the parish church, &.c. \ 
Supper. \ 'I'his they all granted, and Simon Joyn < 

3. To the third, they unanimously agreed | added moreover, that the cause wherefore 
and confessed, that they were baptized in ^ he refused to be partaker of their trumpery, < 


was, because the commandments of God 
were there broken, and Christ's ordinances 
changed, and the bishop of Rome's ordi- 
nances put up in their stead. 

Christopher Lister affirmed, that in the 
sacrament of the ahar, there is the substance 
of bread and wine, as well after the words 
of consecration as before, and that there is 
not in the same the very body and blood 
of Christ, really, substantially, and spiritual- 
ly, by faith in the faithful receiver, and that 
the mass is not a propitiatory sacrifice for 
the quick and dead, but mere idolatry and 

They then said, that they were sent to 
Colchester prison, by the king and queen's 
commissioners, because they would not 
come to their parish churches : that what 
was contained in the premises was true ; 
and that they belonged to the diocese of 

On the close of this examination the 
bishop dismissed them, but ordered them to 
attend again in the afternoon. This order 
they obeyed, when the articles and answers 
of the first examination were read to them ; 
and they resolutely persisted in the profes- 
sion they had made. 

After various endeavors to bring them to 
recant, without the least effect, sentence of 
death was pronounced against them, and 
they were all delivered over to the secular 

The writ for their execution being made 
out, they were removed to Colchester, 
where, on the 28th of April, 1556, they 
were fastened to two stakes, and burnt in 
one fire. They all cheerfully met their 
fate, giving glory to God in the midst of the 
flames, and encouraging others, for the truth 
of the gospel, to follow their example. 

The Martyrdoms of Hugh Laverock, an 
old decrepit Man, and John Apprice, a 
blind Man. 
The former of these martyrs was by 

trade a painter, and lived in the parish of; 

Barking in Essex. At the time of his ap- 

prehension he was in the 68ih year of his 
age, and very helpless from the natural in- 
firmities of life. Being however accused 
of heresy by some of the popish emissaries 
in his neighborhood, he, with his fellow- 
sufl'erer was taken before Bonner to be ex- 
amined with respect to their faith. 

The bishop laid before them the same 
articles as mentioned in the former lives ; 
and they returned answers much to the 
same efl^ect with other advocates for the 
truth of the gospel. 

On the 9th of May, 1556, they were both 
brought info the consistory court at St. 
] Paul's, where their articles and answers 
> were publicly read ; after v/hich the bishop 
I endeavored to persuade them to recant their 
/ opinions concerning the sacrament of the 
? altar. 

} Hugh Laverock declared, that by the 
\ grace of God he would stand to the profes- 
j sion he had already made, for he could not 
^ find the least authority in the word of God 
\ for approving the doctrine of the corporeal 
\ presence in the sacrament. 

The bishop then addressed himself to 
John Apprice, and demanded what he had 
to say in his defence ? The honest blind 
man answered the haughty prelate, that the 
doctrine he set forth and taught was so 
conformable to the world, that it could not 
be agreeable to the Scripture of God ; and 
that he was no member of the catholic 
church of Christ, seeing he made laws to 
kill men, and made the queen his execu- 

The first examination being over, they 
were for the present dismissed, but ordered 
to appear the next day at the bishop's palace 
at Fulham. Being accordingly conducted 
there, the bishop, after some discourse with 
them, and finding them steadfast in their 
faith, pronounced the definitive sentence ; 
when, being delivered over to the secular 
power, they were committed to Newgate. 

On the 15th of May, they were convey- 
ed to Stralford-le-Bow, the place appointed 
for their execution. As soon as they 
arrived at the stake, Laverock threw away 




his crutch, and thus addressed his fellow- 
sufferer : — 

" John Apprice, be of good comfort, 
brother, for my lord of London is our good 
physician : he will cure us both shortly, 
thee of thy blindness, and me of my lame- 

After this they both knelt down, and 
prayed with great fervency, that God would 
enable them to pass, with Christian resolu- 
tion, through the fiery trial, the substance 
of which may be thus expressed : — 

" Now pain and anguish seize me, Lord, 
All my support is from thy word; 
My soul dissolves for heaviness, 
Uphold me with thy strength'ning grace. 
The proud have framed their scoffs and lies, 
They've watched my feet with envious eyes, 
And tempt my soul to snares and sins ; 
Yet thy commands I ne'er decline. 
They hate me, Lord, without a cause, 
They hate to see me love thy laws ; 
But I will trust and fear thy name, 
While they shall live and die in shame." 

These two steadfast believers in Christ 

were both chained to one stake. They 

endured their sufferings with great fortitude, 

and cheerfully yielded up their lives in 

testimony of the truth of their Redeemer. 

Account of the Examinations and Suffer- 
ings of Thomas Spicer, John Denny, 
and Edmund Poole, all of the County 
of Suffolk. 

These three persons were apprehended 
by the justices of the county in which they 
lived, and committed to prison, for not at- 
tending mass at their parish church. 

After being some time in confinement, 
they were brought before the chancellor of 
Norwich, and the register, who sat at the 
town of Beccles, to examine them with 
respect to thpir faith. The articles alleged 
against them were as follow : — 

1. That they believed not the pope of 
Rome to be supreme head immediately un- 
der Christ, of the universal catholic church. 

2. That they believed not holy bread 
and holy water, ashes, palms, and other 
like ceremonies used in the church, to be 
good and laudable for stirring up the people 
to devotion. 

3. That they believed not after the words 

of consecration spoken by the priest, the 
very natural body of Christ, and no other 
substance of bread and wine, to be in the 
sacrament of the altar. 

4. That they believed it to be idolatry to 
worship Christ in the sacrament of the altar. 

5. That they took bread and wine in re- 
membrance of Christ's passion. 

6. That they would not follow the cross 
in procession, nor be confessed to a priest. 

They all acknowledged the justness of 
those articles, in consequence of which they 
were condemned by the chancellor, who 
first endeavored to reclaim them from their 
opinions, and bring them over to the church 
of Rome ; but all his admonitions and ex- 
hortations proved ineffectual. 

On the 21st of May, 1556, these three 
pious Christians were led to the stake in 
the town of Beccles, amidst a great num- 
ber of lamenting spectators. As soon as 
they arrived at the place of execution they 
devoutly prayed, and repeated the articles 
of their faith. When they came to that 
article concerning the holy catholic church, 
Sir John Sillard, the high sheriff, thus ad- 
dressed them : " That is well said, sirs ; I 
am glad to hear you say you believe the 
catholic church ; this is the best expression 
I ever heard from you yet." 

To this Poole answered, that though they 
believed the catholic church, yet they be- 
lieved not in their popish church, which is 
no part of Christ's catholic church, and, 
therefore, no part of their belief. 

When they arose from prayer they went 
joyfully to the stake, and being chained to 
it, and the fagots lighted, they praised God 
with such cheerfulness in the midst of the 
flames, as astonished the numerous specta- 

Soon after they were fastened to the 
stake, several bigoted papists, called to the \ 
executioner to throw fagots at them, in \ 
order to stop their mouths ; but our martyrs, \ 
disregarding their malice, boldly confessed ; 
the truth with their latest breath, dying, as | 
they had lived, in certain hopes of a resur- j 
rection to life eternal. ; 


s The Sufferings and Martyrdoms of Cath- 

> ARiNE Hut, Joan Hornes, and Eliza- 


> These three pious women being appre- 
) hended on suspicion of heresy, were car- 



To the sixth article of their reconcilia- 
tion to the church of Rome, they refused 
to be reconciled to the same. 

To the seventh, of their disapproving the 
service of the church, and not frequenting 
ried before Sir John Mordaunt and Edmund | their parish church, they acknowledged it 
Tyrrel, justices of the peace for the coun- \ to be true, 
ty of Essex, who sent them prisoners to Catharine Hut alleged, as the cause; of 
the bishop of London, for not conforming | her absenting herself from church, that she 
to the order of the church, and not believ- 
ing the real presence of Christ's body in 
the sacrament of the altar. 

Being brought before the bishop, he ex- 
hibited to them the articles usual on the 
occasion ; to which they answered as fol- 
lows : — 

neither approved the service in Latin, the 
mass, matins, or even song ; nor were the 
sacraments used and administered accord- 
ing to God's word. She declared, mu»e- 
over, that mass was an idol, neither was 
the true body and blood of Christ in the 
sacrament of the altar, as they compelled 
To the first, concerning their belief, that \ persons to believe, 
there was a catholic church of Christ up- s To the eighth article, they declared, that 
on earth, they all assented. s they were all sent up to the bishop of Lon- 

To the second, relating to the seven sac- s don, by Sir John Mordaunt and Edmund 
raments, they said they did not understand s Tyrrel, justices of the peace for the coun- 
properly what they were. \ ty of Essex, because they could not believe 

To the third, concerning their baptism, \ the presence of Christ's body and blood in 
they replied they believed they were bap- s the sacrament of the altar, and for absent- 
tized, but knew not what their godfathers \ ing themselves from their parish church, 
and godmothers promised for them. s To the ninth article, that they were of 

To the fourth, about their continuance in s the diocese of London, they all assented, 
the faith into which they were baptized, s except Catharine Hut, who said she was 
until they arrived at the age of fourteen s of the parish of Bocking, in Essex, which 
years, or the age of discretion, without dis- s is of the peculiar jurisdiction of Canter- ] 
approving the same ; they granted it to be \ bury, and not under that of the diocese of \ 
true. \ London. > 

To this article Catharine Hut observed, 5 On the 13th of April they were again \ 
that at that time she did not understand $ brought before the bishop, and the respec- 
what she professed. \i\\e articles, with their answers, publicly 

Joan Hornes added, that in the days of | read in court, in order to their final judg- 
King Edward VI. she learned the faith that \ ment. 

was then set forth, and still continued in > Catharine Hut, being first examined, 
the same ; and would, with God's assist- i was required to declare her opinion of the. 
ance, continue the remainder of her life. \ sacrament of the altar, and to return to the 
To the fifth article, concerning the mass '• catholic faith. To this she replied that the 
and the sacrament of the altar, they said, > sacrament, as enforced by the papists, was 
they could discern no excellence in the ) not truly God, but a dumb god, made with 
mass, nor could they believe but that / men's hands ; upon which she received 
Christ's natural body was in heaven, and \ sentence of death. 

not in the sacrament of the altar. \ Joan Hornes was next examined, and 

Concerning the see of Rome, they ac- ; being charged that she did not believe the 

knowledged no supremacy in the same, nor \ sacrament of Christ's body and blood to be 

would they adhere to it. \ Christ himself, said, *' If you can make your 



5 god to shed blood, or show any sign of a c to death, at the instigation of the relentless 
I true, living body, then will I believe yon : | and crnel Bonner. 

J but it is bread as to the substance, and that < Among those who were persecuted and 
; which you call heresy is the manner in I imprisoned for the profession of Chrisl's 
i which I trust to serve my God to the end I gospel, and yet delivered by the providence 
\ of my life. 5 of God, was John Fetty, the father of the 

I "Concerning the bishop and see of lad under consideration. He had been ac- 
I Rome, I detest them as abominations, and < cused, by his own wife, to the minister of 
^ desire ever to be delivered from the same." I the parish in which he lived, of absenting 

< In consequence of these answers, sen- s himself from church, the sacrament of the 
tence of condemnation was immediately altar, confession, and other ceremonies, 
pronounced on her. \ for neglect of which he was apprehended 

ElizabethThackvili. continuing stead- I by one of the officers employed for that 
fast in her former confessions, and refusing ] purpose. 

to recant, shared the same fate with the I Immediately after his apprehension his 
other two ; when they were all delivered I wife grew delirious, in consequence of 
over to the secular power, and committed to I which, though they were regardless of him, 
Newgate. I pity toward that ungrateful woman, wrought 

On the 16ih of May, the day appointed I upon them so sensibly, that, for the sake of 
for their execution, they were conducted to I the preservation and support of her and 

iSmithfield, where, being all fastened to one I her children, they discharged him, with a 
stake, and the fagots lighted, their bodies I compulsion that he should continue in his 
, were soon consumed, after they recom- I own house. 

I mended their spirits into the hands of that \ Notwithstanding the ingratitude of hia 
I God, for the truth of whose word they joy- i wife, he provided for her in such a manner, 
I fully suffered death, in hopes of obtaining s that within the space of three weeks, she 
I life everlasting. I had, in some measure, recovered her sen- 

( On the same day these three were exe- > ses. But such was the disposition of this 
^ cuted in Smithfield, two others suffered at ^ wicked woman, that, notwithstanding this 

< Gloucester, namely, Thomas Drowry, a I instance of his conjugal affection, she laid 

< blind boy ; and Thomas Croker, a brick- 1 a second information against him , upon 
I layer. ? which he was apprehended, and carried 
I They both submitted to their fate with > before Sir John Mordaunt, one of the 
s great fortitude and resignation, cheerfully | queen's commissioners, by whom, after ex- 
\ yielding up their souls to Him who gave | amination, he was sent to Lollard's tower, 
\ them. \ where he was put into the stocks, and had 
I I a dish of water set by him with a stone in 
\ ■ I it, to point out to him, that it was the chief 

< . n- ■ ^\TT I sustenance he might expect to receive. 
I The persecutions and sufferings of William > « r. u i i u r .u 
s^ f r 1 I After he had been ui prison for the space 
] Fetty, a lad of twelve years of a^rfi who I - -^. , ,, . . . r u- u 
i , , , , • r>- of fifteen days (the greatest part of which 
J was so barbarously scourged in Bishop [ . , i . • .i . i 

• T J 7 / ^'"^6 he was kept in the stocks, sometmies 

Bonner^s Palace in London, that it occa-i, , , ,■ ,\ .\ \ \xti 

^ by one leg, and sometimes the other), Wil- 
} sioned his death. / ,. r« ., /- v .a 

> < ham Fetty, one ot his sons, came to tho 

I If dying innocently in the cause of 5 bishop's palace, in order to obtain permis- 

Christ, and his religion, constitutes the | sion to see him. 

character of a martyr, no one can be more \ "When he arrived there, one of the bish- 
i entitled to a place in our catalogue than op's chaplains asked him his business ; the 

this youth, who was unmercifully scourged | boy replied, he wanted to see his father, at 




the same time shedding tears, and expres- , When the poor man came before the 
sing the greatest unhappiness. The chap- \ bishop, he said, " God be here and [)oace." 
lain asked who was his father ; and when \ To which the bishop replied, " Tliat is \ 
the boy told him, he pointed toward Lo'f- s neither God speed, nor good-morrow." j 

lard's tower, intimating that he was there \ One of the bishop's chaplains stand- | 
confined. \ ing by, reviled Fetty for the speech he ; 

The chaplain then told him his father I had made ; when he, after lookii\g about, 
was a heretic, to which the boy (who was s and spying a bundle of black beads, and a 
of a bold and forward spirit, and had been s small crucifix, said, " As Christ is here 
instructed by his father in the reformed re- handled, so you deal with Christ's chosen 
ligion) answered, " My father is no here- ) people." 
tic, but you have Balaam's mark." | The bishop was so enraged at this, that 

On this the incensed priest took the boy he called him a vile heretic, and said, "I 
by the hand, and led him to a large room | will burn thee, or spend all I possess." 
in the palace, where he scourged him in > However, in a little time his passion cooled, 
the most severe and unmerciful manner ; and thinking of the consequences, that 
after which he ordered one of his servants might arise from scourging the child, he or- 
to carry him in his shirt to his father, the dered them both to be discharged, 
blood running down to his heels. The father immediately went home with 

As soon as he saw his father he fell onj his son, but the poor boy, from an extraor- 
his knees, and craved his blessing. The | dinary effusion of blood, and a mortification 
poor man beholding his child in so dread- ' which ensued, died a few days after, to the 
ful a situation, exclaimed, with great grief, \ great grief of his persecuted and indulgent 
" Alas ! son, who hath thus cruelly treated < parent. 

you ?" The boy replied, " Seeking to find ] The old man remained, without further 
you out, a priest, with Balaam's mark, took \ persecution, during the residue of his life, 
me into the bishop's house, and treated me \ often praising God for delivering him out 
in the manner you see " \ of the hands of his enemies, and expres- 

The servant then seized the boy with S sing the sense he had of the divine protec- 
great wrath, and dragging him from his fa- tion in words to the following effect : (see 
ther, led him back to the place where he \ engraving.) 
had been scourged by the priest. Here he 
was kept three days, in the course of which 

his former punishment was several times 
repeated, though not in so severe a manner 
as before. 

At the expiration of that time, Bonner, 
in order to make some atonement for this 
cruel treatment of the boy, and to appease 
the father, determined to release both ofj 
them. He therefore, ordered the latter to 
be brought before him, in his bed-chamber, 
early in the morning. 

To heaven I lift my waiting eyes, 
There all my'hopes are laid ; 

The Lord, who built the earth and skies, 
Is my perpetual aid. 

Their feet shall never slide nr fall, 

Whom he designs to keep ; 
His ear attends the softest call, 

His eyes canjiever sleep. 

He will sustain my weakest powers, 

With his almighty arm, 
And watch my most unguarded hours 

Against surprising harm. 

He guards my soul, he keeps my breath, 
Where thickest dangers come : 

I go and come, secure from death, 
Till God commands me home. 





HOUGH the persecutions 
against the protestants in 
Scotland were not so prev- 
alent, or carried on with 
such vigor as in England, 
yet there were many inno- 
cent people who fell victims to bigoted ma- 
levolence, and cheerfully resigned up their 
souls in testimony of the truth of that gos- 
pel to which they had strenuously and re- 
ligiously adhered. 

The first person we meet with who suf- 
fered in Scotland on the score of religion, 
was one Patrick Hamilton, a gentleman 
of an independent fortune, and descended 
from a very ancient and honorable family. 
Having acquired a liberal education, and 
being desirous of further improving himself 
in useful knowledge, he left Scotland, and 
went to the university of Wirteniberg, in 
Germany, in order to finish his studies. 
I During his residence here, he became 

< intimately acquainted with those eminent 
] lights of the gospel, Martin Luther and 
I Philip Melancthon ; from whose writings 
( and doctrines he strongly attached himself 
I to the protestant religion. 

I After staying some time at Wirtemberg, 
I he left that place, and went to the univer- 
i siiy of Marburgh, which was then but 
J lately established by one Philip, landgrave 

!of Hesse. Here he formed an intimacy 
with several distinguished characters who 
were friends to the reformation, among 

< whom was Francis Lambert. 

] From this person Mr. Hamilton received 
r such enlightened assistance that he set up 
j public disputations on religion at Marburgh, 
* and from the solidity of his arguments, 
( joined to his well-known piety, and regular 
I conduct in life, he soon obtained a number 
I of followers, who were happy in having the 

< opportunity of hearing the true gospel of 
i Christ displayed in its proper colors. 

After laboring here some time in the 
vine)'ard of his Redeemer, he determined 
to return to his own country, and there ex- 
ert himself in behalf of the protestant re- 
ligion. He accordingly went thither, and 
from his great diligence, as well as singu- 
lar abilities as a preacher, soon became 
popular, and was followed by great numbers 
of advocates for the cause of Christ 

The archbishop of St. Andrew's (who 
was a rigid papist) hearing of Mr. Hamil- 
ton's proceedings, cited him to appear be- 
fore him at his palace, where, after several 
conferences with him on different points of 
religion, he was dismissed, the bishop 
seeming to approve of his doctrines, and 
acknowledging, that in many particulars 
there needed a reformation in the church. 

This, however, was all hypocrisy and 
deceit ; the bishop's intentions were to 
make a sacrifice of Mr. Hamilton, but he 
was fearful tliat his attempts would prove 
abortive by Mr. Hamilton's being acquaint- 
ed with many personages who had free ac- 
cess to the king, and that if he should con- 
vict him of heresy, he would escape by 
means of their intercession. 

To obviate this difficu-lty, the bishop, who 
had great ascendency over the Scottish 
king, persuaded him to go on a pilgrimage 
to St. Dothcsse, in Rosse. The king, who 
was a strong bigot, readily took the bish- 
op's advice, and a few days after set out on 
his journey, little suspecting the bishop's 

The very next day after his departure, 
the bishop caused Mr. Hamilton to be 
seized, and being brought before him, afier 
a short examination relative to his religious 
principles, he committed him a prisoner to 
the castle, at the same time ordering him 
to be confined in the most loathsome part i 
of the prison. | 

The next morning Mr. Hamilton waa , 



213 I 

brought before the bishop, and several oth- | it be bitter to the flesh, and fearful before 
ers, for examination, when the principal ar- j men, yet it is the entrance into eternal life, 
tides exhibited against him were, his pub- 1 which none shall possess who deny Christ 
licly disapproving of pilgrimages, purgato- 1 Jesus before this wicked generation." 
ry, prayers to saints, for the dead, &c. \ After this he was fastened to the stake, 

These articles Mr. Hamilton acknowl- 1 and the fagots placed round him. A quan- 
edged to be true, in consequence of which til)' of gunpowder having been fastened 
he was immediately condemned to be burnt, \ under his arms, was first set on fire, which 
and that his condemnation might have the scorched his left hand and one side of his 
greater authority, they caused it to be sub- face, but did him no material injury, nei- 
scribed by all those of any note who were ther did it communicate with the fagots. In 
present, and to make the number as con- consequence of this, more powder and com- 
siderable as possible, even admitted the | bustible matter was brought, which being 
subscription of boys who were sons of the i set on fire took effect, and the fagots being 
nobility. ? kindled, he called out, with an audible voice, 

So anxious was this bigoted and perse- \ " Lord Jesus, receive my spirit ! How long 
outing prelate for the destruction of Mr. s shall darkness overwhelm this realm ? and 
Hamilton, that he ordered his sentence to \ how long wilt thou suffer the tyranny of 
be put in execution on the afternoon of the s these men ?" I 

very day it was pronounced. He was ac- I The fire burning slow put him to great I 
cordingly led to the place appointed for the I torment, but he bore it with Christian mag- 5 
horrid tragedy, and was attended by a pro- ^ nanimity. What gave him the greatest \ 
digious number of spectators. The great- s pain, was the clamor of some wicked men > 
est part of the multitude would not believe I set on by the friars, who frequently cried I 
it was intended he should be put to death, s out, " Turn, thou heretic ; call upon our \ 
but that it was only done to frighten him, s lady ; say, Salve Regina,^^ &c. To whom | 
and thereby bring him over to embrace the s he replied, " Depart from me, and trouble 
principles of the Romish religion. But s me not, thou messengers of Satan." One 
they soon found themselves mistaken. s Campbell, a friar, who was the ringleader, 

When he arrived at the stake he knelt still continuing to interrupt him by oppro- 
down, and, for some time, prayed with the I brious language, he said to him, " Wicked 
greatest fervency. After this he arose, and 5 man, God forgive thee." After which, 
was accosted by a priest, who told him that | being prevented from further speech by the 
if he would recant, his life should be spared, violence of the smoke, and the rapidity of 
but our martyr was so furnished with god- the flames, he resigned up his soul into 
ly strength, that neither the love of life, the hands of him who gave it. 
nor fear of the most cruel death, could in I This steadfast believer in Christ suffered 
the least move him to deviate from the truth i martyrdom in the year 1527. 
of that gospel he had so religiously pro- ) Campbell, the friar, who had so inter- 
fessed, and for which he was determined l rupted him at the place of execution, af- 
to relinquish a miserable existence. ! terward ran distracted, and died within the 

Having finished his devotions, he took I year. These two circumstances put to- 

ofT his gown, coat, cap, and other garments, 
and delivered them to a faithful servant that 
attended him, saying, " These will not prof- 
it in the fire, but they will profit thee ; af- 
ter this, of me thou canst receive no com- 

gether, made an impression upon the peo- 
ple, and as these points began to be in- 
quired into, many embraced the new opm- 

This execution is ascribed by Drum- 

raodity except the example of my death, > mond, to a revenge of a private quarrel 

which I beg thee to bear in mind, for though (> against the earl of Arran. 

After which 

■ ■ 

\ 214 



several persons, in all parts of the king'lom, 
began to inquire into tlie articles for which 
Mr. Hamilton had been so inhumanly treat- 
ed. Many entertained favorable sentiments 
concerning them, insomuch that several of; 
the friars, from that time, declaimed openly 
I against the lewd behavior of their brethren 
c the clergy ; and pariicularly that in Lent, 
I one Seton, confessor to the king, presumed 
' to recommend some of the new doctrines 
( from the pulpit, and to set forih to the peo- 

< pie, the virtues which St. Paul requires in 
j a good minister. 

< This freedom was not a little grating to 
/ most of the clergy, and they found less dif- 
j ficully to bring Seton into discredit at court, 
I as he had used much freedom in reproving 
I the king. Mr. Seton, however, perceiving 
■< his majesty's countenance was changed, 
> and dreading the power and influence of 

!the clergy, retired from court, and went to 
London, after having wrote a letter to the 
> king. 

\ One Henry Forest, a young inoffensive 
i Benedictine, being charged with speaking 

< respectfully of the above Patrick Hamilton, 

< was thrown into prison ; and, in confessing 
I himself to a friar, owned that he thought 
I Hamilton a good man, and that the articles, 
I for which he was sentenced to die, might 
I be defended. This being revealed by the 
5 friar, it was received as evidence, and the 
I poor Benedictine was sentenced to be 


While consultation was held with regard 
to the manner of his execution, John Lind- 
say, one of the archbishop's gentlemen, of- 
fered his advice to burn Friar Forest in some 
cellar, for, said he, " The smoke of Pat- 
{ trict Hamilton, hath infected all those on 
whom it blew." 

This advice was taken, and the poor vic- 
tim was rather suffocated than burnt. 

The next who fell victims for professing 

the truth of the gospel, were David Strat- 

TON and Norman Gourlav. The first of 

I these was by trade a fisherman, and a very 

I illiterate person, paying little regard either 

to morality or religion. 

The bishop one day sent to Stratton, and 
demanded of him a tithe of the fish he 
caught ; to which he returned for answer, 
that if they would have tithe of wliat his 
servants took in the sea, they should re- 
ceive it in the place where it was caught, 
and immediately ordered the men to carry 
every tenth fish, and throw it into the sea. 

Though the bishop was greatly irritated 
at the behavior of Stratton, yet he took no 
notice of him for the present, but deter- 
mined to be revenged on him at some fu- 
ture opportunity. 

In the meantime, Stratton having acci- 
dentally fallen into the company of some 
godly and Christian people, he was so 
struck with their conversation, that it im- 
pressed on his mind that sense of his duty 
to which he had hitherto been a stranger. 

From this period he attended, with the 
greatest diligence, to hear the word of God, 
which before he had despised, and in a { 
short time became so serious a convert, 
that he exhorted others to follow his exam- 
pie, and not to fix their minds only on the 
concerns of the world. 

The lord of Dun Areskin, who had been 
enlightened with the truth of the gospel, 
endeavored to propagate it to others, and for 
that purpose frequently expounded the 
Scriptures to such as would attend to hear 
him. Among these were our two martyrs, 
who never let any opportunity slip where- 
by they might receive Christian knowledge, 
and it was from their constant attendance \ 
here, that they became, not only good Chris- < 
tians, but the most sincere friends, and | 
were never so happy as when in company \ 
with each other. I 

Attending one day, as usual, to hear the | 
lord of Dun Areskin, he took for his text j 
the following words : " He that denieth me i 
before men, or is ashamed of me in the ; 
midst of this wicked generation, 1 will de- 
ny him before my father, and his holy an- 

Stratton was so sensil)ly struck at hear- 
ing these words, that he immediately fell 
on his knees, and steadfiistly lifting up his | 




eyes and hands to heaven, thus exclaimed : 
" O Lord, I have been wicked, and justly 
mayest thou withdraw thy grace from me : 
but, Lord, for thy mercy sake, let me nev- 
er deny thee, nor thy truth, for fear of death, 
or any corporeal pain." 

The great attention these two persons 
paid to the duties of religion, made them 
so distinguished, that an information of her- 
esy was laid against them by their enemies 
before the archbishop, who now determined 
to punish Stratton for the treatment he had 
received from him before his conversion. 

They were accordingly both apprehend- 
ed and committed to prison, where they 
were confined for some weeks, during 
which they were very cruelly treated. 
They had scarce sufficient refreshment al- 
lowed them to preserve their miserable ex- 
istence, nor were they suffered to be seen 
by any of their friends or acquaintances. 

At length they were brought before the 
archbishop, at Holy-Rood house, for exam- 
ination, the king himself being present on 
the occasion. 

Several articles of heresy were exhibit- 
ed against them, all which they answered 
with great fortitude and composnre of mind. 
The archbishop endeavored to prevail on 
them to recant their errors, and return to 
the mother-church ; but they denied having 
committed any offence, and said they were 
determined to preserve their religious sen- 
timents, in opposition to every effort that 
might be offered to make them alter their 

In consequence of this the archbishop 
pronounced on them the dreadful sentence 
of death, which was that they should be 
first hanged, and then burnt ; and in the af- 
ternoon of the same day they were led to 
the place appointed for their execution. I 

As soon as they arrived at the fatal spot, > 
they both kneeled down, and prayed for ) 
some time, with great fervency. They then \ 
arose, when Stratton addressing himself to ) 
the spectators, exhorted them to lay aside > 
their superstitious and idolatrous notions, / 
and employ their time in seeking the true I 

light of the gospel. He would have said 
more, but was prevented by the officers, at 
the desire of the archbishop, who attended. 
Their sentence was then put into execu- 
tion, and they cheerfully resigned up their 
souls to that God who gave them, hoping, 
through the merits of the great Redeemer, 
for a glorious resurrection to life immortal. 
They suffered in the year 1534. 

The martyrdoms of the two before-men- 
tioned persons were soon followed by that 
of Mr. Thomas Forret, who, for a consid- 

^ erable time, had been a dean of the Romish 

I church. 

< This person, having himself been en- 
I lightened with the truth of the gospel, was 

< desirous of conveying the knowledge of it 
i to others. To effect this he preached ev- 
i ery sabbath to his parishioners, from the 
I epistles and gospels of the day, which 

< highly offending the friars (who claimed 
that privilege to themselves only) they ac- 
cused him of heresy, and laid an informa- 
tion against him before the bishop of Dun- 

Though the bishop would willingly have 
avoided concerning himself in this matter, 
yet, from the persons who laid the infor- 
mation, he thought it most prudent to take 
some notice of it. He accordingly ordered 
Dean Forret to appear before him, which 
being immediately complied with, the fol- 
lowing dialogue ensued : — 

Bishop. My good dean, I love you well, 
and therefore I must give you counsel how 
to govern yourself. I am informed that 
you preach the epistle and gospel every 
Sunday to your people, and that you take 
not your dues from them, which is very 
prejudicial to the churchmen. Therefore, 
my good dean Thomas, I would advise 
you to take your dues, otherwise it will be 
too much to preach every Sunday ; for by 
so doing you make the people think we 
should do the same. It is enough for you, 
when you find a good epistle or gospel, to j 
set forth and preach the liberty of the ho- I 
ly mother-church. j 

Dean. My lord, I presume none of my \ 



parishioners complain for my not taking my < fore the archbishop for examination. Ken- \ 

dues. And whereas, you say it is too much \ nedy's tender years inclining him to pusil- % 

to preach every Sunday, I think it is too 5 lanimity, he would at first have recanted ; \ 
little, and wish your lordship would follow I but being suddenly refreshed by divine in- 

my example. 

spiration, and feeling himself, as it were, a 

Bishop. Nay, nay, Dean Thomas, let that ^ new creature, his mind was changed, and 

be, for we are not ord-iined to preach. 

falling on his knees, he, with a cheerful 

Dean. My lord, you told me to preach ^ countenance thus expressed himself : — 
when I meet with a good epistle and gos- > " O eternal God ! how wonderful is that 
pel ; I have read them all over, and I know > love and mercy thou bearest unto mankind, 
no bad ones among them, but when your S and to me, a miserable wretch above all 
lordship shows me such I will pass by > others ! for even now, when I would have 
them. \ denied thee, and thy son our Lord Jesus 

Bishop. I thank God I never knew what \ Christ, my only Savior, and so have cast 
the Old and New Testaments were, and I > myself into everlasting damnation, thou, by 
desire not to know anything more than my J thine own hand, hast pulled me from the 
pontifical. Go your ways, and lay aside I very bottom of hell, and made me to feel 
all these fancies; for if you persevere | that heavenly comfort which has taken from 
] herein, you will repent when it is too late. > me that ungodly fear wherewith I was be- 

Dean. I trust my cause is good and just > fore oppressed. Now I defy death ; do 
in the presence of God, and therefore I with me as you please ; I praise God I am \ 

care not what follows. 

The dean then took leave of the bishop. 


In the course of their examination, Rus- 

but was, a short time after, summoned to sel, being a very sensible man, reasoned 
appear before Cardinal Beaton, archbishop learnedly against his accusers. They, in 
of St. Andrew's, by whom, after a short ex- return, made use of very opprobrious lan- 
amiriation, he was condemned to be burnt | guage ; to which Russel replied as follows : 
as a heretic. \ " This is your hour and power of darkness : 

The like sentence was pronounced, at I now ye sit as judges, and we stand wrong- 
the same time, on four others, namely, Kil- ^ fully accused, and more wrongfully to be 
lor and Beverage, two blacksmiths ; Dun- i condemned ; but the day will come when 
can Simson, a priest ; and Robert Forrest- our innocence will appear, and ye shall see 
er, a gentleman. They were all burnt to- your own blindness, to your everlasting 
gether, on the castle hill, at Edinburgh, the \ confusion. Go on, and fill the measure of 

5 your iniquity." 

I The examination being over, and both 
fortitude, and died in the most lively exer- 1 of them deemed heretics, the archbishop 
cise of faith in Christ, to obtain eternal pronounced the dreadful sentence of death, 
life in that glorious state, where the wicked | and they were immediately delivered over 
cease from troubling, and the weary are at | lo the secular power in order for execution, 
rest \ The next day they were led to the place 

The year following the martyrdoms of ^ appointed for them to suffer; in their way 
the before-mentioned persons, viz., 1539, $ to which Russel, seeing his fellow-sufferer 
two others were apprehended on a suspi- 1 have the appearance of timidity in his coun- 
cion of heresy : namely, Jerom Russel, I tenance, thus addressed him : " Brother, 
and Alexander Kennedy, a youth about \ fear not ; greater is He that is in us, than 

■ last day of February, 1538. 

They endured their sufferings with great 

eighteen years of age. 

he that is in the world. The pain that we 

These two persons, after being some I are to suffer is short, and shall bo light ; | 
< time confined in prison, were brought be- ! but our joy and consolation shall never | 




I hare an end. Let us, therefore, strive to 
I ent«r into our Master and Savior's joy, by 
^ the same strait way which he hath taken 
I before u^. Death can not hurt us, for it is 
already destroyed by him, for whose sake 
we are now going to suffer." 

When they arrived at the fatal spot, they 
both kneeled down and prayed for some 
time ; after which, being fastened to the 
stake, and the fagots lighted, they cheer- 
fully resigned their souls into the hands of 
Him who gave them, in full hopes of an ev- 
erlasting reward in the heavenly mansions. 
In 1543, the archbishop of St. Andrew's 
made a visitation into various parts of his 
diocese, where several persons were in- 
formed against at Perth for heresy. Among 
these the following were condemned to die, 
viz., William Anderson, James Fiiilayson, 
Robert Lamb, James Hunter, James Ravel- 
son, Helen Stark. 

The accusations laid against these re- 
spective persons were as follow : — 
I The first four were accused of having 

< hung up the image of Sir Francis, nailing 

< ram's horns on his head, and fastening a 

< cow's tail to his back ; but the principal 
I matter on which they were condemned, was 
, having regaled themselves with a goose on 
I a fast day. 

s James Ravelson was accused of having 

\ adorned his house with the three-crowned 

) diadem of Peter, carved in wood, which 

the archbishop conceived to be done in 

mockery of his cardinal's cap. 

^ Helen Stark was accused of not having 
accustomed herself to pray to the virgin 
Mary, more especially during her confine- 

On these respective accusations they 
were all found guilty, and immediately re- 
ceived sentence of death ; the four men for 
eating the goose to be hanged ; James 
Ravelson to be burnt ; and the woman, 
with her sucking infant, to be put into a 
sack, and drowned. 

The four men, with the woman and child, 
suffered at the same time ; but James Rav- 
elson was not executed till some days after. 

On the day appointed for the execution 
of the former, they were all conducted, un- 
der a proper guard, to the place where they 
were to suffer, and were attended by a pro- 
digious number of spectators. 

As soon as they arrived at the place of 
execution, they all prayed fervently for 
some time ; after which Robert Lamb ad- 
dressed himself to the spectators, exhort- 
ing them to fear God, and to quit the prac- 
tice of papistical abominations. 

The four men wore all hanged on the 
same gibbet ; and the woman and her 
sucking chikl were conducted to a river 
adjoining, when, being fastened in a large 
sack, they were thrown into it, and drowned. 

They all suffered their fate with becom- 
ing fortitude and resignation, committing 
their departing spirits to that Redeemer 
who was to be their final judge, and who, ^ 
they had reason to hope, would usher them | 
into the realms of everlasting bliss. | 

When we reflect on the sufferings of 
these persons, we are naturally induced, 
both as men and Christians, to lament their 
fate, and to express our feelings by drop- 
ping the tear of commiseration. The mur- 
dering four men, for little other reason than 
that of satisfying nature with an article sent 
by Providence for that very purpose (mere- 
ly because it was on a day prohibited by 
ridiculous bigotry and superstition), is 
shocking indeed ; but the fate of the inno- 
cent woman, and her still more harmless 
infant, makes human nature shake, and al- 
most tremble, to think there is such a being 
as man. horrid bigotry, to what lengths 
wilt thou not go ! What sacrifice wilt thou 
not make, to gratify the basest and most 
inhuman of passions ! (See engraving.) 

Many others were cruelly persecuted du- 
ring the archbishop's stay at Perth, some 
being banished, and others confined in 
loathsome dungeons. John Rogers, a pi- 
ous man, was murdered in prison, and his 
body thrown over the walls into the street ; ) 
after which the archbishop caused a report i 
to be spread, that he had met with his . 
death by attempting to make his escape. ' 




born in Scotland, and af- 
ter receiving a grammat- 
ical education at a pri- 
vate school, he left that 
place, and finished his 
studies at the university of Cambridge. In 
order to improve himself as much as possi- 
ble in the knowledge of literature, he trav- 
elled into various parts abroad, where he 
distinguished himself for his great learning 
ajid ahililies, both in philosophy and divin- 
ity. His desire to promote true knowledge 
and science among men, accompanied the 
profession of it hittiself. He was very ready 
to communicate what he knew to others, 
and frequently read various authors both in 
his own chamber, and in the public schools. 
After being some time abroad he relumed 
to England, and took up his residence at 
Can\bridge, where he was admitted a mem- 
ber of Bennet college. Having taken up 
his degrees, he entered into holy orders, 
and expounded the gospel in so clear and 
intelligible manner, as highly to delight his 
numerous auditors. 

Being desirous of propagating the true 
gospel in his own country, he left Cambridge 
in 1544, and in his way thither preached 
in most of the principal towns, to the great 
pleasure of himself, and the satisfaction of 
his hearers. 

On his arrival in Scotland he preached 
first at Montrose, and afterward at Dundee. 
In this last place he made a public exposi- 
tion of the epistle to the Romans, which 
he went through with such grace and free- \ 
dom, as greatly alarmed the papists. \ 

In consequence of this (at the instigation I 
of Cardinal Beaton, the archbishop of St. \ 
Andrew's), one Robert Miln, a principal 
man at Dundee, went to the church where | 
Wisliart preached, and in the njiddleof his \ 
discourse publicly told him not to trouble > 

the town any more, for he was determined 
not to suffer it. 

This sudden rebuff greatly surprised 
Wishart, who, after a short pause, looking 
sorrowfully on the speaker and the audi- 
ence, said, " God is my witness, that I nev- 
er minded your trouble but your comfort ; 
yea, your trouble is more grievous to me 
than it is to yourselves : but [ am assured, 
to refuse God's word, and to chase from 
you his messenger, shall not preserve you 
from trouble, but shall bring you into it : 
for God shall send you ministers that shall 
fear neither burning nor banishment. ) 
have offered you the word of salvation. 
With the hazard of my life I have remained 
among you : now ye yourselves refuse me ; 
and I must leave my innocence to be de- 
clared by my God. If it be long prosper- 
ous with you, I am not led by the spirit of 
truth : but if unlooked-for trouble come up- 
on you, acknowledge the cause, and turn 
to God, who is gracious and merciful. 
But if you turn not at the first warning, he 
will visit you with fire and sword." At 
the close of this speech he left the pulpit, 
and retired. 

After this he went into the west of Scot- 
land, where he preached God's word, which 
was gladly received by many ; till the arch- 
bishop of Glasgow, at the instigation of 
Cardinal Beaton, came with his train, to 
the town of Ayr, to suppress Wishart, and 
insisted on having the church himself to 
preach in. Some opposed this ; but Wis- 
hart said, " Let him alone, his sermon will 
not do much hurt ; let us go to the market 
cross." This was agreed to, and Wishart 
prea''*- d a sermon that gave universal sat- 
isfaction to his hearers, and at the same 
time confounded his enemies. 

He continued to propagate the gospel 
to the people with the greatest alacrity, 
preaching sometimes in one place, and 




) 6 aetimes in another; but coming to Mack- | them. After this the plague abated; though, \ 
I lene, he was, by force, kept out of the | in the midst of it, Wishart constantly vis- \ 
I church. Some of his followers would have ited those that lay in the greatest extremi- | 
j broken in ; upon which he said to one of | ty, and comforted them by his exhortations. \ 
I them, " Brother, Jesus Christ is as mighty \ "When he took leave of the people of < 

> in the fields as in the church ; and himself | Dundee, he said, that " God had almost • 

> often preached in the desert, at the sea-side, put an end to that plague, and he was now > 
j and other places. The like word of peace \ called to another place."' ; 
I God sends by me : the blood of none shall | He went thence to Montrose, where he i 
' be shed this day for preaching it." sometimes preached, but spent most of his ^ 

He then went into the fields, where he j his time in private meditation and prayer. | 
preached to the people for above three \ It is said, that before he left Dundee, and ' 
hours ; and such an impression did his ser- while he was engaged in the labors of love < 
I mon make on the minds of his hearers, that ; to the bodies, as well as to the souls of ^ 
\ one of the most wicked men in all the coun- 1 those poor afflicttid people. Cardinal Beaton \ 
^ fry, the lord of Slield, became a convert to i engaged a desperate popish priest, called ; 
/ the truth of the gospel. < John Weighton, to kill him ; the attempt to I 

I A short time after this, Mr. Wishart re- < execute which, was as follows: one day, | 
\ ceived intelligence that the plague was < after Wishart had finished his sermon, and < 

! broke out in Dundee. It began four days ^ the people departed, the priest stood wait- ] 
after he was prohibited from preaching \ ing at the bottom of the stairs, with a na- < 
there, and raged so extremely, that it was < ked dagger in his hand under his gown. \ 
i almost beyond credit how many died in the \ But Mr. Wishart, having a sharp, piercing } 
{ space of twenty-four hours. This being ^ eye, and seeing the priest as he cyme from 1 
{ related to him, he, notwithstanding the im- < the pulpit, said to him, " My friend, what ' 
! portunity of his friends to detain him, de- < would you have ?" And immediately clap- \ 
termined to go thither, saying, " They are < ping his hand upon the dagger, took it from I 
now in troubles, and need comfort. Per- < him. The priest beinsj terrified, fell on his | 
haps this hand of God will make them now ( knees, confessed his intention, and craved ' 
to magnify and reverence the word of God, < pardon. A noise being hereupon raised, - 
i which before they lightly esteemed." | and it coming to the ears of those who < 

> Here he was with joy received by the | were sick, they cried, " Deliver the traitor j 
/ godly. He chose the east gate for the place s to ns, we will take him by force ;" and they | 

> of his preaching ; so that the healthy were I burst in at the gate. But Wishart, taking | 
'> within, and the sick without the gate. He \ the priest in his arms, said, " Whatsoever | 
\ took his text from these words, " He sent \ hurts him shall hurt me ; for he hath done I 

his word and healed them," &c. In this > me no mischief, but much good, by teach- '. 
sermon he chiefly dwelt upon the advantage s ing me more heedfulnoss for the time to ' 
and comfort of God's word, the judgments ] come." By this conduct he appeased the s 
that ensue upon the contempt or rejection ^ people, and saved the life of the wicked | 
of it, the freedom of God's grace to all his I priest. 
/ people, and the happiness of those of his \ Soon after his return to Montrose, the 
I elect, whom he takes to himself out of this > cardinal again conspired his death, causing 

> miserable world. The hearts of his hear- ] a letter »o be sent to him, as if from his fa- 
5 ers were so raised by the divine torce of > miliar friend, the laird of Kinnier, in which 
I this discourse, as not to regard death, but | he was desired with all possible speed to 
I to judge them the more happy who should I come to him, because he was taken with a 

> then be calleJ, not knowing whether they ? sudden sickness. In the meantime, the car- 

} might have such a comforter again with < dinal had provided sixty men armed, to lie 








in wait within a mile and a half of Mon- > This realm shall be illuminated with the 

trose, in order to murder him as he passed s light of Christ's gospel, as clearly as any 

that way. s realm since the days of the apostles. The 

The letter coming to Wishart's hand by s house of God shall be built in it ; yea, it 

a boy, who also brought him a horse for i shall not lack, in despite of all enemies, 

the journey, Wishart, accompanied by some ^ the top-stone ; neither will it be long be- 

honest men, his friends, set forward; but s fore this be accomplished. Many shall not 

something particular striking his mind by | suffer after me, before the glory of God 

i the way, he relumed back, which they \ shall appear, and triumph in despite of Sa- 

/ wondering at, asked him the cause; to > tan. But, alas, if the people afterward 

I whom he said : *' I will not go ; I am for- 1 shall prove unthankful, then fearful and 

I bidden of God ; I am assured there is > terrible will the plagues be that shall fol- 

? treason. Let some of you go to yonder Mow." 

I place, and tell me what you find." Which t The next day he proceeded on his jour- 
j doing, they made the discovery : and hast- ney, and when he arrived at Leith, not 
I ily returning, they told Mr. Wishart : \ meeting with those he expected, he kept 
\ whereupon he said: " I know I shall end | himself retired for a day or two. He then 
\ my life by that bloodthirsty man's hands ; grew pensive, and being asked the reason, 
* but it will not be in this manner." | he answered: "What do I differ from a dead 

\ A short time after this he left Montrose, ] man ? Hitherto God hath used my labors 
I and proceeded to Edinburgh, in order to | for the instruction of others, and to the dis- 
> propagate the gospel in that city. By the | closing of darkness ; and now I lurk as a 
I way he lodged with a faithful brother, called I man ashamed to show his face." His 
I James Watson, of Inner-Goury. In the | friends perceived that his desire was to 
^ middle of the night, he got up, and went | preach, whereupon they said to him, " It is 
I into the yard, which two men hearing, they < most comfortable for us to hear you, but be- 
I privately followed him. i cause we know the danger wherein you 

I While in the yard, he fell on his knees, | stand, we dare not desire it." — " But," said 
I and prayed for sometime with the greatest he, " If you dare hear, let God provide for 
\ fervency ; after which he arose, and re- i me as best pleaselh him ;" after which it 
I turned to his bed. Those who attended | was concluded, that the next day he should 
I him, appearing as though they were igno- < preach in Leith. His text was of the par- 
; rant of all, came and asked him where he < able of the sower, Matt. xiii. The sermon 
\ had been : but he would not answer them. ( ended, the gentlemen of Lothian, who were 
I The next day they importuned him to tell < earnest professors of Jesus Christ, would 
I them, saying, " Be plain with us, for we \ not suffer him to stay at Leith, because the 
I heard your mourning, and saw your ges- < governor and cardinal were shortly to come 
\ tures." I to Edinburgh; but took him along with 

\ On this he, with a dejected countenance, \ them ; and he preached at Branstone, Long- 
\ said, " I had rather you had been in your \ niddry, and Ormistone. He also preached 
I beds." But they still pressing upon him \ at Inveresk, near Muselbnrgh : he had a 
I to know something, he said, " I will tell | great concourse of people, and among them 
I you ; I am assured that my warfare is near | Sir George Douglas, who after sermon 
at an end, and therefore pray to God with | said publicly : " I know that the governor 
me, that I shrink not when the battle wax- \ and cardinal will hear that I have been at 
eth most hot." jthis sermon ; but let them know that I will 

When they heard this they wept, saying, S avow it, and will maintain both the doc- 
" This is small comfort to us." Then, said | trine, and the preacher, to the uttermost of 
he : " God shall send you comfort after me. I my power." 



Among others that came to hear him i world, because he saw that men began to 
preach, there were two Gray-friars, who, < be weary of God : " For," said he " the 
standing at the church door, whispered to ] gentlemen of the west have sent me word, 
such as came in ; which Wishart observ- i that they can not keep their meeting at 
ing, said to the people, " I pray you make < Edinburgh." 

room for these two men, it may be they \ Knox, wondering he should enter into 
come to learn ;'' and turning to them, he < conference about these things, immediate- 
said, " Come near, for I assure you you i ly before his sermon, contrary to his usual 
shall hear the word of truth, which this custom, said to him, " Sir, sermon-lime ap- 
day shall seal up to you either your salva- \ proaches ; I will leave you for the present 
tion or damnation :" after which he pro- to your meditations." 

ceeded in his sermon, supposing they would \ Wisharl's sad countenance declared the 
be quiet ; but when he perceived that they ', grief of his mind. At length, he went in- 
still continued to disturb the people that j to the pulpit, and his auditory being very 
stood near them, he said to them the sec- 1 small, he introduced his sermon with the 
end time, with an angry countenance : " following exclamation : " Lord ! how 
ministers of Satan, and deceivers of the ■, long shall it be, that thy holy word shall 
souls of men, will ye neither hear God's s be despised, and men shall not regard their 
truth yourselves, nor sufl'er others to hear | own salvation ? I have heard of thee, O 
it ? Depart, and take this for your portion ; s Haddington, that in thee there used to be 
God shall shortly confound and disclose \ two or three thousand persons at a vain and 
your hypocrisy within this kingdom ; ye I wicked play ; and now, to hear the mes- 
shall be abominable to men, and your pla- ^ senger of the eternal God, of all the par- 
ces and habitations shall be desolate." He > ish can scarce be numbered one hundred 
spoke this with much vehemency ; then > present. Sore and fearful shall be the 
turning to the people, said, " These men \ plagues that shall ensue upon this thy con- 
have provoked the spirit of God to anger ;" I tempt. With fire and sword shalt thou be 
after which he proceeded on his sermon, > plagued ; yea, thou Haddington in special, 
and finished it highly to the satisfaction of? strangers shall possess thee ; and you, the 
his hearers. I present inhabitants, shall cither in bondage 

From hence he went and preached at | serve your enemies, or else you shall be 
Branstone, Languedine, Ormistone, and In- <, chased from your own habitations ; and | 
veresk, where he was followed by a great ^ that because you have not known, nor will 
concourse of people. He preached also in \ know, the time of your visitation." ^ 

divers other places, the people much flock- \ This prediction was, in a great measure, | 
ing after him ; and in all his sermons he ^ accomplished not long after, when the i 
foretold the shortness of the time he had to | English took Haddington, made it a garri- | 
travel, and the near approach of his death. < son, and forced many of the inhabitants to | 

"When he came to Haddington, his audi- \ fly. Soon after this, a dreadful plague broke | 
tory began much to decrease, which was < out in the town, of which such numbers ^ 
thought to happen through the influence of < died, that the place became almost depop- > 
the earl of Bothwel, who was moved to \ ulated. ; 

oppose him at the instigation of the cardi- | Cardinal Beaton, archbishop of St. An- I 
nal. Soon after this, as he was going to \ drew's, being informed that Mr. Wishart \ 
church, ho received a letter from the west I was at the house of Mr. Cockburn, of Or- \ 
country gentlemen, which having read, he mistone, in East Lothian, he applied to the | 
called John Knox, who had diligently wait- regent to cause him to be apprehended; < 
ed upon him since his arrival at Lothian ; with which, after great persuasion, and I 
to whom he said he was weary of the 1 much against his will, he complied. I 



I The earl accordingly went, with proper 

] attendants, to th' house of Mr. Cockburn, 

I which he beset abLiut midnight. The laird 

) of the house being greatly alarmed, put 

i himself in a posture of defence, when the 

\ earl told him that it was in vain to resist, 

for the governor and cardinal were within 

a mile, with a great power; but if he would 

deliver Wishart to him, he would promise 

upon his honor, that he should be safe, and 

that the cardinal should not hurt him. 

Wishart said, " Open the gstes, the will 
of God be done ;" and Bothwel coming in, 
Wishart said to him : " I praise ray God, 
that so honorable a man as you, my lord, 
receive me this night ; for I am persuaded 
that for your honor's sake, you will suffer 
nothing to be done to me but by order of 
law : I less fear to die openly, than secret- 
ly to be murdered." Bothwel replied, " I 
will not only preserve your body from all 
violence that shall be intended against you 
without order of law ; but I also promise 
in the presence of these gentlemen, that 
neither the governor nor cardinal shall have 
their will of you ; but I will keep you in 
my own h(»use, till 1 either set you free, or 
restore you to the same place where I re- 
ceive you." Then said the laird, " My 
lord, if you make good your promise, which 
we presume you will, we ourselves will 
not only serve you, but we will procure all 
the professors in Lothian to do the same." 
This agreement being made, Mr. Wis- 
hart was delivered into the hands of the 
earl, who immediately conducted him to 

As soon as the earl arrived al that |ilace, 
he was sent fi)r by the queen, who being 
an inveterate enemy to Wishart, prevailed 
on the earl (notwiihslanding the promises 
he had made) to commit him a pri.soner to 
the castle. 

The cardinal being informed of Wis- 
hart's situation, went to Edinburgh, and 
immediately caused him to be removed 
thence to the castle of St. Andrew's. 

The inveterate and persecuting prelate, 
having now got our mariy fully at his own 

disposal, resolved to proceed immediately 
to try him as a heretic ; for which pur- 
pose he assembled the prelates at St. An- 
drew's church on the 27th of February, 

At this meeting the archbishop of Glas- 
gow gave it as his opinion, that application 
should be made to the regent, to grant a 
commission to some nobleman to try the 
prisoner, that all the odium of putting 
so popular a man to death might not lie on 
the clergy. 

To this the cardinal readily agreed ; but 
upon sending to the regent, he received the 
following answer, that he would do well 
not to precipitate this man's trial, but delay 
it until his coming; for as to himself, he 
would not consent to his death before the 
cause was very well examined ; and if the 
cardinal should do otherwise, he would 
make protestation, that the blood of this 
man should be required at his hands. 

The cardinal was extreniely chagrined 
at this message from the regent ; however, 
he determined to proceed in the bloody 
business he had undertaken ; and therefore 
sent the regent word, that he had not writ- 
ten to him about this matter, as supposing 
himself to be any way dependent upon his 
authority, but from a desire that the prose- 
cution and conviction of heretics might 
have a show of public consent; wliich, 
since he could not this way obtain, he 
would proceed in that way which to him 
appeared the most proper. 

In consequence of this, the canlinal im- 
mediately proceeded to the trial of Wishart, 
against whom no less thnn eighteen articles 
were exhil)iteil, which in substance were 
as follows : — 

1. That he had despi.ied the holy 
mother-church, and had deceived the peo- 
ple ; and that wlnm ho was t)r(lcriJ to de- 
sist from preaching at Dundee, by the gov- 
ernor, he would not obey, but slill perse- 
vered in the same. 

2. That he had said, the priest standing 
at the altar, and saying mass, was like a fox 
wagging his tail. 



3. That he had preached against the - build costly churches to the honor of God, 
sacraments, saying, that there were not i seeing that he remained not in churches 
seven, but two only, viz., baptism and the > made with men's han-'s ; nor yet could 
supper of the Lord. \ God be in so small a space as between the 

4. That he had taught, that auricular \ priest's hands, 
confession was not a blessed sacrament ; \ 17. That he had despised fasting, and 
and had said confession should be made to j had taught the people to do the like. 
God only, and not to a priest. \ 18- That in his preaching he had said 

5. That he had said it was necessary ] the soul of man should sleep till the last 
for every man to know and understand his 'day, and should not obtain immortal life 
baptism, contrary to the established max- ^ liH that lime. 

ims of the Roman catholic church. \ Mr. Wishart answered these respective 

6. That he had said the sacrament of the I articles with great composure of mind, and 
altar was but a piece of bread baked upon \ in so learned and clear a manner, as great- 
the ashes ; and the ceremonies attending :; ly surprised most of those who were pres- 
it was but a superstitious rite, against the ; ent. 

commandment of God. ' A bigoted priest, at the instigation of the 

7. That he had said extreme unction | archbishop, not only heaped a load of cur- 
was not a sacrament. < ses on him, but also treated him with the 

8. That holy water was equally simple \ most barbarous contempt. He used a lan- 
and insignificant as water not consecrated ; \ gnage fit only for the most complicated in- 
and that he had said the curses of the Ro- i fidel ; and, not satisfied with that, he spit 
raish clergy availed nothing. \ in his face, and otherwise maltreated him. 

9. That he had said every layman was i On this Mr. Wishart fell on his knees, 
a priest ; and that the pope had no greater \ and after making a prayer to God, thus ad- 
auihority or power than another man. > dressed his judges : — 

10. That he had said a man had no free \ " Many and horrible sayings unto me a 
will, but was like the stoics, who said, that i Christian man, many words abominable to 
it was not in man's will to do anything, but | hear, have ye spoken here this day ; which 
that all concupiscence and desire came from ] not only to teach, but even to think, I ever 
God, of what kind soever it might be. < thought a great abomination." 

11. That it was as lawful to eat flesh on | After the examination was finished, the 
a Friday as on a Sunday. I archbishop endeavored to prevail on Mr. 

12. That the people should not pray to \ Wishart to recant ; but he was too firmly 
saints, but to God only. fixed in his religious principles, and too 

13. That in his preaching he had said much enlightened with the truth of the gos- 
that there was no purgatory, and that it was \ pel, to be in the least moved. 

a false conception to imagine there was any \ In consequence of this, the archbishop 
such thin^ after death. \ pronounced on him the dreadful sentence 

14. That he had taught plainly against ', of death, which he ordered should be put 
the vows of monks, friars, nuns, and priests ; $ into execution on the following day. 

and had said, that whoever was bound to | As soon as the archbishop had finished 
such vows, they vowed themselves to the I this cruel and melancholy ceremony, our 
state of damnation. Moreover, that it was I martyr fell on his knees, and thus ex- 
lawful for priests to marry, and not to live \ claimed : — 
single. I " O immortal God, how long wilt tnou 

15. That he had spoken disrespectfully | sufl'er the rage, and great cruelty of the 
of the general and provincial counsels. | ungodly, to exercise their fury upon thy 

16. That he had said, it was in vain to 5 servants, which do further thy word in this 




i world ? Whereas they, on the contrary, 
I seek to destroy the truth, whereby thou 
\ hast revealed thyself to the world, &c. O 
\ Lord, we know certainly that thy true ser- 
\ vants must needs suffer, for thy name's 
: sake, persecutions, afflictions, and troubles, 
I in this present world ; yet we desire, that 
l thou wouldst preserve and defend thy 
; church, which thou hast chosen before the 
^ foundation of the world, and give thy peo- 
i pie grace to hear thy word, and to be thy 
\ true servants in this present life." 
\ Having said this, he arose, and was im- 
I mediately conducted by the officers to the 
s prison whence he had been brought, in the 
I in the castle. 

> In the evening he was visited by two 
) friars, who asked him to make his confes- 
l sion to them ; to whom he said, " I will not 

> make any confession to you ;" on which 
I they immediately departed. 

I Soon after this came the sub-prior, with 
'f whom Wishart conversed in so feeling a 
i manner on religious matters as to make him 
weep. When he left him, he went to the 
cardinal, and told him, he came not to in- 
tercede for Wishart's life, but to make 
known his innocence to all men. At these 
words, the cardinal expressed great dissat- 
isfaction, and forbid the sub-governor from 
', again visiting Wishart. 
J Toward the close of the evening, our 
I martyr was visited by the captain of the 

< castle, with several of his friends ; who 
\ bringing with them some bread and wine, 
j asked him if he would eat and drink with 
I them. " Yes," said Wishart, " very wil- 
\ lingly, for I know you arc honest men." 
\ In the meantime he desired them to hear 

< him a little, when he discoursed with them 
i on the Lord's supper, his sufferings and 
5 death for us, exhorting them to love one 
5 another, and to lay aside all rancor and 

> malice, as became the members of Jesus 
s Christ, who continually interceded for them 
; with his Father. After this he gave thanks 

to God, and blessing the bread and wine, 

he took the bread and brake it, giving some 

'■ to each, saying, at the same time, " Eat this, 

'( remember that Christ died for us, and 
j feed on it spiritually." Then taking the 
( cup, he drank, and bade them " remember 
i that Christ's blood was shed for them," &c. 
' After this he gave thanks, prayed for some 
I time, took leave of his visiters, and retired 
to his chamber. 

On the morning of his execution there 
came to him two friars from the cardinal ; 
one of whom put on him a black linen coit, 
and the other brought several bags of gun- 
powder, which they tied about different 
parts of his body. 

In this dress he was conducted from the 
room in which he had been confined, to the 
outer chamber of the governor's apartments, 
there to stay till the necessary preparations 
were made for his execution. 

The windows and balconies of the cas- 
tle, opposite the place where he was to suf- 
fer, were all hung with tapestry and silk 
hangings, and with cushions for the car- 
dinal and his train, who were thence to 
feast their eyes with the torments of this 
innocent man. There was also a great 
guard of soldiers, not so much to secure 
the execution, as to show a vain ostentation 
of power ; besides which, brass guns were 
placed on different parts of the castle. 

The necessary preparations being made, 
our martyr, after having his hands tied be- 
hind him, was conducted to the fatal spot. 
In his way thither, he was accosted by two 
friars, who desired him to pray to the Vir- 
gin Mary, to intercede for him. To whom 
he meekly said, " Cease ; tempt me not, I 
entreat you." 

As soon as he arrived at the stake, the 
executioner put a rope round his neck, and 
a chain about his middle ; upon which he : 
fell on his knees, and thus exclaimed : — 

" thou Savior of the world, have mer- 
cy upon me! Father of heaven, I com- 
mend my spirit into thy holy hands." 

After repeating these words three time* 
he arose, and turning himself to the spec- 
tators, addressed them as follows : — 

" Christian brethren and sisters : I be- 
seech you be not offended at the word of 


111 \ 

God for the torments which you see pre- ) fire to the powder that was tied about liim, \ 
pared for me ; but I exhort you, that ye \ and which blew into a flame and smoke. \ 
love the word of God for your salvation, \ The governor of the castle, who stood ; 
and suffer patiently, and with a comforta- j so near that he was singed with the flame, | 
ble heart, for the word's sake, which is \ exhorted our martyr in a few words, to be > 
your undoubted salvation, and everlasting \ of good cheer, and to ask pardon of God } 
comfort. I pray you also, show my breth- \ for his offences. To which he replied : > 
ren and sisters, who have often heard me, \ " This flame occasions trouble to my body, \ 
that they cease not to learn the word of God, \ indeed, but it hath in no wise broken my | 
which I taught them according to the meas- spirit. But he who now so proudly looks 
ure of grace given me, but to hold fast to down upon me from yonder lofty place," | 
it with the strictest attention ; and show ' pointing to the cardinal, " shall, ere long, > 
them, that the doctrine was no old wives' \ be as ignominiously thrown down, as now \ 
fables, but the truth of God ; for if I had he proudly lolls at his ease." 
taught men's doctrine, I should have had When he had said this, the executioner > 
greater thanks from men : but for the word \ pulled the rope which was tied about his \ 
of God's sake, I now suffer, not sorrowful- \ neck with great violence, so that he was 5 
ly, but with a glad heart and mind. For 5 soon strangled; and the fire getting strength, > 
this cause I was sent, that I should suffer \ burnt with such rapidity that in less than ^ 
this fire for Christ's sake ; behold my face, \ an hour his body was totally consumed. \ 
you shall not see me change my counten- \ Thus died, in confirmation of the gospel > 
ance : I fear not the fire ; and if persecu- \ of Christ, a sincere believer, whose forti- j 
tion come to you for the word's sake, I \ tude and constancy during his sufferings, 
pray you ' fear not them that can kill the \ can only be imputed to the support of di- 

body, and have no power over the soul.' " 
After this he prayed for his accusers, 
saying : " I beseech thee. Father of heaven, 
forgive them that have, from ignorance, or 
an evil mind, forged lies of me : I forgive 

vine aid, in order to fulfil that memorable 
promise, " As is thy day, so shall thy 
strength be also." 

The prediction of Mr. Wishart, concern- 
ing Cardinal Beaton, is related by that 

them with all my heart. I beseech Christ \ great historian, Buchanan, as also by Arch- 

to forgive them, that have ignorantly con- 
demned me." 

Then, again turning himself to the spec- 
tators, he said : " I beseech you, brethren, 
exhort your prelates to learn the word of 

bishop Spotwood, and others ; but it has 
been doubted, by some later writers, wheth- 
er he really made such prediction or not. 
Be that as it may, however, it is certain 
that the death of Wishart did, in a short 

God, that they may be ashamed to do evil, time after, prove fatal to the cardinal him- 

and learn to do good ; or also there will 
shortly come upon ihem the wrath of God, 
which they shall not eschew." 

As soon as he had finished this speech, 
the executioner fell on his knees before 

self; the particulars of which it may not 
be improper here to sul)j(»in. 

Soon after the death of Mr. Wishart, 
the cardinal went to Finhaven, the seat of 
the earl of Crawford, to solemnize a mar- 

him, and said, " Sir, I pray you forgive me, \ riage between the eldest son of that noble- 
for I am not the cause of your death." \ man, and his own natural daughter, Mar- 
In return to this, Wishart cordially took \ garet. While he was thus employed, he 
the man by the hand, and kissed him, say- received intelligence that an English squad- 
ing, " Lo, here is a token that I forgive \ ron was upon the coast, and that conse- 
thee : my heart, do thine office." \ quently an invasion was to be feared. Up- 

He was then fastened to the stake, and k on this he immediately returned to St. An- \ 
the fagots being lighted, immediately set ; drew's, and appointed a day for the nobility ^ 



t ■ 

I and gentry to meet, and consult what was ^ the door in the best manner he could. 
i proper to be done on this occasion. But | However, finding that they had broualit fire 
; as no further news was heard of the Eng- > in order to force thfir way, and they having, 
; lish fleet, their apprehensions of an inva- 1 as it is said by some, made him a promise 
; sion soon subsided. ', of his life, he opened the door. They im- 

{ In the meantime, Norman Lesley, eldest > mediately entered vrith their swords drawn, 
J son of the earl of Rothes, who had been | and John Lesley smote him twice or thrice, 
'f treated by the cardinal with injustice and I as did also Peter Carmichael ; but James 
; contempt, formed a design, in conjunction > Melvil (as Mr. Knox relates the affair), 
< with his uncle John Lesley, who hated | perceiving them to be in anger, said, " This J 
I Beaton, and others who were inflamed | work and judgment of God, although it be 

! against him on account of his persecution \ secret, ought to be done with greater grav- 
of the protestants, the death of Wishart, Mfy :" and presenting the point of his sword 
and other causes, to assassinate the prelate, ^ to the cardinal, said to him : " Repent thee 
i though he now resided in the castle of St. I of thy wicked life, but especially of the 
[ Andrew's, which he was fortifying at great > shedding of the blood of that notable in- 
( expense, and had, in the opinion of that > strument of God, Mr. George Wishart, 

age, already rendered it almost impregna- I which, albeit the flame of fire consumed 
I ble. The cardinal's retinue was numerous, > it before men, yet cries for vengeance up- 
( the town was at his devotion, and the ^ on thee ; and wo from God are sent to re- 
I neighboring country full of his dependants. ? venge it. For here, before my God, I pro- 
i However, the conspirators, who were in | test, that neither the hatred of thy person, 

number only sixteen, having concerted their/ the love of thy riches, nor the fear of any 
I plan, met together early in the morning, on ^ trouble thou couldst have done to me in 

Saturday the 29lh of May. The first '' particular, moved or moveth me to strike 
) thing they did, was to seize the porter of ^ thee ; but only because thou hast bee^, and 
) the castle, from whom they took the keys, | remainest, an obstinate enemy of Christ 
I and secured the gate. They then sent four Jesus, and his holy gospel." Having said 
j of their party to watch the cardinal's cham- I this, he with his sword run the cardinal 
I her, that he might have no notice given him i twice or thrice through the body ; who on- 

of what was doing ; after which, they went Hy said, " I am a priest! Fy ! Fy ! all is 
I and called up the servants and attendants, \ gone I" and then expired, being about fifty- 
j to whom they were well known, and turned I two years of age. 

I them to the number of fifty, out of the gate, I Thus fell Cardinal Beaton, who had 
} as they did also upward of a hundred s been as great a persecutor against the prot- 
\ workmen, who were employed in the forti- s estants in Scotland, as Bonner was in Eng- 
I fications and buildings of the castle; but s land ; and whose death was as little re- 
I the eldest son of the regent, who lodged s grelted by all true professors of Christ's 

j also in the castle, they kept for their own 

< security. 

\ All this was done with so little noise, 

< that the cardinal was not waked till they 

< knocked at his chamber door; upon which 
'. he cried out, " Who is there ?" John Les- 
} ley answered, " My name is Lesley." 

< " Which Lesley ?" replied the cardinal ; 


The character of this distinguished ty- 
rant, is thus given by a celebrated writer : — 

" Cardinal Beaton," says he, " had not 
used his power with moderation equal to 
the prudence by which he obtained it. 
Notwithstanding his great abilities, he 
had too many of the passions and prejudi- 

I " Is it Norman ?" It was answered that ces of an angry leader of a faction, to gov- 
j he must open the door to those who were 1 ern a divided people with temper. His re- 
i there ; but instead of tliis he barrictyled | senlment against one part of the nobility, 


229 1 

his insolence toward the rest, his severity I and of primitive sanctity, won' t)ul the pa- | 
to the reformers, and above all, the harba- 1 lience of a fierce age ; and notliing but a ' 
rous and illegal execution of the famous ] bold hand was wanting, to gratify the pub- < 
George Wishart, a man of honorable birth, | lie wish by his destruction." | 



HOUGH the various at- 
tempts made by the Irish I 
against the English usu- > 
ally go under the name of | 
rebellion, yet they de- 1 
serve more properly the I 
epithet persecution, as all their destructive^ 
efforts were particularly levelled at the prot- [ 
eslants only, whom they were determined, > 
if possible, totally to extirpate from the ( 
kingdom. They had, indeed, hitherto mis- | 
carried ; but they at length hit upon a pruj- i 
I ect that succeeded to their wishes, and pro- i 
duced a catastrophe that will remain in ^ 
characters of blood to the latest posterity. < 
That the Romish clergy of Ireland were < 
the principal fomenters of the rebellions in ^ 
that kingdom, is evident from their treach- i 
erous and disloyal behavior under Queen < 
Elizabeth and King James I., they contin- < 
uallj'' urging to the people the lawfulness ', 
of killing all protestants, who supported < 
the right of the crown of England to Ire- < 
\ land ; and assuring them that all papists ', 
who should die fighting against tue protes- \ 
tants, would go immediately to heaven. ^ 
These Irish ecclesiastics, under Charles I 
I. were greatly increased by titular Romish I 
archbishops, bishops, deans, vicars-general, 
abbots, priests, and friars ; for which rea- 
son, in 1629, the public exercise of the po- 
pish rites and ceremonies was forbidden. 

But notwithstanding this, soon after the 
Romish clergy erected a new popish uni- 
versity in the city of Dublin. They also 
proceeded to build monasteries and nun- 
neries in various parts of the kingdom ; in 
which places these very Romish clergy, 
and the chiefs of the Irish, held frequent 

meetings ; and thence used to pass to and | 
fro, to France, Spain, Flanders, Lorraine, 5 
and Rome ; where the detestable plot of < 
1641 was hatching by the family of the j 
O'Neals, and their followers. • 

A short time before the horrid conspira- \ 
cy broke out, which we are now going to | 
relate, the papists of Ireland had presented I 
a remonstrance to the lords-justices of that < 
kingdom, demanding the free exercise of I 
their religion, and a repeal of all laws to j 
the contrary ; to which both houses of par- 
liament in England solemnly answered, 
that they would never grant any toleration 
to the popish religion in that kingdom. 

This further irritated the papists to put } 
in execution the diabolical plot concerted I 
for the destruction of the protestants ; and | 
it failed not of the success wished for by ! 
its malicious and rancorous projectors. 

The design of this horrid conspiracy 
was, that a general insurrection should take 
place at the same time throughout the king- 
dom ; and that all the protestants, without 
exception, should be murdered. The day 
fixed for this horrid massacre, was the 23d 
of October, 1641, the feast of Ignatius 
Loyola, founder of the Jesuits ; and the 
chief conspirators, in the principal parts of 
the kingdom, made the necessary prepara- 
tions for the intended conflict. 

In order that this detested scheme might \ 
the more infallibly succeed, the most dis- | 
tinguished artifices were practised by the s 
papists ; and their behavior, in their visits \ 
to the protestants at this time, was with | 
more seeming kindness than they had hith- I 
erto shown, which was done the more com- i 
pletely to effect the inhuman and treacher- | 



\ ous designs then meditating against them. 
I The execution of this savage conspiracy 
I was delayed till the approach of winter, 
i that the sending troops from England might 
\ be attended with greater difficulty. Cardi- 
^ nal Richelieu, the French minister, had / 
\ promised the . conspirators a considerable I 
^ supply of men and money ; and many ' 
\ Irish officers had given the strongest as- < 
) surances, that they would heartily concur ', 
I with their catholic brethren, as soon as the ^ 
I insurrection appeared. ] 

The day preceding that appointed for ■> 
i carrying this horrid design into execution > 

> was now arrived, when, happily for the > 
I metropolis of the kingdom, the conspiracy l 
/ was discovered by one Owen O'Connelly, 
'/ a« Irishman, for which most signal service 
I the English parliament voted him 500Z. 
I and a pension of 200^. during his life. 
/ So very seasonably was this plot dis- 1 

> covered, even but a few hours before the > 
'( city and castle of Dublin were to have I 
\ been surprised, that the lords-justices had > 
I but just time to put themselves, and the ' 
^ city, in a proper posture of defence. The > 
\ Lord M'Guire, who was the principal leader I 

< here, with his accomplices, were seized j 
\ the same evening in the city ; and in their ( 
{ lodgings were found swords, hatchets, pole- < 
\ axes, hammers, and such other inslrutnents < 

< of death as had been prepared for the de- 
5 struction and extirpation of the protestants 
J in that part of the kingdom. 
\ Thus was the metropolis happily pre- 
5 served; but the bloody part of the intended 
I tragedy was past prevention. The con- ^ 
5 spirators were in arms all over the king- < 

\ dom early in the morning of the day ap- < 
J pointed, and every proteslaiit who fell in < 
\ their way was immediately murdered. No ' 
\ age, no sex, no condition, was spared. The' 
\ wife weeping for her butchered husband, < 
I and embracing her helpless children, was ^ 
J pierced with them, and perished by the '. 
I same stroke. The old, the young, the ^ 

vigorous, and the infirm, underwent the \ 
< same fate, and were blended in one com- ', 

mon ruin. In vain did flight save from the \ 

first assault : destruction was everywhere < 
let loose, and met the hundred victims at \ 
every turn. In vain was recourse had to re- / 
lations, to companions, to friends : all con- , 
nexions were dissolved, and death was dealt \ 
by that hand, from which protection was J 
implored and expected. Without provoca- / 
tion, without opposition, the astonished ' 
English, living in profound peace, and, as ' 
they thought, full security, were massacred '> 
by their nearest neighbors, with whom they I 
had long maintained a continued intercourse ^ 
of kindness and good offices. Nay, even > 
death was the slightest punishment inflicted \ 
by these monsters in human form : all the 
tortures which wanton cruelly could invent, 
all the lingering pains of body, the anguish 
of mind, the agonies of despair, could not 
satiate revenge excited without injury, and 
cruelly derived from no cause whatever. 
Depraved nature, even perverted religion, 
though encouraged by the utmost license, 
can not reach to a greater pitch of ferocity 
than appeared in these merciless barbarians. 
Even the weaker sex them.selves, naturally 
tender to their own suflerings, and com- 
passionate to those of others, here emulated > 
their robust companions in the practice of I 
every cruelty. The very children, taught / 
by e'xample, and encouraged by the ex- '/ 
hortation of their parents, dealt their feeble ; 
> blows on the dead carcases of defenceless < 
children of the English. / 

Nor was the avarice of the Irish suffi- j 
cient to produce the h^ast restraint on their i 
cruelty. Such was their phiensy, that the 
cattle they had seized, and by rapine had 
made their own, were, because they bore 
the name of English, wantonly shu'ghiered, 
or, when covered with wounds, turneil loose 
into the woods, thcie to perish by sow and 
lingering torments. ( 

The commodious habitations of thr plant- 
ers were laid in ashes, or levellrd with the < 
ground. And where the wretched owners \ 
had shut themselves up in the houses, and j 
were preparing for defence, they perished i 
in the flames, together with their wives and ' 
children. | 



Such is the general description of this ^ some papists were merry over their cups, 
unparalleled massacre ; but it now remains, i who were come to congratulate their wick- 
from the nature of our work, that we pro- i ed brethren for their victory over these un- 
ceed to particulars. < happy creatures, those protestaiits who sur- 

The bigoted and merciless papists had | vived were brought forth by the White- 
no sooner began to embrue their hands in \ friars, and were either killed, or precipita- 
blood, than they repeated the horrid trage- 1 ted over the bridge into a swift water, where 
dy day after day ; and the protestants in < they were soon destroyed. It is added, 
all parts of the kingdom fell victims to their >, that this wicked company of Whitefriars 
fury by deaths of the most unheard-of na- 1 went some time after, in solemn proces- 
ture. I sion, with holy water in their hands, to 

The ignorant Irish were more strongly sprinkle the river ; on pretence of cleans- 
instigated to execute the infernal business | ing and purifying it from the stains and 
by the Jesuits, priests, and friars, who, when I pollution of the blood and dead bodies of 
the day for the execution of the plot was s the heretics, as they called the unfortunate 
agreed on, recommended, in their prayers, \ protestants who were inhumanly slaughter- 
diligence in the great design, which they I ed at this very time. 

said would greatly tend to the prosperity s At Kilmore. Dr. Bedell, bishop of that 
of the kingdom, and to the advancement I see, had charitably settled and supported a 
of the catholic cause. They everywhere great number of distressed protestants, who 
declared to the common people, that the | had fled from their habitations to escape 
protestants were heretics, and ought not to < the diabolical cruelties committed by the 
be sufTered to live any longer among them ; | papists. But they did not long enjoy the 
adding, that it was no more sin to kill an I consolation of living together ; the good 
Englishman than to kill a dog; and that prelate was forcibly dragged from his epis- . 
the relieving or protecting them was a I copal residence, which was immediately 
crime of the most unpardonable nature. s occupied by Dr. Swiney, the popish titular 
The papists having besieged the town bishop of Kilmore, who said mass in the 
and castle of Longford, and the inhabitants I church the Sunday following, and then 
of the latter, who were protestants, sur- 1 seized on all the goods and effects belong- 
rendering on condition of being allowed j ing to the persecuted bishop, 
quarter, the besiegers, the instant the towns- > Soon after this the papists forced Dr. 
people appeared, attacked them in the most | Bedell, his two sons, and the rest of his 
unmerciful manner, their priest, as a signal family, with some of the chief of the prot- 
for the rest to fall on, first ripping open the > estants whom he had protected, into a ruin- 
belly of the English protestant minister ; ^ ous castle, called Lochwater, situated in a 
after which his followers murdered all the lake near the sea. Here he remained with 
rest, some of whom they hung, others were his companions some weeks, all of them 
stabbed or shot, and great numbers knock- daily expecting to be put to death. The 
ed on the head with axes provided for the greatest part of them were stripped naked, 
purpose. I by which means, as the season was cold 

I The garrison at Sligo was treatpd in like ! (it being in the month of December) and 
; manner by O'Connor Slygah ; who, upon the building in which they were confined 
', the protestants quilting their holds, prom- open at the top, they sufli'ered the most se- 
ised them quarter, and to convey them safe \ vere hardships. 

over the Curlew mountains, to Roscom- | They continued in this situation till the 
mon. But he first imprisoned them in a 7th of January, when they were all re- 
most loathsome jail ; allowing them only ' leased. The bishop was courteously re- 
j grains for their food. Afterward, when 5 ceived into the house of Dennis O'Sheridan, 

one of his clergj', whom he had made a expositions of scripture, all which, with a 
convert to the church of England ; but he \ great trunk full of his manuscripts, fell into 
did not long survive this kindness. \ the hands of the Irish. Happily his great > 

During his residence here, he spent the ] Hebrew MS. was preserved, and is now | 
whole of his lime in religious exercises, < in the library of Emmanuel College, Oxford. | 
the better to fit and prepare himself, and i In the barony of Terawley, the papists, ) 
his sorrowful companions, for their great ; at the instigation of their friars, compelled 1 
change, as nothing but certain death was < above forty English protestants, some of | 
perpetually before their eyes. ; whom were women and children, to the > 

He was at this time in the 71st year of < hard fate either of falling by the sword, 
his age, and being afflicted with a violent ^ or of drowning themselves in the sea. 
ague caught in his late cold and desolate 5 These choosing the latter, were accordingly 
habitation on the lake, it soon threw him < forced, by the naked weapons of their in- 
into a fever of the most dangerous nature. ; exorable persecutors, into the deep, where, 
Finding his dissolution at hand, he received j with their children in their arms, they first | 
it with joy, like one of the primitive martyrs | waded up to their chins, and afterward sunk i 
just hastening to his crown of glory. After ^ down and perished together. > 

having addressed his little flock, and ex-? In the castle of Lisgool upward of 150 > 
horted them to patience, in the most pathet- ,' men, women, and children, were all burnt 
ic manner, as they saw their own last day ! together ; and at the castle of Moneah not I 
approaching; after having solemnly bless- Uess than 100 were all put to the sword. \ 
ed his people, his family and his children, | Great numbers were also murdered at the | 
he finished the course of his ministry and ^ castle of Tullah. which was delivered up | 
life together, on the 7th of February, 1642. J to M'Guire on condition of having fair! 

His friends and relations applied to the '. quarter ; but no sooner had that base villain \ 
intruding bishop, for leave to bury him, \ got possession of the place, than he order- < 
which was with difficulty obtained ; he, at ed his followers to murder the people, ' 
first, telling them, that the church-yard was which was immediately done with the great- 
holy ground, and should be no longer de- < est cruelty. | 
filed with heretics : however, leave was. Many others were put to deaths of the ', 
at last granted, and though the church | most horrid nature, and such as could have < 
funeral service was not used at the solemni- \ been invented only by demons instead of | 
ly (for fear of the Irish papists), yet some | men. j 
of the belter sort, who had the highest < Some of them were laid with the centre \ 
veneration for him when living, attended | of their backs on the axle-tree of a car- 
his remains to the grave. At his inter- | riage, with their legs resting on the ground 
ment, they discharged a volley of shot, | on one side, and their arms and head on 
crying out, " Reqniescat in pace, uUimitsiAhe other. In tliis position one of the sav- 
Anglorum ;" that is, " May the last of the| ages scourged the wretched object on the 
English rest in peace." Adding, that as | thighs, legs, &.C., while another set on fu- 
he was one of the best, so he should be \ rious dogs, who tore to pieces ihe arms 
the last English bishop found among them. \ and upper parts of the body ; and in this 

His learning was very extensive; and ^ dreadful manner were they deprived of their 
he would have given the world a greater ;; existence. Great numbers were fastened 
proof of it, had he printed all he wrote, j to horses' tails, and the beasts being set on 
Scarce any of his writings were saved ; \ full gallop by their riders, the wri-tched vic- 
the papists having destroyed m(»5t of his ^ tims were dragged along till tluy expired, 
papers, and his library. \ Others were himg on lofty gibbets, and 

He had gathered a vast heap of critical \d. fire being kindled under them, they fin- 




ished their lives, partly by hanging, and 
partly by suffocation. 

Nor did the more tender sex escape the 
least particle of cruelty that could be pro- 
jected by their merciless and furious perse- 

j cutors. Many women, of all ages, were 
put to deaths of the most cruel nature. 
Some in particular were fastened with their 
backs to strong posts, and being stripped 
to their waists, the inhuman monsters cut 
off their right breasts with shears, which, 
of course, put them to the most excrucia- 
ting torments ; and in this position they 
were left, till, from loss of blood, they ex- 

Such was the savage ferocity of these 
barbarians, that even unborn infants were 
dragged from the womb to become victims 
to their rage. Many unhappy mothers, 
who were near the time of their delivery, 
were hung naked on the branches of trees, 
and their bodies being cut open, the inno- 
cent offsprings were taken from them, and 
thrown to dogs and swine. And to in- 
crease the horrid scene, they would oblige 
the husband to be a spectator before he 
suffered himself. (See engravings.) 
At the town of Lissenskeath they hanged 

I above one hundred Scottish protestants, 

j showing them no more mercy than they did 

\ to the English. 

. M'Guire going to the castle of that town, 
J desired to speak with the governor, when 
I being admitted, he immediately burnt the 
I records of the county, which were kept 
] there. He then demanded j6 1,000 of the 
) governor, which having received, he imme- 
i diately compelled him to hear mass, and to 
I swear that he would continue so to do. 
> And to complete his horrid barbarities, he 
i ordered the wife and children of the gov- 
ernor to be hung up before his face ; be- 
sides massacring at least one hundred of 
the inhabitants. 

Upward of one thousand men, women, 
and children, were driven, in different com- 
panies, to Portendown bridge, which was 
i broken in the middle, and there compelled 
; to throw themselves into the water ; and 

such as attempted to reach the shore were 
\ knocked on the h(!ad. 

In the same part of the country, at least 
four thousand persons were drowned in 
different places. The inhuman papists, af- 
l ter first stripping them, drove them like 
beasts to the spot fixed on for their destruc- 
tion ; and if any, through fatigue, or natu- 
ral infirmities, were slack in their pace, they 
pricked them with their swords and pikes; 
and to strike a further terror on tin; multi- 
tude, they murdered some by the way. 
Many of these poor wretches, when thrown 
into the water, endeavored to save them- 
selves by swimming to the shore ; but their 
merciless persecutors prevented their en- 
deavors taking effect, by shooting them in 
the water. 

In one place one hundred and forty Eng- 
lish, after being driven for many miles 
stark naked, and in the most severe weath- 
er, were all murdered on the same spot, 
some being hanged, others burnt, some «!iot, 
and many of them buried alive ; and so 
l cruel were their tormenters, that they would 
< not suffer them to pray, before they robbed 
them of their miserable existence. 

Other companies they took under pre- 
tence of safe-conduct, who, from that con- 
l sideration, proceeded cheerfully on their 
^journey ; but when the treacherous papists 
5 had got them to a convenient spot, they 
5 butchered them all in the most cruel man- 
} ner. 

I One hundred and fifteen men, women, 
and children, were conducted, by order of 
Sir Phelim O'Neal, to Portendown bridge, 
where they were all forced into the river, 
and drowned. One woman, named Camp- 
bell, finding no probability of escaping, sud- 
denly clasped one of the chief of the pa- 
pists in her arms, and held him so fast, 
that they were both drowned together. 

In Killoman they massacred forty-eight 
families, among whom twenty-two were 
burnt together in one house. The rest 
were either hanged, shot, or drowned. 

In Kilmore the inhabitants, which con- 
sisted of about two hundred families, all 



fell victims to their rage. Some of them 5 They beat an Englishwoman with such \ 
they sat in the stocks till they confessed I savage barbarity, that she had scarce a 
where their money was ; after which they > whole bone left ; after which they threw 
put them to death. The whole county | her into a ditch ; but not satisfied with 
I was one common scene of butchery, and | this, they took her child, a girl about six ] 
I many thousands perished, in a short time, j years of age, and after ripping up its belly, :^ 
\ by sword, famine, fire, water, and all other) threw it to its mother, there to languish till '', 
I the most cruel deaths, that rage and malice | it perished, 
could invent. \ They forced one man to go to mass, 

These bloody villains showed so much \ after which they ripped open his body, and 
favor to some as to despatch them imme- ] in that manner left him. They sawed 
diately ; but they would by no means suf- ' another asunder, cut the throat of his wife, 
fsT them to pray. Oihers they imprisoned | and after having dashed out the brains of 
in filthy dungeons, putting heavy bolts on > their child, an infant, threw it to the swine, 
their legs, and keeping them there till they 5 who greedily devoured it. 

After committing these, and many other 

were starved to death. 

At Casel they put all the protcstants horrid cruelties, they took the heads of 
into a loathsome dungeon, where they kept \ seven protestants, and among them that of 
them together, for several weeks, in the \ a pious minister, all which they fixed up i 
greatest misery. At length they were < at the market cross. They put a gag into 
released, when some of them were bar- 1 the minister's mouth, then slit his cheeks 
barously mangled, and left on the high- j to his ears, and laying a leaf of a bible 
ways to perish at leisure ; others were ' before it, bid him preach, for his mouth 
hanged, and some were buried in the | was wide enough. They did several other 
ground upright, with their heads above the \ things by way of derision, and expressed j 
I earth, tho papists, to increase their misery, | the greatest satisfaction at having thus \ 
treating them with derision during their | murdered, and exposed the unhappy prot- 

'In the county of Antrim they murdered 


It is impossible to conceive the pleasure 

nine hundred and fifty-four protestants in ] these monsters took in exercising their 
one morning ; and afterward about twelve l cruelty, and to increase the misery of those 

hundred more in that county. 

who fell into iheir hands, when they butch- j 

At a town called Lisnegary, they forced ) ered them they would say, " Your soul to i 

\ twenty-four protestants into a house, and > the devil." \ 

< then setting fire to it, burned them togelh- > One of these miscreants would come into j 

er, counterfeiting their outcries in derision > a house with his hands embrued in l)lood, < 

to others. i and boast that it was English blood, and \ 

Among other acts of cruelty, they took I that his sword had pricked the white skins j 

two children belonging to an English- < of the protestants, even to the hilts. ( 

woman, and (lashed out their brains l)cfore . When any one of them had killed a ,; 

her face ; after which they ilirew the moth- ^ protestant, others would come and receive \ 

er into a river, and she was drowned. \ a gratification in cutting and mangling the j 

They served many other children in the | body ; after which they left it exposed to ,• 

like manner, to the great aflliciion of their I be devoured by dogs ; and when thoy had < 

; parents, and the disgrace of human nature. > slain a number of them ihey would boast, \ 

In Kilkenny all the protestants, without | that the devil was beholden to them for | 

exception, were put to death ; and some | sending so many souls to hell. 

of them in so cruef a manner, as, perhaps, | But it is no wonder they should thus 

was never before thought of. 

!• treat the innocent Christians, when they 





hesitated not to commit blasphemy against I In the county of Tipperary upward of 
God, and his most holy word. > thirty protestants, men, women, and chil- 

In one place they burnt two protestant dren, fell into the hands of the papists, 
bibles, and then said they had burnt hell- who, after stripping them naked, murdered 
fire. In the church at Powerscourt, they I them with stones, pole-axes, swords, and 
burnt the pulpit, pews, chests, and bibles, I other weapons, 
belonging to it. | In the county of Mayo, about sixty prot- 

They took other bibles, and after wetting I estants, fifteen of whom were ministers, 
them with dirty water, dashed them in the I were, upon covenant, to be safely con- 
faces of the protestants, saying, " We know j ducted to Galway, by one Edmund Burk 
you love a good lesson ; here is an excel- 1 and his soldiers : but that inhuman mon- 
lent one for you ; come to-morrow, and you ? ster by the way drew his sword, as an in- 
shall have as good a sermon as this." | timation of his design to the rest, who im- 

Some of the protestants they dragged by j mediately followed his example, and mur- 
the hair of their heads into the church, j dered the whole, some of whom they 
where they stripped and whipped them in | stabbed, others were run through the body 
the most cruel manner, telling them, at the i with pikes, and several were drowned. 

In Queen's county, great numbers of prot- 
estants were put to the most shocking 
deaths. Fifty or sixty were placed togeth- 
er in one house, which being set on fire, 
they all perished in the flames. 

Many wore stripped naked, and being 

same time, that " if they came to-morrow, 
I they should hear the like sermon." 
I In Munster they put to death several 
I ministers in the most shocking manner. 
' One, in particular, they stripped stark na- 
j ked, and driving him before them, pricked 

' him with swords and darts till he fell down I fastened to horses by ropes placed round 
' and expired. < their middles, were dragged through bogs 

; In some places they plucked out the eyes, i till they expired. 

I and cut off the hands of the protestants, and I Some wore hung by the feet to tenter- 

\ in that manner turned them into the fields, < hooks driven into poles ; and in that wretch- 

I there to wander out a miserable existence. < ed posture left till they perished. 

; They obliged many young men to force i Others were fastened to the trunk of a 

i their aged parents to a river, where they < tree, with a branch at top. Over this 

', were drowned : wives to assist in hanging < branch hung one arm, which principally 

) their husbands ; and mothers to cut the \ supported the weight of the body ; and one 

I throats of their children. i of the legs was turned up, and fastened to 

I In one place they compelled a young | the trunk, while the other hung straight. And 

I man to kill his father, and then immediate- < in this dreadful and uneasy posture did 

I ly hanged him. In another they forced a \ they remain, as long as life would permit, 

I woman to kill her husband, then obliged j pleasing spectacles to their blood-thirsty 

I the son to kill her, and afterward shot him | persecutors. (See engraving.) 

i through the head. s At Clownes 17 men were buried alive ; 

I At a place called Glaslow, a popish j and an Englishman, his wife, five children, 

^ priest, with some others, prevailed on forty I and a servant maid, were all hung together, 

' protestants to be reconciled to the church I and afterward thrown into a ditch. 

of Rome. They had no sooner done this, > They hung many by the arms to branch- 

than they told them they were in a good > es of trees, with a weight to their feet; and 

faith, and that they would prevent their fal- '/ others by the middle, in which postures 

ling from it, and turning heretics, by send- > they left them till they expired. 

ing them out of the world, which they did i Several were hung on windmills, and 

by immediately cutting their throats. i before they were half dead, the barbarians 

m — 

i 240 


i cut them in pieces with their swords. ^ 

> Others, both men, women, and children, > 
I they cut and haclced in various parts of their > 
] bodies, and left thenn wallowing in their j 
I blood, to perish where they fell. One poor i 
} woman they hung on a gibbet, wjth her ( 
I child, an infant about a twelvemonth old, ^ 
I the latter of whom was hung by the neck ' 
I with the hair of its mother's head, and in ^ 

> that manner finished its short but miserable ', 
I existence. s 
I In the county of Tyrone no loss than 300 ] 
I protestants were drowned in one day ; and 

I many others were hanged, burned, and > 
otherwise put to death. \ 

Dr Maxwell, rector of Tyrone, lived at \ 
this lime near Armagh, and suffered greatly) 
from iliese merciless savages. This clergy- \ 
man, in his examination, taken upon oath \ 
'\ before the king's commissioners, declared, > 
\ that the Irish papists owned to him, that | 
I they had destroyed in one place, at Glyn- / 
j wood, 12,000 protestants, in their flight) 
I from the county of Armagh. 

As the river Bann was not fordable, and 
the bridge broken down, the Irish forced 
thither, at diflerent times, a great number 
of unarmed, defenceless protestants, and 
with pikes and swords violently thrust above 
1,000 into the river, where they miserably i 
] perished. i 

\ Nor did the cathedral of Armagh escape > 
the fury of these barbarians, it being ma- 1 
f liciously set on fire by their leaders, and ^ 
burnt to the ground. And to extirpate, if | 
possible, the very race of those unhappy | 
protestants, who lived in or near Armagh, | 
the Irish first burnt all their houses, and 
then gathered together many hundreds of 
those innocent people, young and old, on 
pretence of allowing them a guard and safe- 
conduct to Coleraine ; when ihey treacher- 
ously fell on them by the way, and inhu- 
manly murdered them. 

The like horrid barbarities with those we 
have particularized, were practised on the 

! wretched protestants in almost all parts of 
the kingdom ; and, when an estimate was 
afterward made of the number who were \ 

sacrificed to gratify the diabolical souls of 
the papists, it amounted to 150,000. But ; 
it now remains that we proceed to the par- | 
ticulars that followed. \ 

These desperate wretches, flushed and 
grown insolent with success (though at- 1 
tained by methods attended with such ex- 
cessive barbarities as perhaps are not to be \ 
equalled), soon got possession of the castle | 
of Newry, where the king's stores and am- ' 
munition were lodged ; and, with as little | 
difficulty, made themselves masters of Dun- \ 
dalk. They afterward took the town of \ 
Ardee, where they murdered all the prot- < 
estants, and then proceeded to Drogheda. ^ 
The garrison of Drogheda was in no condi- | 
tion to sustain a siege ; notwithstanding \ 
which, as often as the Irish renewed their \ 
attacks, they were vigorously repulsed, by I 
a very unequal number of the king's forces, 1 
and a few faithful protestant citizens, under 
Sir Henry Tichborne, the governor, as- ' 
sisted by the lord viscount Moore. The J 
siege of Drogheda began on the 30lh of | 
November, 1641, "and held till the 4ih of \ 
March, 1642, when Sir Phelim O'Neal, and | 
the Irish miscreants under him, were forced $ 
to retire. \ 

In the meantime 10,000 troops were sent I 
from Scotland to the relief of the remaining , 
protestants in Ireland, which being proper- J 
ly divided into various part of the kingdom, ( 
happily suppressed the power of the Irish * 
savages ; and the protestants, for several ; 
years, lived in tranquillity. 

After James II. had abandoned England, j 
he maintained a contest for sometime in | 
Ireland, where he did all in his power to ; 
carry on that persecution which he had 
been happily prevented from persevering I 
in, in England : accordingly, in a parlia- 
ment held at Dublin, in the year 1689, \ 
great numbers of the protestant nobility, \ 
clergy, and gentry of Ireland, were attainted { 
of high treason. The government of the ; 
kingdom was, at that time, invested in the { 
earl of Tyconnel, a bigoted i)apist, and an j 
inveterate enemy to ttio protestants. By \ 
his orders they were again persecuted in ( 



various parts of the kitigJom. The reve- 
nues of the city of Dublin were seized, 
and most of the churches converted into 
prisons. And had it not been for the res- 
olution and uncommon bravery of the gar- 
risons in the city of Londonderry, and the 
town of Inniskillen, there had not one place 
remained for refuge to the distressed prot- 
estaiifs in the whole kingdom ; but all must 
have been given up to King James and to 
the furious popish party that governed him. 

The remarkable siege of Londonderry 
was opened on the 18lh of April, 1689, by 
20,000 pa[)ists, the flower of the Irish ar- 
my. The ciiy was not properly circum- 
^lanced to sustain a siege, the defenders 
consisting of a body of raw undisciplined 
protestants, who had fled thither for shel- 
ter, and half a regiment of Lord M(nmtjoy's 
disciplined soldiers, with the principal part 
of the inhabitants, making in all only 7,361 
fighting men. 

The besieged hoped, at first, that their 
stores of corn, and other necessaries, would 
be sufficient ; but by the continuance of the 
siege their wants increased ; and these at 
last became so heavy, that, for a consider- 
able time before the siege was raised, a pint 
of coarse barley, a small quantity of greens, 
a few spoonfuls of starch, with a very mod- 
erate portion of horse-flesh, were reckoned 
a week's provision for a soldier. And 
they were, at length, reduced to such ex- 
tremities, that they devoured dogs, cats, and 

Their miseries increasing with the siege, 
many, through mere hunger and want, pined 
and languished away, or fell dead in the 
street ; and it is remarkable, that when 
their long-expected succors arrived from 
England, they were upon the point of being 
reduced to this alternative, either to pre- 
serve their existence by eating each other, 
or attempting to fight their way through 
the Irish, which must have infallibly pro- 
duced their destruction. 

These succors were most happily brought 

by the ship Mountjoy, of Derry, and the 

Phoenix, of Coleraine, at which time they 

) had only nine lean horses left, wi»h a pint 
'> of meal to each man. By hunger, and the 

> fatigues of war, their 7,361 fighting men 

< were reduced to 4,300, one fourth part of 
s whom were rendered unserviceable. 

^ As the calamities of the besieged were 
^ very great, so likewise were the terrors 
\ and suflerings of their protestants friends 

> and relations ; all of whom (even women 
I and children) were forcibly driven from 
] the country thirty miles round, and inhu- 
l manly reduced to the sad necessity of con- 
I tinning some days and nights, without food 

> or covering, before the walls of the town,; 
) and were thus exposed to the continual fire 
f both of the Irish army from without, and 
I the shot of their friends from within. 

I But the succors from England happily ar- 
^ riving, put an end to their affliction ; and 
$ the siege was raised on the 31st of July, 
I having been continued upward of three 
$ months. 

i The day before the siege of Londonder- 
I ry was raised, the Inniskilleners engaged 
j a body of 6,000 Irish Roman catholics, at 
i Newton Butler, or Crown castle, of whom 
\ near 5,000 were slain. This, wiih the 

< defeat at Londonderry, so much dispirited 
uhe papists, that they gave up all further 
\ attempts at that time to persecute the prot- 

< eslants. 

] In the year following, 1690, the Irish 
I who had taken up arms in favor of James 
\ II., were totally defeated by William III. ; 
s and that monarch, before he left the coun- 
\ try, reduced them to a state of subjection, 
sin which they very long continued, at least 
i so far as to refrain from open violence, al- 
\ though they were still insidiously engaged 
\ in increasing their power and influence ; 
\ for, by a report made in the year 1731, it 
s appeared, that a great number of ecclesias- 
I tics, had, in defiance of the laws, flocked 
s into Ireland ; that several convents had 
I been opened by jesuiis, monks, and friirs; 
I that many new and pomptHis mass-liouses 

> had been erected in the most conspic.joiis 
I parts of their great cities, where there had 

> not been any before ; and that such swarms 



/ of vagrant, immoral Romish priests had ap- ], benefits will arise from the establishment | 
; peared, that the very papists themselves j of protestant schools in various parts of the ; 
i considered them as a burden. I kingdom, in which the children of the Ro- | 

^ But, notwithstanding all the arts of priest- \ man catholics are instructed in religion and < 
i craft, all the tumid and extravagant har- ', literature, whereby the mist of ignorance ;■ 
/ angues of Hibernian orators, and the gross [ is dispelled, which was the great source of '. 
< and wilful misrepresentations of their self- 1 the cruel transactions that have taken J 
\ styled liberal abettors, the protestant reli- i place, at different periods, in that king- \ 
\ gion now stands on a firmer basis in Ire- dom ; and this is sufficiently proved by the | 
J land than it ever before did. The Irish, < fact, that those parts of the country which < 

> who formerly led an unsettled and roving ^ haVe been disgraced by the most horrible \ 
I life, in the woods, bogs, and mountains, ^, outrages, are those in which the most pro- < 
I and lived on the depredation of their neigh- i found ignorance and bigotry still prevail. i 
I bors; they who in the morning seized the j In order to preserve the protestant inter- J 
'( prey, and at night divided the spoil, have, est in Ireland upon a solid basis, it behooves 

' for many years past, become comparatively | all in whom power is invested to dis- 
' quiet and civilized. They taste the sweets charge their respective duties with the 
; of English society, and the advantages of j strictest assiduity and attention ; tempering 
i civil government. > justice with mercy, and firmness with con- 

( The heads of their clans, and the chiefs / ciliation. They should endeavor rather to 

> of the great Irish families, who cruelly op- gain the hearts of the people by kindness 

> pressed and tyrannized over their vassals, \ than to enslave them by fear ; and to show 
j are now dwindled, in a great measure, to* | them that the ministers of the protestant re- 
l nothing ; and most of the ancient popish ^ ligion are more estimable, instead of more 
' nobility and gentry of Ireland have re- / powerful, than ihe Romish clergy. A sin- 

•' nounced the Romish religion. 

gle voluntary proselyte is worth a thousand 


It is also to be hoped, that inestimable ^ converts to " the holy text of pike and gun," 


jIIE bloody tenets of tho Ro- 
man catholic persuasion, 
and the cruel disposiiions 
of the votaries of that 
church, can not be more 
amply displayed, or truly 
depicted, than by giving an authentic and 
simple narrative of the horrid barbarities 
exercised by the Spaniards oti the innocent 
and unoffending inhabitants of America. In- 
deed, the barbarities were such, that they 
would scarcely seem credible from their 
enormity, and the victims so many, that 
they would startle belief by their numbers, 
if the facts were not indisputably ascer- 
tained, stnd the circumstances admitted by 


their own writers, some of whom have \ 
even glorified in their inhumanity, and, as < 
Roman catholics, deemed those atrocious \ 
actions meritorious, which would make a ] 
protestant sliudder to relate, so that wo | 
may well exclaim with the poet: — | 

" Figots will draw, wherever popery reigns, \ 

'I'lie streiiming blood Iroiii |)ioiiN martyr's veins ; ■. 
Alike in Kurope, or the eastern purls, ' 

Their eriiel turlures, iind inCi'mal arts, i 

Alike in pfilished, or unpolished dimes, } 

Their siipersiilion, jjrejudiL-e, and crimes. 
The murders, Lisbon or Madrid can show, 
Are matched in Goa, and in Mkxico; 
While Romish malice bears triumphant sway, 
To cloud the splendor of the gosjjcl day ; 
While barb'rous men with truth and sense at strife, 
Deprive the just and innocent of life." 

The Spanish historians in general, and 
most of the theological writers admit, that 


243 J 

the Spaniards were guilty of the barbarities 

of which f-hey are accused. Indeed, the 

whole is amply displayed by a writer, who 

had the most authentic authority for all he 

asserts, and was an eye-witness of many 

of the cruelties he describes. The person 

alluded to is the celebrated Bartholomeo 

de las Casas, bishop of Chiapa, a town 

? and province of Mexico, or New Spain. 

A portrait of this famous prelate is thus 

drawn by an able French writer : " The 

celebrated Bartholomeo de las Casas was 

a virtuous ecclesiastic, whom the desire 

I of converting infidels had invited into 

\ America. He possessed most of the talents 

'? which form the truly apostolic man ; a 

\ strong zeal, an ardent charity, a perfect 

\ disinterestedness, an irreproachable purity 

i of manners, and a robust constitution, which 

< enabled him to undergo the greatest fa- 

< tigues. His enemies could reproach him '/ 
I with nothing but a too great vivacity of? 
I temper ; but then his virtue, his under- 1 

< standing, and the singular talents by which < 
I he won the confidence of the Americans, ( 
'j made him a very respectable character." < 
\ From this prelate's writings, who was a 

I Roman catholic, and consequently can not \ 
^ be supposed to speak, with prejudice against \ 

> those of his own persuasion, and some < 
; other authentic materials, we shall select 

> the ensuing particulars. 

'/ The West Indies, and the vast continent 

> of America, were discovered by Columbus, 
j in 1492. This distinguished commander 
\ landed first in the large island of St. Do- 
I mingo, or Hispaniola, which was at that 

lime exceedingly populous ; but this popu- 
lation was of very little consequence, the 
inoffensive inhabitants being murdered by 
multitudes, as soon as the Spaniards gained 
a permanent footing in the island. Blind 
superstition, bloody bigotry, and craving 
avarice, rendered that, in the course of 
years, a dismal desert, which, at the arrival 
of the Spaniards, seemed to appear as an 
earthly paradise; so that at present there is 
scarce a remnant of the ancient natives re- 

In justice, however, to the great com- 
mander who conducted the expedition, it 
is necessary to observe, that historians ad- 
mit, " When Christopher Columbus sat out 
upon his discovery, under Ferdinand and 
Isabella, king and queen of Spain, he was 
exhorted to behave with all possible hu- 
manity toward such nations as he might 
arrive among ; and that he complied exact- 
ly with those instructions, but was ill sec- 
onded by his companions. Most of these 
were men, who being voluntary exiles from 
their native country, hoped thereby to es- 
cape the punishment justly due to their 
crimes, and who, at the hazard of dying an 
honorable death, thirsted after the riches 
of the New World." 

Columbus first landed in a place, to 
which he thought proper to give the ap- 
pellation of Port Royal. The neighbor- 
hood, or district, to which this spot apper- 
tained, or belonged, was governed by a 
powerful cacique, or chief, called Guacan- 
aric. This prince appeared serene in his 
air, affable in his manner, and mild in his 
disposition ; and his subjects, though great- 
ly surprised at the first appearance of the 
Spaniards, soon contracted a great familiari- 
ty with, and gave them ample demonstra- 
tions of their hospitable tempers. 

The avarice of the Spaniards soon be- 
coming conspicuous, and their thirst after 
gold appearing to the natives, they readily 
parted from their golden trinkets, bracelets, 
&c., to the Spaniards, in exchange for a 
few glass beads, or brass bells, or some 
other such inconsiderable baubles. 

The opinion entertained by the His- 
paniolans of the Spaniards who visited 
them, was rather romantic ; for they look- 
ed upon them to be descended from heaven, 
and to have a command of the elements. 
This exalted idea of their new guests oc- 
casioned them to imitate all their actions, 
and to copy every ceremony they saw the 
Spaniards perform, without having the 
least conception of its meaning. 

While this good correspondence lasted, 
Columbus's ship foundered in a storm, and 

I 244 


consequently himself and his crew were ? among other things, several women. This > 

at the mercy of the Hispaniolans. The | outrage, however, did not go unpunished, > 

friendly cacique, however, administered i for the cacique of the country so ravaged, > 

every consolation in his power, sent canoes < whose name was Caunabo, inspired with \ 

to succor the ship, and attended in person, | indignation at their behavior, attacked them \ 

that his subjects might not plunder it. He | in their retreat, recovered the women and | 

built warehouses by the sea-side to secure I spoils, and cut the invaders to pieces. < 

the goods, was so much affected that he 5 Flushed with this success, Caunabo pro- < 

shed tears at the Spaniards' loss, and even I ceeded immediately to the fort, which was \ 

offered Columbus his whole possessions, > only defended by a few Spaniards. He j 

if he would remain in that country. I invested it with the soldiers under his \ 

A caraval, or galley, having escaped the | command, but the Spaniards defended them- | 

storm, Columbus deterrilfined to venture in > selves with such bravery, that the natives \ 

■ i ] 

that to Spain, in order to give an account > were repulsed. This determined Caunabo I 

of his discovery. He, therefore, thanked s to act by stratagem ; he, accordingly, with- < 

the cacique, told him he must return to s drew his army in the daytime, and sent a < 

Spain, but that he would leave part of his I chosen detached body in the night, who, j 

coimtrymen with him. > swimming across the ditch, set fire to the j 

On this intimation the cacique built a | fort, which was entirely consumed, together '< 
commodious house for the residence of his > with the Spaniards. It is here requisite | 
guests, and, with the wrecks of the ship, > to mention, that a few days before the fort 
raised them a kind of fort, which he fur- 1 was burnt, the cacique, Guacanaric, still 
ther secured by sinking a ditch round it. > friendly to the Spaniards, attempted to 
In this fort, Columbus, at his departure for j relieve the place ; but Caunabo, having 
Spain, left behind him forty men, a gunner, ^ a superior army, engaged, and defeated | 
a carpenter, a surgeon, a few field-pieces, | him. | 

and a quantity of ammunition. | Soon after these transactions, Columbus j 

The command was given to Diego Do- \ returned from Spain with a strong force, ; 
ranna, and strict orders left to behave well j and a povverfiil fleet. With prudent man- 
to the natives. i agement things might have been happily \. 

Columbus, however, was no sooner de- 1 adjusted, but this fleet was manned by the 
purled, than the Spaniards left behind ^ refuse of all the prisons in Spain, by wretch- ' 
totally changed their ctmdnct, and bi^came ^ es without principles, feelings, or humanity, 
at once robbers and libertines, plundering '. and officered by persons of a most mer- 
the natives of their wealth upon every oc- < cenary disposition : so that Columbus could 
casion, debauching their wives and daugh- 1 not act agreeable to the dictates of his own 
ters, and acting with such an excess of ^ heart, without hazarding a mutiny, 
barbarous rapacity, that they soon changed j Under pretence of revenging the deaths 
those sincerest of friends into the bitterest I of those Spaniards who had been killed 
of enemies. Guacanaric, that tender and I during the absence of Columbus, the new- 
humane caci(|ue, expostulated in vain with | comers began to ravage and plunder the 
the Spaniards, on the imj)roprinty and cru- \ country, concealing their avarice and cruel- | 
elty of their practices : thuy laughed at his j ty under the pretended mask of a generous 
Remonstrances, rejected his advice, and still \ resentment, 
continued their depredations. | « Tlius, by their artifices, hiding shatne. 

At length thoy became so bold, that a A.ul, un.icr vices, stealing virtue's name.»' 

party of the Spaniards went armed from A desperate war was kindled, and car- 
ihe fort, attacked a nfjighboring district, 1 ried on with the most bloody barbarity, for 
carrying off a i^reat deal of plunder, and, \ the space of three years, without intermis- j 



245 { 

sion. The natives had numbers and cour- 
age: the Spaniards, though inferior in num- 
bers, had equal courage, greater discipline, 
and the invincible assistance of firearms. 
Urged by avarice, and prompted by cruelty, 
they spared neither age nor sex. 

Six caciques, or sovereign princes, 
brought their forces into the field to op- 
pose these invaders. Their endeavors 
: were, however, in vain ; the skill, disci- 
; pline, and firearms of the Spaniards still 
prevailed, and the Hispaniolan caciques 
wrere glad to agree to a cessation of hostil- 
ities, which was chiefly brought about by 
the good offices of Guacanaric, who still 
continued firm in his attachment to the 
Spaniards, and had accompanied them in 
all their expeditions. 

Notwithstanding the truce, the Spaniards 
continued their rapacious depredations as 
before, and put to death the natives wher- 
ever they met them. The repeated mur- 
ders of the poor natives, and the endless 
persecutions and violence of the Spaniards, 
at length determined the caciques, and 
principal people, not to suffer any more 
maize, or Indian corn, and manioc, a root 
of which bread is made, to be planted, 
thinking thus to starve out their tyrants, 
while they retired with their people to the 
woods and mountains. 

The Spaniards, however, had corn of 
their own to sow, and were well supplied 
with provisions from Europe, so that they 
felt but little inconvenience from this reso- 
lution of the natives, whom they pursued 
to their recesses, and penetrated into pla- 
ces before judged inaccessible : till being 
harassed from mountain to mountain, and 
wood to wood, more perished by fatigue and 
hunger than by the sword and firearms. 

In this lamentable situation the remnant 
thought proper to submit, and were treated 
with the most inhuman rigor. 

Ferdinand, king of Spain, indeed, sent 
orders to treat the natives with all possible 
humanity, and to make converts of them by 
the mildest means ; but these orders were 
neglected, through the avaricious barbarity 

of his subjects ; and even in his own 
council some bigoted papists proposed to 
enslave the people entirely, and to divide 
them among the Spaniards, who should em- 
ploy them to work in the mines, or other- 
wise, as they might think proper. The 
pretence of endeavoring to establish the 
Romish religion made the groundwork of 
this project ; the promoters of it insinua- 
ting, that the natives would never be pre- 
vailed upon to become good catholics, so 
long as they should be permitted to exer- 
cise their superstitions, and escape a saluta- 
ry violence. At the same lime it was urged 
that this would be of the highest advantage 
in a political view, as the natives, by being 
thus shackled, would be no longer able to 
rebel. This matter was argued at the court 
of Spain, and at length it was inhumanly 
agreed upon, that the natives of Hispaniola 
shoidd be divided among the conquerors, 
and become their slaves. 

At the time of the division of the natives, 
those unhappy people were reduced to the 
number of sixty thousand, and these being 
ruled with a rod of iron, and barbarously 
persecuted by their inhuman masters, were, 
in the space of only five years, diminished 
to fourteen thousand : so that allowing one 
thousand for natural deaths during that time, 
forty-five thousand fell martyrs to others' 
cruelty, and their own anguish. 

The inhumanity of these transactions 
raised at once the indignation, and excited 
the compassion, of that elegant writer, and 
humane prelate, the celebrated Bartholomeo 
de las Casas, who, full of horror at what 
he had seen, took shipping for Europe, and 
repaired to the court of Spain, where he 
made a just and candid representation of 
the whole affair, and pleaded strongly in 
favor of the poor natives of Hispaniola. 

This worthy gentleman was opposed at 
the Spanish court by some of those mer- 
cenary wretches who were partly proprie- 
tors of the conquered lands, and consequent- 
ly of the enslaved natives on them. He, 
however, continued assiduous in his en- 
deavors, and indefatigable in his labors to 




effect his point. Urged by a most benev- 
olent spirit, he passed several times back- 
ward and forward, from Europe to Ameri- 
ca, and from America to Europe : in both 
places, however, he met with strong oppo- 
sition ; in Europe from the king's council, 
and in Hispaniola from a council called the 
council of the Indies. 

These impediments determined the wor- 
thy prelate. Las Casas, to lay the whole mat- 
ter before Prince Charles (afterward the 
renowned em-^eror, Charles V.), and who, 
at this time, ws ?, in right of the queen, his 
mother, governor of the new-discovered 
countries. The bishop of Darien, or Span- 
ish Terra Firma, was employed by the en- 
slavers of the poor natives (a practice at 
that time general throughout all the West 
Indies), to oppose Las Casas. As the bish- 
op of Darien was a man of a disposition 
totally contrary to that worthy and humane 
prelate, he did all he could to prevent his 
success. The prince, however, determined 
to hear both parties, and named a day for 
the matter to be solemnly argued before 

At the time appointed, the prince being 
seated on a kind of throne, and the proper 
attendants and officers present, the bishop 
of Darien was ordered to deliver his senti- 
ments, and explain his motives for wishing 
to continue the slavery of the native Amer» 
icans ; when that dissembling, artful, and 
inhuman prelate, addressed himself thus to 
the prince : — 

" Most August Prince, 

" It is very extraordinary that a point 
should still be argued, which hath been so 
frequently decided in the councils of the 
catholic kings, your august ancestors. 
Doubtless, the sole reason why the Amer- 
icans have at last been treated with so much 
severity, is from a mature reflection on their 
dispositions and manners. Need I set be- 
fore you the treacheries and rebellions of 
the worthless Hispaniolans ? Was there a 
possibility of ever reducing them except 
by violent methods? Have they not set 
every engine to work to destroy their mas- 

ters, in hopes thereby to free them from | 
their new government 1 If we allow free- < 
dom to these barbarians, it will be giving { 
up the conquest of America, and all the ad- i 
vantages to be expected from it ? But > 
wherefore should any one find fault with '. 
their being made slaves ? Do not those < 
who conquer barbarous nations reduce them < 
to a state of captivity ? And is not this | 
the privilege of the victors ? Did not the i 
Greeks and Romans often treat thus the s 
rude people whom they subdued by force i 
of arms ? If ever any nation merited harsh < 
treatment, it must be these Americans, who < 
resemble brutes more than rational crea- \ 
tures ! How shocking are their crimes, at | 
which nature herself blushes ! Do we 
discover the least traces of reason in them ? 
Do they follow any other laws than those 
of their brutal passions ? But it will be 
objected, that their insensibility and savage 
disposition prevent their embracing our 
religion ; but what do we lose by this ? 
We want to make Christians of those who J 
are scarce human creatures. Let our mis- j 
sionaries declare what fruit they have i 
reaped by their labors, and how many of \ 
these people are sincere proselytes. But \ 
here it will bo objected, that the Hispani- j 
olans are souls for whom our blessed Sa- J 

vior died on the cross : I grant it, and God 

forbid that I should desire to have them | 

abandoned. Eternally be praised the zeal < 

of our pious monarch, for winning over < 

these infidels to Christ. But then I affirm | 

that the most effectual way of doing this, J 

will be by enslaving them ; and I add, s 

that this is the only method that can be s 

employed. i 

" Being so ignorant, stupid, and vicious, j 

will it ever be possible to instil into their s 

minds the necessary knowledge, except i 

by keeping them in perpetual bondage ? l 

Equally desirous of renouncing the Chris- > 

tian religion, as of embracing it, they often, j 

a moment after their baptism, return to > 

their native superstitions." < 

The bishop of Darien having concluded '/ 

'' his sophistical and fallacious harangue, j 




Bartholomeo de las Casas rose, and made 
the following reply : — 

"Illustrious Prince: I was one ofi 
the first who went to America, when it 
was discovered under the reign of the invin- 
cible monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella, your : 
majesty's predecessors. Neither curiosity 
nor interest prompted me to undertake so 
long and dangerous a voyage, the saving 
of the souls of heathens being my sole ob- 
ject. Why was I not allowed to labor as 
assiduously as the ample harvest required ? 
Why was I not permitted, even at the ex- 
pense of my blood, to ransom so many 
thousand souls, who fell unhappy victims 
to avarice or lust ? Some would persuade 
us that barbarous executions were neces- 
sary, in order to punish or check the re- 
bellion of the Americans : but let us inquire 
to whom they are owing. Did not these 
nations receive the Spaniards, who came 
among them, with gentleness and humani- 
ty ? Did they not show more joy in pro- 
portion, in lavishing treasures upon them, 
than the Spaniards did greediness in re- 
ceiving them 1 But our avarice was not 
yet satiated : though they gave up to us 
their lands, their settlements, and their 
riches, we also would tear from them their : 
wives, their children, and their liberties. 
Could we imagine them so miserable as 
not to show any resentment, though we 
hanged and burnt them ? 

" To blacken these unhappy people, their 
enemies assert, that they are scarce human 
creatures : but it is we who ought to blush, 
for having been less men, and more barbarous 
than they. What have they done ? only 
defended themselves when attacked, and 
repulsed injuries and violence by force of < 
arms. Despair always furnishes those who 
are drove to the last extremity with weap- 
ons ; but the Romans are instanced to give 
a sanction to our enslaving these nations. 
The person who speaks thus is a Christian, 
and a bishop. Is this gospel ? What ■ 
right have we to enslave a people who were 
born free, and whom we disturbed, though 
they never offended us ? If they must be 

our vassals, even let them be so ; the la v j 
of the conqueror indeed authorizes thus ; < 
but then what have they done to deserve [ 
slavery ? He adds, that they are stupid, ^ 
brutal, and addicted to vices of every kind ; ? 
but is this to be wondered at? Can better { 
things be expected from a nation deprived I 
of gospel light ? Let us pity, but not op- > 
press them ; let us endeavor to instruct, | 
enlighten, and reform them ; let us disci- t 
pline, but not plunge them into despair. ^ 
All this time religion is used as a cloak to \ 
cover such crying acts of injustice. How! \ 
shall chains be the first fruits which these < 
people reap from the gospel 1 But will it ^ 
be possible for us to inspire them with a ^ 
love for its dictates, now they are so en- i 
venomed by hatred, and exasperated at f 
their being dispossessed of that invaluable \ 
blessing, LIBERTY? Did the apostles 
employ such methods in their conversion i 
of the gentiles ? They themselves sub- ' 
mitted to chains, but loaded no man with < 
them ; Christ came to free, not to enslave ^ 
us ; submission to the faith he left us ought \ 
to be a voluntary act, and should be propa- < 
gated by persuasion, gentleness, and reason; | 
violence and force will make hypocrites ( 
only, but never true worshippers. ^ 

" Permit me now to ask the bishop, < 
whether the Americans, since their being < 
enslaved, have discovered a stronger desire I 
to become Christians ? Whether their 
several masters have endeavored to dispel 
their ignorance, by pouring instruction into 
their minds ? And what advantage have 
either religion or the state reaped, from 
this distribution of the slaves ? At my 
first arrival in Hispaniola, it contained mill- 
ions of inhabitants, and there now remain 
scarce an hundredth part of them. 

" Thousands have perished by want, 
fatigue, merciless punishments, cruelty, and 
barbarity : these men are murdered in 
sport ; they are dragged into dreadful cav- 
erns, and there denied the light of the 
skies, and that of the gospel. If the blood 
unjustly shed of one man only, calls loudly 

for vengeance, how strong must be the j 


cry of that of SO many unhappy creatures, J anguish, have refused all sustenance till 
which is shedding daily ? I therefore > they perished. 

humbly implore your highness's clemency, ? If an American attempted lo run away, 
for subjects so unjustly oppressed, and take | he was brought, if caught, to the next mar- 
the liberty to declare, that if you do not / ket-place, and there scourged almost to 
afford them the relief in your power, heaven I death ; but if an American made a corn- 
will, one day, call you to an account for < plaint against a Spaniard, it was not at- 
the numberless acts of cruelty which you < tended to in the least. 

might have prevented." 

In every respect the Spaniards treated 

Prince Charles highly applauded the these miserable sons of bondage with the 
good bishop's zeal, and promised to redress i greatest barbarity. 
the grievances complained of. His prom- i Many of the Spanish writers confess, 
ise, however, appeared to be that of a < 'hat their tyrannical countrymen were fre- 
courtier, rather than of a generous prince ; quently mean enough to steal the tools and 
for he totally forgot to perform : so that < implements of the poor natives, in order to 
the poor Hispaniolans dwindled away be- \ deduct half their week's scanty allowance 
neath oppression and barbarity, or if they < of provisions for restoring them. 

fled to the woods or mountains, were hunted 
and destroyed like wild beasts. 

Some let them out to work to other mas- 
ters, who never failed to make them earn 

While the poor people of Hispaniola < what they paid for their hire. Others were 
were thus oppressed, the Spaniards rev- < let out to travellers, who harassed them in 
elled in luxuries, and lived in the utmost < long journies, and through rugged wa^s, 
splendor, till the mines were drained of j with heavy burdens on their backs, till 
their treasures, and most of the natives < they frequently fainted, and sometimes ex- 
were worn out by working them, or had s pired on the road ; for the life of the na- 
fallen martyrs to the cruelty of their ty- i tive was not in the least considered, if the 
rants. I person who hired him made satisfaction to 

The natives of Guatemala, a country of ^ his master. 
America, were used with similar barbarity, s Many were compelled to carry burdens 
As these people were exceedingly numer- s of an enormous weight for three days to- 
ons, viz., at the rate of a thousand to one gether : the load was fastened to their head 
with respect to the Spaniards who settled I and shoulders by means of a leather strap, 
there, the latter, for fear they should grow > which crossed the forehead, and the pres- 
too powerful, refused them the use of any > sure of which frequently made the blood 
weapons, more particularly their bows and to gush from the eyes and nostrils, and 
arrows, in the use of which they were very l leave a frightful scar in the forehead. With 
expert. 5 such loads they travelled barefooted through 

'J'he natives were formerly active and? all kinds of roads, and in all seasons, 
valiant, but from ill-usage and oppression | By repeated barbarities, and the most 
grew slothful, and so dispirited, that they i execrable cruelties, the vindictive and mer- 
not only trembled at the sight of firearms, > ciless Spaniards not only depopulated His- 
but even at the very looks of a Spaniard. | paniola, Porto-Rico, Cuba, Jamaica, and 
Some were so plunged in despair, that i the Bahama islands, but destroyed above 
after returning home from laboring hard for | twelve millions of souls upon the continent 
^ their cruel task-masters, and receiving only \ of America, in the space of forty years. 
I contemptuous language and stripes for their | The cruel methods by which they mas- 
t pains, they have sunk down in ihoir cabins, ;; sacred and butchered the poor natives, were 
{ with a full resolution to prefer death to such i innumerable, and of the most diabolical 
{ slavery ; and, in the bitterness of their ] nature. 




Incredible as the following circumstances ? put to death, and destroyed, eight hundred } 
may appear, they are as well authenticated I thousand of the inhabitants of that country. 5 
as any facts that ever were delivered by | Between the years 1523 and 15.:i3, five > 
the pen of history, and are even attested s hundred thousand natives of Nicaragua \ 
by many of the Roman catholic missiona- 5 were transported to Peru, where they all \ 
ries themselves, as well as by the before- ^ perished by incessant labor in the mines. > 

In the space of twelve years, from the \ 
first landing of Cortez on the continent of 
America, to the entire reduction of the 

me*itioned Bartholomeo de las Cases, viz: — \ 
1. The Spaniards stripped a large and? 
ry populous town of all its inhabitants, \ 


I whom they drove to the mines, leaving all s populous empire of Mexico, the amazing 
\ the children behind them, without the least s numberof four millions of Mexicans perish- 
? idea of providing for their subsistance, by | ed, through the unparalleled barbarity of the 
which inhuman proceeding six thousand \ Spaniards. To come to particulars, the 

'( helpless infants perished. 

I city of Cholula consisted of thirty thousand - 

2. As the Spaniards were marching tow- 1 houses, by which its great population may 5 

? ard a large town, the inhabitants came I be imagined. The Spaniards seized on ; 

j out to meet them with refreshments, not- 1 all the inhabitants, who refusing to turn i 

' withstanding which they fell upon these < Roman catholics, as they did not know the ; 

defenceless people, and put them all in- ^ meaning of the religion they were ordered ; 

discriminately to the sword. 

to embrace, the Spaniards put them all to \ 

3. A Spanish officer, having three hun- \ death, cutting to pieces tlie lower sort of < 
dred Americans allotted to him as slaves, ^ people, and burning tliose of distinction. | 
he, in only three months, killed two hun- 1 Pedro de Alvarado, one of the ollicers ; 
dred and sixty of them, by excessive labor, \ under the command of Cortez, laid waste \ 

and hard living, in the mines. 

a whole province, and committed innumera- 

4. A Spanish commander, in 1514, de-jble murders and barbarities on the poor 
I stroyed all the inhabitants of a tract of land > defenceless natives. 

\ of above five hundred miles in length. 

In the province of Honduras, near two 

5. An officer, under the above com- < millions of the natives perished, the Span- j 
raander, murdered above two thousand iards setting fire to the towns, and burning { 

persons in one expedition. 

Whenever the people of any town had 

the inhabitants in their houses. 

Sometimes the Spaniards spared the 

' the reputation of being rich, an order was ^ handsomest American women, not through > 

( immediately sent, that every person in it i motives of humanity, but merely to gratify \ 

I should turn Roman catholic : if this was I their lusts, or make them domestic drudge.?, i 

\ not directly complied with, the town was I Exasperated at the cruelties exercised on j 

I instantly plundered, and the inhabitants I them, some of the Mexicans dug pits across | 

I murdered ; and 'f it was complied with, a I the public roads, in which they set sharp j 

\ pretence was soon after made to strip the I stakes, and then covered them slightly over I 

\ inhabitants of their wealth. I so artfully, that the danger could not be | 

One of the Spanish governors seized I perceived. A few of the Spanish horse '/ 

upon a very worthy and amiable Indian I falling into these holes, the Spaniards were | 

prince, and in order to extort from him > so enraged, that they seized a great num- i 

where his treasures were concealed, caused $ ber of the natives, filled the pits with them, | 

his feet to be burnt till the marrow dropped \ and buried them alive. 

from his bones, and he expired through the 
i extremity of the torments he underwent. 

One of the Spanish commanders, in a 
few years, destroyed eight thousand Mexi- 

I In the interval, between the years 1514 > cans, by half starving ih^m, and making | 
J and 1522, the governor of Terra Firma 1 them work hard, to build him a superb j 




palace, and lay out elegant gardens to it. ' 
Twenty thousand of the natives being em- 
ployed to carry the baggage of tlie Span- 
iards upon an expedition, all except two 
hundred were harassed to death by their 
cruel masters, before the return of the troops. 
The governor of Jucatan, in 1526, not 
I finding any gold in that province, seized 
I upon a great number of the inhabitants, 

> and sold them for slaves, to make amends 
I for his disappointment. To account for 
I these cruelties, the Spaniards absurdly al- 
I ledged : " That the inhuman butcheries 
/ formerly committed by the Americans, in 
I sacrificing so many rational creatures to 
( their wicked idols, was a sufficient war- 
I rant to justify those who should divest 
I them of tlieir country." — " But (says an 
] intelligent writer) the same argument might, 

> with much greater reason, be urged against 
i the Spaniards themselves, who sacrificed 
J so many millions uf Indians to their darling 

idol, gold." 
I The Spanish ofllcers, upon their first 
I entering into any country, ur province, 
I began their operations by summoning the 
<; people to submit to the pope, and the king 

> of Spain, and to turn Roman catholics. 
I The people, not knowing who the pope and 
J the king of Spain were, not understanding 

what was meant by the Roman catholic 
persuasion, very naturally refused. The 
refusal was immediately made a handle of 
by the Spaniards, who thereupon seized 
their persons, plundered the houses, ran- 
sacked the temples, murdered many of the 
inhabitants, and enslaved the rest. 

Romish missionaries have been continual- 
ly sent to America, not so much (in reality) 
to propagate religion, as to aggrandize the 
papal power ; for, on the first discovery of 
America, the pope invested the kings of 
Spain with the sovereignty of it, under the 
title of the royal patrimony, upon condition 
that the catholic monarchs should main- 
tain a multitude of priests, friars, Jesuits, 
(fcc, in America, to fascinate the people, 
and advance the power and authority of the 
Roman pontiffs. 

Multitudes of secular priests in South 
America, live with all the splendor of men 
of the greatest opulence. 

In some towns they have had such pow- 
er as frequently to reverse the sentence of 
the civil magistrate, whether it related to 
fines, imprisonment, whipping, or death; 
and if the civil magistrates appeared in the 
least refractory, these ecclesiastical tyrants 
would imprison them for contempt of the 


^k,y-^^IIOUGH the Omnipotent, 
■>^^?^?j through his mercy and 
P justice, does not always 
• punish in this world those 
who have, in the most 
flagrant manner, offended ;; 
his holy ordinances, but reserves to himself /' 
their punishment in a future state ; yet the', 
numerous instances that might be brought, | 
where it has, even in this life, pleased his 
divine will to show us his terrible judg- 
ments on such offenders, may serve to 
deter us, by these dreadful examples of his 

Almighty displeasure, from such actions 
as our consciences tell us must certainly 
offend his holy laws. 

In scarcely any instance has this been 
more remarkably conspicuous, than the 
punishments he has thought proper to in- > 
flict on those who have been the persecu- 
tors of his children in holiness and truth. 
Many examples may be produced from 
history, both sacred and profane, of all 
ages, some of the most distinguished of 
which we shall lay before our readers. 

The examples of this kind to be deduced 




from the Holy Scriptures, as of Pharaoh, 
Saul, Jezebel, with many others in the 
Old Testament, and of Herod, Judas, Pi- 
late, &c., in the New, are, we trust, so 
generally known in this Christian country, 
as not to need particularizing. 

Waving, therefore, a further mention of < 
the sacred histories, we shall examine 
the profane. In the Roman history, what 
can be more striking on this subject than 
the miserable end of the emperor Nero, 
that bitter persecutor of Christianity, whose 
agonies were so great, from the shocking 
barbarity with which he was treated, even 
by his own subjects, that he, in vain, im- 
plored to be eased by death from his suf- 
ferings ; and when he could find neither 
friend nor enemy to grant even this request, 
he added the crime of suicide to his enor- 
mous vices, and, unlamented, perished by 
his own hand. 

The two emperors, Diocletian and Maxi- 
minian, rigid enemies to the Christian faith, 
after abdicating, through vexatious circum- 
stances, their thrones, both died unhappily : 
the latter, in particular, in his attempting 
to restore himself, unnaturally falling by 
the means of his own son Maxentius, who 
likewise came to as untimely an end as his 
parent, being drowned, in the prime of his 
life, and the very meridian of his sins and 

The example of the emperor Maximinus, 
another persecutor of Christ's church, de- 
serves recital. Soon after his setting forth 
his impious decrees against the unoffending 
Christians, which were engraved in brass, 
he was, by the just judgment of the Most 
High, afflicted with a dreadful and unnat- 
ural disease, having lice, and other shock- 
ing vermin, crawling from his very entrails, 
in so terrible a manner, as to render abor- 
tive every method to afford him relief; and 
attended with so horrid a putrescent stench, 
that for several days before his death no 
person would hazard their lives to give him 
the least assistance. 

To leave the Roman history, and turn 
our eyes on transactions nearer the present 

period, let us take notice of the hand of 
God on Sigismund, emperor of Germany, 
for his imjustifiable treatment of John Huss, 
and Jerome of Prague. After the martyr- 
dom of those eminent lights of the reforma- 
tion, by his orders, nothing he took in 
hand succeeded, but a series of the most 
unhappy events attended him and his 
family, which, in one generation, became 
extinct : he, in his wars, was ever the 
loser; and his empress Barbara turned oi 
so infamously lewd, as to be a lasting in- 
famy to her family, and disgrace to her sex. 

In the reign of Henry H. of France, the 
Chancellor Oliver, who, at the instigation 
of Cardinal Lorrain, brother to that im- 
placable enemy of the gospel the duke of 
Guise, had stretched the authority of the 
laws to bring many worthy persons to utter 
destruction, for their adherence to the truth : 
this unjust judge, being struck with great 
remorse and self-conviction of his misdeeds, 
fell sick, and so great were the horrors of 
his tormented conscience for his cruel de- 
crees against the righteous, that he could 
not rest day or night, for the torture of his 
wounded mind, but shortly expired, horri- 
bly shrieking out with a loud cry, in his 
last moments : " Oh ! cardinal, thou wilt 
make us all to be damned," with which 
words he gave up the ghost. 

Neither did the cardinal himself, nor his 
brother the duke of Guise, long triumph in 
the success of their bloody machinations, 
as the former shortly after died, and the 
latter fell a sacrifice to the daggers of his 
exasperated countrymen. 

Hoimeister, an arch papist, and a chief 
pillar of the pope's anti-christian doctrine, 
as he was proceeding on his journey to 
Ratisbon, to be present at a council held 
there, and to defend the Roman supersti- 
tions against the defenders of Christ's 
gospel, was prevented from executing his 
impious purpose, being suddenly seized in 
his progress, near the city of Ulmes, with 
an extreme illness, of which he almost 
instantly expired, in great agonies, crying 
out in the most horrid manner. 





The following tragedy, which happened 
in the university of Louvaine, will likewise 
exemplify our subject r a learned person 
in the above seminary, who was reader of ; 
divinity to the monks of St. Gertrude, and 
had violently maintained the corrupt errors 
of popery, at length, falling extremely ill, 
and perceiving no hopes of recovery, he 
regretted, with the greatest perturbation of; 
mind, his manifold sins, but more particu- 
larly his having so warmly espoused the 
cause of idolatry, &c., in opposition to the 
divine truths of the gospel ; an offence, he 
said, of so heinous a nature, as to be too 
great to expect God's pardon. Continually 
repeating this terrible expression, he ex- 
pired in all the horrors of desperation. 

Jacob Latomus, who was president of a 

college at Louvaine, is another instance of; 

the dreadful judgments of .God, on persons 

offending against his most holy word. 

Latomus went to Brussels, to make a long 

oration against the reformed religion, and 

to vindicate popery, which he did before 

the emperor ; but so little to the purpose, 

<, as to verify the common observation, that 

I a bad advocate does much more harm than 

^ good to any cause. The Romish clergy, 

\ and indeed the whole court, seem to have 

I been of this opinion, as he returned to 

I Louvaine, despised and ridiculed by those. 

tion for him, because he had, against the 
positive conviction of his own conscience, 
withstood the truth of God, and Christ's 
holy word ;" and thus shortly ended his 
wretched life, with all the violence of the 
most furious insanity, 

A Dominican friar, of Munster, as he 
was inveighing in the pulpit against the 
protestant religion, which was then spring- 
ing up, was suddenly struck with a flash of 
lightning, which immediately deprived him 
of life. 

A popish gentleman in Germany, hear- 
ing one of the reformed sing: '■'■■Our only 
hold or fortress is our God ," immediately 
answered : " / will help to shoot against thy 
stay, or fortress, or else I will not live ;" and 
within three days he expired, without the 
least signs of repentance. 

Ponchet, archbishop of Tours, made ap- 
plication to have a court erected, called 
Chamber Ardent, wherein to condemn the 
protestants to the flames ; but soon after 
obtaining permission to execute his cruel 
intentions, he was struck with a disease, 
called the Fire of God, which began at his 
feet, and ascended upward with so torment- 
ing a burning, that he was obliged to have 
one member cut off after another, and thus 
miserably ended his days. 

In the history of Switzerland is a mem- 

^ who plainly saw he had vainly attempted ' orable incident of the divine justice on 

to defend a train of absurdities, which re- 
quired the utmost sophistry to vindicate ; ; 
and whether it might proceed from the 
mortiflcation he felt, at the indifferent re- 
ception his pious falsehoods met with at ; 
Brussels, or whether his own conscience 

popish perfidy, and unjust barbarity. A 
consul of that republic, an inveterate ene- 
my to the reformed, being a man of im- 
mense fortune, purposing to erect a mag- 
nificent edifice, to convey the dignity of 
his family to posterity, was assiduously 

plainly pointed out to him his impious con- 1 diligent to procure the most ingenious 
duct (the latter, indeed, seems to be more > artificers, in every department, to conduce 
probably the case) he, very soon after his '/ thereunto. Among others, being informed 
return, fell into an open fury of madness, ' that at the city of Trent resided a most 

at the very instant he was giving his public 
lectures, and was forced to be conveyed, 
raving with lunacy, to a close room, and 
fastened down therein ; and from that pe- 
riod to his last breath, his whole cry was, 
that " he was damned, and rejected of 
God, and that there was no hope of salva- 

singular excellent carver, named John, he i 
was very desirous of procuring the assist- / 
ance of his ingenuity, to the decoration of \ 
his intended mansion. But an obstacle ' 
occurred that seemed, for a time, toj)rovent | 
his purposed intention. John was a man, \ 
who, to his other excellent qualities, added | 





the most sincere and immovable attach- J High, to answer for the unjust murder he 
ment to the purity of the gospel, and tiuly I was about to commit. The consul, though 
commendable abhorrence of popish idola- ^ at that time in perfect health, and in the 
try ; and well knowing the character of j bloom of youth, suddenly dropped dead on 
the consul to be that of one of the blindest / the third day after this pious martyr had 
bigots to his superstition, very prudently, ] (by his wickedness) been thus barbaroudy 
for a time, refused to put his personal \ sacrificed. A detestable proof of the little 

safety in the hands of those, whose religion 
adopts the infamous maxim, to hold no 
faith with those they choose to denominate 
heretics ; and honestly and ingenuously 
declaring, that as he could not behold the 
impious idolatry which the people of the 
consul's city were so addicted to, but with 
contempt, and as any token of that con- 
tempt might be the utter destruction of 
him, he rather chose to decline the ad- 
vantageous offers made him, than to accept 
of them at the hazard of his life. 

These motives, for a time, induced him 
to resist the tempting proffers to engage in 
this business ; but, at length, overcome by 
the deluding offers, and solemn promises 
of unlimited protection made him, as to 
his faith, this unhappy victim of papal 
treachery consented to give his assistance 
on this occasion, and accordingly repaired 
to the consul's house, to exert his ingenu- 
ity in the embellishment thereof. 

But what indignation must it create in 
the mind of every good man, to reflect on 
the barbarous return made to this worthy 
sufferer for the truth, who, after having 
finished his performance with the greatest 
skill and ingenuity, instead of receiving 
the recompense due to his great merit and 
industry, was, by this infamous consul, ac 

regard to be paid by protesiants to the faith- 
less asseverations of catholics in general, 
who never scruple violating the most 
solemn engagements to promote, what they 
term, the service of the holy mother- 
church ! 

Thus having presented our readers with 
some remarkable instances of supernatural 
justice, and divine retaliation, in foreign 
nations, we shall next proceed to lay be- 
fore them such examples of a similar na- 
ture, that have occurred, at different periods, 
in the history of England. 

That furious destroyer of God's children 
in purity, the bigoted Mary, found but little 
comfort during the short space she dis- 
graced the British throne, by embruing 
her merciless hands in the blood of so 
many of her truly protestant subjects, as 
the people of that realm had great reason 
to rejoice at the conclusion of a reign, 
diametrically the contrary of what is al- \ 
ways wished to attend the reigns of good I 
princes, viz., to be long and happy, hers ', 
being equally unsuccessful, and of short I 
duration. Disappointed of almost every I 
purpose, and mortified with a train of events < 
the most contrary to her expectations, she, \ 
at length, fell a sacrifice to pining grief I 
and vexation ; and even owned herself, \ 

cused of having spoken irreverently of the < that she died of that corrosive and mental 

Romish faith, and under that pretext, by 
him cruelly condemned to be beheaded, 
which barbarous sentence was accordingly ; 
executed, but not till the much-injured mar- 
tyr, naturally shocked at the inhumanity [ 
and treachery of the villanous consul, had. 

torture, a broken heart. And perhaps there 
is not a more contrasting parallel, either 
in the British, or any other history, than 
the glorious and long-continued reign of 
that noble vindicator of the reformed re- 
ligion, the ever-to-be-honored queen Eliza- 

with a most affecting and solemn delivery, < beth, and the unauspicious tyranny of her 

made a noble speech, reciting the treacher- 1 sanguinary sister; as the one will be hand- j 

ous conduct of his detestable betrayer, and \ ed down to posterity with immortal honor, ^ 

concluding with citing him to appear, with- \ while the other will ever be reflected on ^ 

in three days, at the tribunal of the Most [ with abhorrence ! { 



The wretched end of that arch-persecu- 
tor Gardiner, bishop of Winchester, almost ; 
immediately on his closing his bloody pro- 
ceedings, with the sacrificing of those two 
eminent martyrs, Ridley and Latimer, has 
something in it remarkably striking. 

The fatal day on which these martyrs 
suffered at Oxford, the old duke of Norfolk ; 
paid a visit to Bishop Gardiner, at liis 
house in London, in consequence of his 
being invited to dine with him at that time. 
But so eager was this bloody prelate to 
glut his ears with the news of the absolute 
destruction of these two pious sufferers, 
that he postponed his usual time of dining, 
saying, he would not eat till he received 
positive assurance of the execution of the 
barbarous sentence he knew was to be put 
in practice that day at Oxford. 

Accordingly, as soon as the messenger 
arrived, which was not till four o'clock, 
and had given him the assurance of his 
cruel wishes being completed, he ordered 
dinner to be ushered in, and setting down 
to it with great apparent satisfaction, said : 
*' Now, my lord duke, we can set down to 
refresh ourselves with pleasure." But ob- 
serve the hand of God on this impious 
priest : no sooner had he swallowed a few 
morsels, but he was suddenly seized with 
so violent a fit of illness, that he was ob- 
liged to be taken from table, and from that 
moment to the last of his life, never was 
free from the greatest misery and torture ; 
for fifteen days and nights did he languish, 
not being able to evacuate, which caused ! 
such a terrible inflammation in his body, 
as if he were, in a manner, burning alive. 

By the raging fire in his intestines his body 
was miserably swollen and black ; his tongue 
thrust at last out of his mouth : he expired 
a shocking spectacle, and with a most 
nauseous and unendurable effluvia : a prop- 
er end to so inhuman a persecutor of the 

Dr. Dunning, the bloody chancellor of 
Norwich ; Berry, ecclesiastical commis- 
sary in Norfolk ; and Thornton, bishop of 
Dover, all rigid persecutors, suddenly fell 
down dead within a little space of one an- 
other ; and the next that succeeded Thorn- 
ton in the bishopric of Dover, broke his 
neck down stairs at Greenwich, just after 
receiving the blessing of Cardinal Poole. 

We have shown in the preceding pages 
some of the many barbarous persecutions 
practised by the church of Rome against 
our Christian brethren in all ages : it has 
ever exerted its utmost efforts to overturn 
a divine system, which is as much calcula- 
ted to destroy sin, as to promote true piety 
and godliness. Let us, therefore, hope, 
that the many examples of the severe per- 
secutions against Christianity which have 
been recorded, may serve to unite Chris- 
tians of every denomination more strongly 
in the bands of brotherly love, and uni- 
versal benevolence : — 

" O bigotry ! in whose dark train 
The furies, with their horrors, reign ; 
The basis of whose empire's built 
On streams of blood, and stores of guilt : 
In future may thy hands be bound. 
Thy croaking voice confined from sound, 
Till innocence no longer bleeds, 
Till soft humanity succeeds ; 
Till far as distant winds can blow, 
Or surging waters ebb or flow ; 
The great Redeemer's words are knowo, 
And all men gospel blessings own." 

lllIC END. 


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History of all Religions : 





Practised by the several Nations of the known 

World, from the earliest Records 

to the present time. 







In one largo octavo volume, handsomelj bound, and 

Embellished with Elegant Engravings. 

This highly valnahle worlt contains — The History of the Jews — The Relipous Cus- 
toms and Ceremonies of the Jews — Life of Mohammed — Religious Tenets, Ceremonies, 
and Customs of the Mohammedans — The Greek Church — The Religious Tenets, Cus- 
toms, Ceremonies, &c., of the Roman Catholic Church — The Religious Customs and 
Ceremonies of Protestant Communities, including Lutherans, Episcopalians, Kirk of 
Scotland, English and American Presbyterians, Baptists, Methodists, Quakers, The 
Associate Reformed Church, Reformed Dutch Church, Congregationalists, Free Will 
Baptists, Campbellite Baptists, Moravians, Swedenhorgians, Unitarians, Universalists, 
Shakers, Mormons, &o., &c. Together with a full account of the Religious Cere- 
monies and Customs of Pagan Nations and Tribes, including the Egj'ptians, Car- 
thaginians, Tyrians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Medes and Persians, Scythians, Druids, 
Chinese, Japanese, Thibetians and Tartars, Hindoos, Laplanders, Indian Tribes, 
African Tribeg, Polynesians, &c., &c. 

LEARY & GETZ, Publishers, 

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its way into the handa of every family. 

LEARY & GETZ, Publishers, 

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The work now offered to the public is designed to fill up a great chasm in one mott 
importcmt department of literature. To satisfy a want felt, not only by the student, 
by the man left to himself for an education, but also by the intelligent of all classes 
of society. It will supply the great mass of the public, who are at present almost 
necessarily in the dark as to the past world and its destinies, with a complete picture 
of all the great events relating to the world and to man, fr n the earliest dawn of 
history down to the present time ; and we indulge the hope that it will satisfy the 
universal want of a good General History of the World. We have works entitled 
" Histories of the World," or " Universal Histories," it is true ; but all of them (we 
mean those in a small form, and such as are within the reach of the generality of 
readers) are sadly deficier^, ill-selected, and worse arranged : they could not, accord- 
ing to the ideas of the author of this work, be considered, strictly speaking, Gemekal 


The author of this History is celebrated throughout Europe as a scholar, as a states- 
man, and as a bold defender of liberty ; and this reputation will certainly be an excel- 
lent recommendation of his work to the American public. Although born in Ger- 
many, educated in its far-famed halls of learning, and breathing a German atmos- 
ptiere, he is not a German alone ; he is a man whom the world may claim. He is no 
mystic, full of unintelligible, useless theories ; but a man devoted to practicable 
objects, to the welfare of his race, and to pure religion and morality. 

His History has been extensively circulated in Europe [in the German, French, 
Dutch, Swedish, and Danish languages), and is the most popular one that has ever 
been published. For, although he may be ranked as the first historian of Europe, he 
has written, not for a particular class, but for people in general. In fine, his History 
is equally fitted for the student, the merchant, the farmer, the mechanic, and thejsro/is*- 
tional man. 


1700 PAGES, 

Illustrated with 28 Splendid Engravings. 


In order to bring this History "w^ithin the 
reach of all classes of readers, the Publishers 
have been induced to put it at the extremely 
lovr price of 

$3.50 per Copy. 

Over 100,000 Copies of this valuable vrork 
have been sold in Germany alone. 

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THE CHRISTIAN'S LEGACY having gone through 10 editions, in a phort space of time, the writer haj 
no other apology to offer for the 11th edition, thau * belief of its proving useful to aU Christiana of every 

A conviction that a knowledge of the Bible, above all other hooks, is calculated " to make one vnse f and 
that an advantage is given to the enemy by not attending to our Lord's admonition, " Search the Scrip- 
tures, " led to an attempt to assist the inquirer in his " Search" after lECin. 

The design of the work is, to make the reading and study of the ffoly Siriptures more easy and delight- 
ful ; especially to those who have but few helps, little time for studying, or are young in years. TheyJan 
is new ; and the arrangement so simple, that no one, not even a child, need mistake it ; but may, without 
knowing a word of the Bible beforehand, find whatever the Scriptures contain on any suhJect, as readily 
as though he knew the whole Bible by heart. 

It is a handsome volume of 420 full pages, printed with good type, on clear, fine white paper; ia hand- 
somely bound and lettered, with a striking likeness of the author. 

-The first 310 pages contain as many subjects, adapted to every state and condition of the Christian in 
Life, Death, the Grave, and beyond the grave, as far as the Bible goes but no farther : for there is not a 
sectarian expression to be found in the work. Each Page is complete of itselt 

The last 110 pages contain a compendium of every book in the Bible, with the history of the several 
writers, &c. ; together with the character of the first Christians — the example — miracles — parables — and 
remarkable discourseB of Christ — the prophecies with their fulfillment — figurative and symbolical language 
of the Bible, alphabetically arranged, with the import of each word — a description of the Jewish offerings ; 
and the different Sects mentioned in the Scriptures — Scriptural difficulties accounted for — fate of the 
Evangelists and Apoetles — Hebrew offices — a Pronouncing Dictionary of the " hard name* " in the Old and 
New Testament, Ac 

An alphabetical Index is placed in the former part of the book, and by consulting which, the reader may 
readily find an answer to any question, that may he asked him by any Bible question-book, or individual -. 
providing, that it is a question that would benefit any one to have answered, is not Sectarian, and is one 
that the Bible can answer. 

The following are only a few of the nsmes and residences of the Clergy, of various denominations, wh( 
have patroniied and recommended the i^nristian's Legacy: 

PROVTBEyoi, R. I.: Rev. Meeerg. Tucker, Vinten, Mackreading, Dowling, Taylor, Hall.— Niwtort, R. I. : Rev 
Mcfsrs. Wat5on, Vinten, Smith. — Pawtuckett, R. I. : Rev. Mr. Gon.<!alveg. — Lowell, Mass. : Rev. MMCMrs 
Blanchard, Hanks, Bumap, Edson, McCoy, Sarjent, Brewster, Hoes, Porter, Woodman, Thurstan, Cole. 
New Bedfobd, Mass.: Rev. Messrs. Knight, Ilawley, Uowes, Dawes. — Fall River, Mass.: Rev. Messrs. Fow- 
ler, Russell. Taylor. — Charlestown, Mass.: Rev. Mr. Greene. — Brookline, Mass. : Rev. Mr. Shailer. — New- 
BCTKTPORT, Maps. : Rev. Messrs. Campbell, Sternes, Pike. — Grafton, Mass. : Rev. Mr. Richards. — Caeotbville, 
Mass.: Rev. Mr. Scott — Taunton, Mass.: Rev. Mr. Eldridge. — Milford, Mass. : Rev. Messrs. Long, Tozer. — 
Holliston, Mass. : Rev. Messrs. Matlack, Rice. — Pocasset, Mass. : Rev. Mr. Wallen. — Rochester, Mass. : Rev. 
Mr. Clarke. — Mansfbld, Mass.: Rev. Mes.'irs. Culver, Latham. — Upton, Maps.: Rev. Mes.ars. Wood, Bullard, 
Eastman. — Dokchestbr, Rov.Mr. Boyden. — E. Cambridoe, Mass. Rev. Mr. Wilson. — Haverhill, Mass.: 
Rev. Mr. Plummer. — Maloeh, Mass. : Rev. Mr. McLeish. — Hartford, Conn.: Rev. Messrs. Hodgson, Eaton. — 
New Haven, Conn.: Rev. Messrs. Teasdale, Law. — Portsmouth, N. H. : Rev. Messrs. Davis, Harris. — Dover, 
N. H. : Rev. Mr. Mason. — Brooklyn, N. Y. : Rev. Messrs. Youngs, Burnett. — Williamsburg, L. I. : Rev. Mr 
Roberts. — Newark, N. J.: Rev. Messrs. Whittaker. Lenhart.^ — Elizabethtown, N. J. : Rev. Messrs. Magie, 
Greene. — Boston, Mass. : Rev. Messrs. Meyrell, Russell, Hartoll, Winslow, Phelps, Kirk, Pierce, Huestod, 
Clarke, Sharpe, Raymond, Read, Motte, Sarjent, Pierpont, Parkham, Barrott, Gannett, Gray, Kobbins. — New 
York . Rev. Messrs. Bond, Levings, Bangs, Stocking, Nichols, Cheney, B.ings, Seney, Witliey, Martyn, Ja- 
cobs. — Philadelphia, Pa. : Rev. Messrs. Burrows, Lincoln, Suddards, McKnight, Onins. Cooper, Stockton, 
Keller, EweII,White.— Lahcastkb, Pa. : Rev. Mr. Gerry.— Readuiq, Pa. : Rev. Mr. Schoch.— Columbia, Pa. : 
Rev. Mr. Humphrey. 

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Bunyan's Minor "Works : Containing Grace Abounding 

TO TUE Chief of Sinners: in a Faithful Account of the Life of John Bunyaii ; or, a 
brief relation of the exceeding mercy of God in Christ to Him, in converting him to the 
Faith of His Blessed Son Jesus Christ ; wherein is particularly shown what sight of, and 
what trouble he had for sin; and also, what various temptations he hath met with, and 
how God hath carried him through them all. Also, Heart's Ease in Heart Trouble ; 
The World to Cujie, or Visions of Heaven and Hell; and The Barren Fis Tree, 
or the Doom and Downfall of the Fruitless Professor. Complete in one beautiful 32mo. 
volume, bound in cloth, gilt, with a Portrait of John Bunyan. Price 50 cents. 

Baxter's Saints' Everlasting Rest ; or, a Treatise of 

the Blessed State of the Saints in their enjoyment of God in Heaven. 18mo., cloth, gilt, 
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Price 50 cents. 

The Vicar of Wakefield. A Tale. To which is affixed 

The Deserted Village. By OLIVER GOLDSMITH, M. D. 18mo., cloth, gilt, 
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admirable work, observes : — " We read the Vicar of Wakefield in youth and in age. We 
return to it again and again, and bless the memory of an author who contrives so well to 
reconcile us to human nature. Whether we choose the pathetic or the humorous parts 
of the story, we find the best and truest sentiments enforced in the moat beautiful lan- 
guage. In too many works of this class there are particular passages unfit to be perused 
by youth and innocence ; but the vweath of Goldsmith is unsullied. He wrote to exalt 
virtue and expose vice." 

Willison's AlHicted Man's Companion ; or, a Direc- 
tory for persons and families afflicted with sickness, or any other distress ; with directions 
to the sick, both under and after affliction ; also, directions to the friends of the ^ick, and 
others who visit them ; and likewise to all, how to prepare both for sickness and death, 
and bow to be exercised at the time of dying. To which is added a collection of com- 
fortable texts of Scripture, very suitable for dying believers. The choice sayings of many 
eminent dyin^ eaints. The author's last advice to his wife and children ; and his dying 
words, written by himself, and found among his papers after his death.' A new edition, 
revised and improved, in 1 vol. 18ino., cloth, gilt, with a handsome Portrait of the Au- 
thor. Price 50 cents. 

With the Life of the Author. 

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X.-. iDodd's Lectures to Young Men. Steel Plates. 

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Choice and Purchase of Horses; 





One large 12mo. volume, neatly and strongly bound, and 

Illustrated v^ith Numerous Engravings. 

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lished in this country. On the score of self-interest alone, the most calculating, it 
may be supposed, will not hesitate to provide himself with a book, which, in teaching 
him the important practical facts contained herein, may enable him to save the life 
even of the meanest animal on his estate. The want of such a book would be an 
obvious defect in every farmer's house ; and this is one of the highest and most ^" 
authority. JS@" Let no farmer who values his own interest, reglect to p^ a 

copy of it. 


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A Familiar View of the 
Importance of Religion, 
The "Woxks of Nature, 
The Passions, 
Matter and Motion, 
Mechanical Po"wers, 










History, &c., &c., &c. 








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A wide field for profitatle meditation is here presented. The ample page of know- 
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the discreet, and the ambitious disciple of wisdom. Here will be found incentives to 
improve time, and reflections suited to expand and elevate the mind. Much pleasing 
instruction will be found in every page, and that, too, of a tendency to be highly 
useful and valuable to every young man. The arts and sciences are elucidated in a 
clear and perspicuous manner, and the road to the Temple of Knowledge rendered 
easy and attractive. The principles of each science are laid down with a simplicity 
that will require no previous knowledge on the part of the reader, nor render their 
acquisition tiresome, by an abstract and dry detail. 


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In splendid Binding, Price only $2.50. 





With numerous Illustrations by W. Croome and 
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This Edition of the Sacred Word is designed ex- 
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tiful style, printed on fine paper, large type ; and among 
the many original designs which adorn the Book may be 
found the following : 

Presentation Plate. 

Ornamented Title Page. 

The Angel Appearing to the 

Christ Raising the Widow's 

Christ and the Woman of 

Christ Praying on the Mount. 

Three Women at the Sepul- 

Peter Delivered from Pri- 

Paul Shipwrecked. 
The Annunciation. 
The Flight into Egypt. 
The Tribute Money. 
The Second Temptation. 
St. John. 
Christ Crowned with 

Christ Appearing to Mary. 
Paul Preaching at Athens. 
The Angel Binding Satan. 

&c., &c., &c. 


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And they that be wise shall shine aa the brightness of the firmament; 
and they that turn many to righteousness, as the stars, for ever and ever. 

Dam. xii. 3. 

"Whitefield's works will be welcomed by many who have 
heard and read incidents connected with his life — a life of toil 
— a life lived for others and not for himself; but going about 
doing good, following the example of his Master, having crossed 
the ocean thirteen times, and preached over eighteen thousand 
sermons to audiences reaching sometimes ten and fifteen thou- 
sand persons. 

Kev. Dr. Edwards says : " The ardent love he bore to the 
Lord Jesus Christ was remarkable. This divine principle con- 
strained him to an unwearied application in the service of the 
Gospel J and transported him at times, in the eyes of some, 
beyond the bounds of sober reason. He was content to be a 
fool for Christ's sake; to be despised so Christ might be 
honored ; to be nothing that Jesus might be all in aU." 

One octavo volume of 666 pages, illustrated, icell houndj 
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In one large octavo volume of 486 pages, neatly bound in library style. Price only $1.50. 
This truly valuable work is divided into 3C5 parts, being one for each day in the 
year. These Keflections are calculated to enlarge the mind and to purify the heart ; 
they lead the attentive observer through the •whole creation, inform him of its stupen- 
dous works, and conduct him within the temple of the great God; while they incul- 
cate humanity, benevolence, and the most amiable virtues which dignify and adorn 
human nature. 




In one neat octavo vol. of 400 pp., handsomely bound in Library style. Price $1.50. 
Dr. Hunter, in his preface to this admirable work, observes : — " I have read few 
performances with more complete satisfaction, and with greater improvement, than 
The Studies of Nature. In no one have I found the useful and the agreeable more 
happily blended. What work of science displays a more sublime Theology, incul- 
cates a purer morality, or breathes a more ardent and more expansive philanthropy ? 
St. Pierre has enabled me to contemplate the Universe with other eyes — has furnished 
new arguments to combat Atheism — has established, beyond the power of contradic- 
tion, the doctrine of a Universal Providence — has excited a warmer interest in favour 
of suffering humanity, cud has disclosed sources unknown of intellectual enjoyment." 
He observes, he thinks, he reasons for himself, and teaches his reader thus to observe, 
think, and reason. 




With directions for Self-management before, during, and after Prcgn.ancy. Addressed 
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the habits and climate of the United States, by a Physician of New York. Under 
the approval and recommendation of Dr. Valentine Mott. 1 vol. 12mo. ; cloth 
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]^^ The volume here offered to the public, is of a character that gives it a claim 
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The Lights and Shadows of Scottish Life. By PROFESSOR d 

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Advice to Young Men on the duties of Life, in a series of Letters: 
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The Pilgrim's Progress, from this World to that which is to Come, 

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Thirteen Sermons on Hypocrisy and Cruelty ; Drunkenness ; Bri- 
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The New American Pocket Farrier and Farmer's Guide in the 

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Charlotte Temple. A Tale of Truth, hy Mrs. RoTvson. ^ 18mo., 
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Etiquette Letter-Writer. Being the complete Art of Fashion- 
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BY REV^mNj™™ DJ. 






Various Prophecies Pielaiing to this Remarkable People, 




This work, it is confidently believed, (from the nature and character of it,) will find its way 
into the hands of every family ; containing, as it does, a full Life of our Saviour and of the 


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Late President of Dickinson CoUcje, Carlisle, Pru 

With a Splendid Portrait of the Author engraved on Steel. 

Never 8tudy to say all thnt can he paid upon a sulyect ; no error is greater than this. Select the 
most useful, the most striking and persuasive topics which the text suggests, aud rest the discourse 
upon these. — Blair. 

I believe this volume will be a fountain of light and peace to thousands; and may God follow it with 
his blessing. — J. P. Durbin. 

One Hundred and Forty Sermons on the following important subjects : 

The Original state of Man. 

The Present state of Man. 

The Mediation of Christ. 

The Necessity of Repentance. 

Paniel in the Pen of Lionn. 

The Hebrew Children in the Fiery 

Prayer in Affliction. 

A Message from God. 

David's Advice to Solomon. 

The Strait Gate. 

Otijects of God's Hatred. 

Justification by Faith. 

The Importance of Regeneration. 

The Conduct and End of Enoch. 

Noah warned of the Flood. 

TIagar seen of God. 

The Destruction of Sodom. 

Abraham about to Slay hia Son. 

Joseph sold into Kgypt. 

The final Lot of Men. 

Sin punished with Death. 

The Master's call for Mary. 

Family Religion. 

John in the Spirit on the Lord's 

The little Flock of Christ en 

Encouragement to theTempted. 

A Caution against Idolatry. 

The A'anity of the M'orld. 

The Growth of a Christian. 

The Pure in Heart shall see God. 

Friendliness secures Friends. 

The Christian Race. 

Christ our Great High Priest. 

The True Circumcision. 

The Day devoted to the Lord. 

The Duty of searching the Scrip- 
Directions how to hear Sermons. 
Per.'ieverance in Prayer. 
Primitive Christianity. 
Propriety of Trusting in God. 
The Case of Lot's V\ifc. 
The Strength of a Christian. 
Troubles prevented by keeping the 

Cautions against Drror. 
The Spiritual Kingdom of Jesus. 
Working Good, the Way to Honor. 
The Propriety of praising the Lord 
Secret Things belong unto the Lord 
lirotherly Union. 
Redemption by Jesus Christ. 
Reverence due to God in Public 
Worship. I 

The Jews charged with robbing 
God. I 

Christian Privileges. 
The Danger of Had Habits. I 

The Prayer of llabakkuk. I 

The Blessing of Pious Connexions. 
The Portion of the Pious. 
The Mission of Uarnabas to Anti- 

The Nativity of Christ. 
The Crucifi.xion of Christ. 
The Resurrection of Christ. 
The Day of IVnti-cost. 

The Brevity of Human Life. 

The Certainty of Death. 

The Resurrection of the Dead. 

The General Judgment. 

r^iniiers banished from Christ. 

Saints invited to Glory. 

The Gentiles trust in Jesus. 

The Dispersion of Knowledge. 

Advice to Young Men. 

The Captain of the Lord's Host. 

Christian Privileges. 

Followers of that which is Good. 

Kools deny the being of a God. 

The Word of God is a Light to Man, 

All the Earth shall know the J,ord. 

Jesus is the Light of the World. 

The cloud lietween the camps. 

The Conversion of the Gentiles. 

We should be derided in Relitsiou 

The Character of Christ. 

Sinners invited to Christ, 

The Lost Sheep. 

Walking in Truth. 

The Days of Methuselah. 

The Wisdom of Man. 

The Obedience of Josiab. 

The Ghost of Samuel. 
Christianity is a Source of .Toy. 
Cnun.sel to a Fallen Church. 
The Parable of the Sower. 
The Wisdom of Obedience. 
Contending for the Faith. 
The Happy Death of Relievers. 
Holy Angels serve gooii Men. 
The Government of God. 
The good Samaritan. 
An important Petition. 
The Parable of the Tares. 
Jesus is the Lamb of God. 
The murmuring Labourers. 
The Ascension of .Tesus. 
The wicked Husbandman. 
The Resurrection of Uelievers 

The Ten Virgiii.s. 

The Spirit may be quenched. 

The Parable of the Talents. 

Good News to fallen Man. 

The wealthy Farmer. 

We should hate vain thoughts. 

The barren Fig-Tree. 

Piety produces strong confidence. 

The Parable of the great Supper. 

Wise and useful Men. 

The Prodigal Son. 

The Jiody and the Eagles. 

The unjust Steward. 

The Way to eternal Life. 

The rich Man and Lazarus. 

The Lord is a righteous Judge. 

The importunate Widow. 

The Peo|)le of God are happy. 

The Pharisee and the Publican. 

God is mindful of Man. 

A Word to Saints and Sinners. 

Faith and Hope in the Redeemer. 

The First Christian Martyr. 

The Jlinistry of the Apostles 

Rest from Persecution. 

Social Worship. 

The Conduct of Jesus. 

The best 

The Counsel of God. 

Christian Morals. 


LEARY & GETZ, Publishers, 

JVo. 138 North Second Street, Philadelphia. 










The AUTnoR, in tliis truly valuable work, has presented a collection 
of the Lives of persons who were eminent for learning, science, ability, 
or philanthropy ; those who had attracted attention by their eminence 
in some of the paths which lead to high distinction among mankind, 
and who, at the same time, were remarkable for true Christian piety ; 
admitted on all hands to be good, as well as great. In following out 
this plan he had presented the Lives of a great number of the most 
eminent Clii'istians of the world; among the number of which maybe 

.Tonn AVlclir, 
I Joltn II 1188, 
I Jerome of Pragne, 

GIroIamo Savonarola, 
! .Tohii Craig, 

Hugli Latimer, 

Admiral Coligny, 

John Hooper, 

Tlieodore Beza, 
k J»arlne of Arragon, 

KTng Edward tlie Slxtli, 

John Milton, 

Sir Henry Vane, 

Hugo Grotius, 

G«-orge P-ox, 

Cotton niather, 

Richard Baxter, 

ThoiniisFo-vvcll Bnxton, 

Timothy D-^viglit, 

BlalHe Pascal, 

Sir Mathew Hale, 

AViUlam P«nn, 

John 'WeBley, 

JoHcph AddlMon, 

Hugh Blair, 

William Law, 

AVIlllam Cowper, 

Charles Wesley, 

Edward Yonng, 

Charles Chaiincy, 

Hannah More, 

]M.a,ttUew Hcnr]r, 

James Saiirin, 

William Romaine, 

Robert Lowtli, 

Anne Letltla Barbauld, 

William Carey, 

George Lord Lyttleton, 

Henry Martyn, 

John Frederick Ober* 

Thomas ChalnterS, 
Robert Hall, 
I>r. Thomas Arnold, 
James Montgomery, 
Joseph Lancaster, 
Sir Thonias More, 
Martin Luther, 
Philip Melanothon, 
Thomas Cranmer, 
Nicholas Ridley, 
Isabella, of Castile, 
Frederic, Elector ©<■ 

John Calvin, 
Roger Williams, 
John Winthrop, 
Lady Jane Grey, 
lllric Kwlngle, 
Jolin Knox, 
John Eliot, 
Increase Mather, 
John Buuyau, 

Jonathan Edwards, 

Samuel Taylor Cole- 

Gustavufl Adolphns, 

Jeremy Taylor, 

Archbishop Fenelon, 

Samuel Johnson, 

George Whitehead, 

Elizabeth Ro^re, 

Archbishop Teulson, 

John Howard, 

James Hervey, 

lliimplirry Prideaux, 

Isaac W'atts, 

Philip l)o(lflridge, 

Sir Isaac Newton, 

Ilenrj' Scougal, 

Sir AV 111 I am Jones, 

Rol»ert Barclay, 

Anne Ilaseltinc Judson, 

KeginaM Hclt>er, 

Dr. Marshmaa, 

Beilbv Porteus, 

William Wllberforie, 

Henry KIrke White, 

Eli/.ab«ith Fry, 

Thomas Clarkson, 

Legh Richmond, 

Jane Taylor, 

Joseph John Gurney, 
&.C., itc, &-C. 



Publishers, No. 138 North Second St., PhUadelphla, 






Carefully collected and compiled from Tarious autLentic sources, aud not to be 
found in any one work hitherto published. 

In one volume 12mo. of 516 pages, with numerous Engravings. Price $1.25. 









1 vol. 12mo., 540 pages, illustrated- Price $1.25. 



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Just published Complete, in Tivo Impcriat Octavo 
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Thk Work has bkhn Euiteb bt an actomplishbd American Scholar, who, without impairing in 
the sliclitest (ieq-ree ihe intpprily of the oriffinal text, has added such notes, and made such corrections 
and .id'iitioni as were necessary to adapt it to the wants of the American puhiic. 

The plan on which the work is formed, was to select only the subjects on which it is important that a 
people, who feel the value of sound education, should be well informed. The minulice of biography, 
topography, scientific technicalities, and otner matters to which there may be only need for occHsionai 
relerence, are dismissed, and thus what usually fills the greater part of an KncvclopaMlia is at once 
got rid of There only remains a series of articles on the MOST I.MPORTAN'T HRANCHKS OF 
HISTORY, GKOGRAPHY, AND GKNKRAL LITKRATURE. All is f?iven which, if studied and 
received into tlie mind, would make an individual, in the common walks of life, A WEI>L INFOR.MKD 
MAN. While, with a few exceptions, only that is omitted which is not needed as a part of the standing 
knowledge of any person whatever, besides those for whom it may have a professional or local interest. 


Therefore, is an KNCVCI.OP.'EDIA including such knowledge only us tends to improve every mind 
possessing it — such knnwietlge as expands, liberalizes, and fertilizes. The ruling objects of the accom- 
plished authors, the Messrs. Chambers, have been to give what may be expected to prove the means of 
SKLF-EDUCATION to the people generally, whetlier enjoying tlie meojis of academic instruction 
or not. 





Physical Hist'y of Man, 

Ancient History — 


History of tJie Jews- 
History of Greece and 

History of the Middle 

Historv of Great Britain 

and Irelaml, 
Con.stitution and Resour- 
ces of iJie iJriUsh Em- 
Descriptions of— 





British America, 

United States, 


Van Diemen's Land, 

New Zealand, 

South America, 

West Indies, 

East Indies, 
Cliina and the TeaTrade, 
Ocean — 

Maritime Discovery, 


The Whale- 
Whale Fisheries, 

Conveyance — 


Account of the Human 

Vegetable Physiology, 


Natural Theology, 

History of the Bible- 

Private Duties of Life 

Public and Social Duties 
of Life, 

Life and Maxims of 

Preservation of Health, 

Commerce — 

History and Nature of 

Political Economy, 



Life Assurance, 

Mohammedan and Pa- 
gan Religions, 


Domestic Economy, 


Proverbs and Old Say- 

Natural Philosophy, 







Light, _ 



Chemistry applied to the 





The Weather, 


Principles of Civil Go- 


English Grammar, 



Drawing and Pcrspeo- 




Popular Stntiftics, 


Social Economics of the 
Industrious Orders. 

Improvement ot Waste 

The Kitrhen Garden, 

The Flower Garden, 

The Fruit (iarden. 


The Morse, 

Cattle and Dairy Hun- 






Cage iiird«. 


The tteff. 

Field Sports, 


Gymnastic Exercises, 

In-door Amusemeuta, 






The Steam Engine, 




Salt, and a 'ariety of 
other subjects. 

The expense of preparing this work has been very heavy, as, in addition to the closely condensed 
printed matter, it has been necessary to execute upwards of FIVE HUNDRED EN(;RAVINGS, in 
order effectually to explain and embellish the various subjects of scientific, historical, and geog'aphicnl 
information which the work embraces; but the publisjiiers confidently rely on liie intelligence and 
liberality of the public for rercunerHtion. >^ 

This is one of the most useful books published, of which 100,000 coptet have been sold in England. ^ 
Price, elegantly bound in Two Volumes, only FIVJS DOIjL.\ll.S. ^ 



EB 15 1944